What is Biosensor technology?
- A biosensor is a biological detection system consists of a biological component combined with a transducer to perform measurement of a biochemical quantity.
- The development of biosensors started with the invention of enzyme electrodes in 1962.
- A typical biosensor includes a bio element such as an enzyme, antibody, or a cell receptor, and a sensing element or a transducer.
- These two elements are combined together through a number of methods such as covalent bonding, matrix entrapment, physical adsorption and membrane entrapment.
- Biosensors are operated based on the principle of signal transduction.
- These components include a bio-recognition element, a bio transducer and an electronic system composed of a display, processor and amplifier.
- The biosensor industry aims to create microscale technology that will be suitable for performing sample preparation, analysis and diagnosis all with one chip.
Types of Biosensors:
- Resonant Biosensors
- Optical Detection Biosensors
- Thermal Detection Biosensors
- Ion Sensitive Biosensors
- Electrochemical Biosensors
Advantages of Biosensors:
- Rapid and continuous measurement
- High specificity
- Very less usage of reagents required for calibration
- Fast response time
- Ability to measure non-polar molecules that cannot be estimated by other conventional devices.
Application of Biosensors:
- Monitoring glucose level in diabetes patients
- Food analysis
- Environmental applications
- Protein engineering and drug discovery applications
- Wastewater treatment.