Flash Cards

Day#52 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP); ‘Valley of Flowers National Park’; ‘Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)’; Nameri National Park; Kibber Wildlife sanctuary; Nitrogen fixing bacteria;
By IASToppers
September 23, 2019

 

 

What are the major two types of Nitrogen fixing bacteria? Give examples of each one.

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Solution:

  • The free-living (nonsymbiotic) bacteria: It includes the cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) Anabaena and Nostoc and genera such as Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, and Clostridium.
  • Mutualistic (symbiotic) bacteria: It includes Rhizobium, associated with leguminous plants (e.g., various members of the pea family); Frankia, associated with certain dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal plants); and certain Azospirillum species, associated with cereal grasses.

Enrich Your Learning:

Nitrogen fixing bacteria

  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are microorganisms capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen (inorganic compounds usable by plants).
  • More than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation is effected by these organisms, which thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle.

Types of nitrogen-fixing bacteria

There are Two kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  • The first kind, the free-living (nonsymbiotic) bacteria, includes the cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) Anabaena and Nostoc and genera such as Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, and Clostridium.
  • The second kind comprises the mutualistic (symbiotic) bacteria; examples include Rhizobium, associated with leguminous plants (e.g., various members of the pea family); Frankia, associated with certain dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal plants); and certain Azospirillum species, associated with cereal grasses.

Function

  • The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria invade the root hairs of host plants, where they multiply and stimulate formation of root nodules, enlargements of plant cells and bacteria in intimate association.
  • Within the nodules, the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia, which the host plant utilizes for its development.
  • To ensure sufficient nodule formation and optimum growth of legumes (e.g., alfalfa, beans, clovers, peas, soybeans), seeds are usually inoculated with commercial cultures of appropriate Rhizobium species, especially in soils poor or lacking in the required bacterium.

 

 

Give key information on i) Nameri National Park and ii) Kibber Wildlife sanctuary.

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Solution & Enrich Your Learning:

Nameri National Park

  • Nameri National Park is located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam.
  • It has semi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests with cane and bamboo brakes and narrow strips of open grassland along rivers.
  • Nameri has over 300 species of birds. It is home of few endangered wildlife species such as white winged wood duck, Tiger, Sloth Bear, Leopard, Sambar, Clouded Leopard, Gaur, four varieties of Hornbill, Indian Wild Dog and numerous other winged species.
  • Nameri is very famous its elephants which can be seen in the herds.
  • The area is criss-crossed by the river Jia- Bhoroli and its tributaries namely the Diji, Dinai, Doigurung, Nameri, Dikorai, Khari etc.
  • It is one of the richest areas in the world in terms of Plant Functional Type and Plant Functional Complexity.
  • It is surrounded by Assamese and Mising tribal villages.
  • The Pakhui (Pakke) Sanctuary of Arunachal Pradesh adjoins the Park on its North-Eastern point.
  • In 1999, Pakhui-Nameri was declared an interstate tiger reserve under Project Tiger.

Kibber Wildlife sanctuary

  • It is located on the bank of Spiti River near the Kibber village in Lahaul & Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh. Kibber Village is the highest motor-able village of the world.
  • It is India’s only cold desert wild life sanctuary.
  • It is home for rare animals like Ibex, Himalayan Wolf, Tibetian Wild Ass, Himalayan Wolf, Tibetan Woolly Hare, Lynx Pika, Snow Leopard, Bearded Eagle, Griffons etc.
  • The vegetation here is sparse and have high medicinal properties. This sanctuary has been extensively surveyed by C.P. Kala for distribution of plants and their indigenous uses as established by the amchis (the practitioners of Tibetan medical systems).

 

 

Which are the current full member countries of ‘Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)’?

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Solution:

  • Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Belarus are the current full member countries of CSTO.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)’

  • The Collective Security Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed in 1992.
  • It was signed by six countries: Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Subsequently, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Belarus joined it.
  • The CST was set to last for a 5-year period unless extended. In 1999, only six members of the CST signed a protocol renewing the treaty for another five-year period: Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan refused to sign and withdrew from the treaty.
  • The Serbia and Afghanistan have been accorded observer status in the CSTO.

Objective

The key objectives of the CSTO are:

  • Provision of national and collective security
  • Foreign policy coordination
  • Development of cooperation in the counteraction to modern challenges and security threats, such as international terrorism, drug trafficking, illegal migration etc.

Background

  • The treaty came into force in 1994. In April 1999, the Protocol on prolongation of the Collective Security Treaty was signed by six of them (except for Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan).
  • It was decided to transform the CST into a full international organization, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Treaty in 2002.
  • In 2004, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution granting the CSTO an observer status.
  • In 2009, an agreement to create the Collective Rapid Reaction Force (KSOR) was reached by five of the seven members. The force is intended to be used to repulse military aggression, conduct anti-terrorist operations and drug trafficking.
  • A session of the Collective Security Council of the CSTO will be held in Bishkek, Russia in November 2019.

 

 

Where is the Valley of Flowers National Park’ located?

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Solution

  • Valley of Flowers is national park is located in Garhwal Region of West Himalayas in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Valley of Flowers National Park’

  • Valley of Flowers is national park is located in Garhwal Region of West Himalayas in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand.
  • It is famous for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers.
  • It is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep.
  • It was declared as World Heritage Site in 2005 by UNESCO.
  • It is located near, and forms the core zone of, the Nanda Devi National Park. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya.
  • The Valley of Flowers National Parks is naturally well protected due to their inaccessibility. Also, there has been no livestock grazing inside this parks since 1983.

 

 

What are the objectives of the India’s Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)?

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Solution

  • Recognition of cooling and related areas as a thrust area of research under national science and technology programme
  • Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by 2037-38
  • Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by 2037-38
  • Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by 2037-38, and
  • Training and certification of 100,000 servicing sector technicians by 2022-23

Training and certification 1

Enrich Your Learning:

About India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)

About India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)

  • India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) was released by environment minister to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.
  • ICAP aims to assess of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use.
  • India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP).

Need of ICAP

  • Cooling is linked with economic growth and is recognised as key to the health, wellbeing in hot climates.
  • India is a growing economy characterized by low penetration of air-conditioning, rising per capita income, rapid urbanization and a largely tropical climate all of which would lead to a rise in the requirement for cooling.

Goals of ICAP

  • Recognition of cooling and related areas as a thrust area of research under national science and technology programme
  • Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by 2037-38
  • Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by 2037-38
  • Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by 2037-38, and
  • Training and certification of 100,000 servicing sector technicians by 2022-23

Thematic areas of ICAP

Thematic areas of ICAP

Benefits of ICAP

  • Thermal comfort for all – provision for cooling for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) housing.
  • Sustainable cooling – low GHG emissions related to cooling.
  • Doubling Farmers Income – better cold chain infrastructure – better value of produce to farmers, less wastage of produce.
  • Skilled workforce for better livelihoods and environmental protection.
  • Make in India – domestic manufacturing of air-conditioning and related cooling equipment’s.
  • Robust R&D on alternative cooling technologies – to provide push to innovation in cooling sector.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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