Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-52
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#52 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Guru–Shishya tradition; Composition of Election commission; Advocate General for the State (AGS); Shapurji Saklatvala; Mancherjee Bhownaggree; Exit Poll Vs. Opinion poll; Gupta Period; Three-language formula; Lex Loci Act of 1850; Summoning; Vatapikonda; Maduraikonda;
By IT's Core Team
May 12, 2019

 

 

 

In context of ancient India, which king assumed the i) title of ‘Vatapikonda’ and ii) title of Maduraikonda?

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Solution:

  • Title of Vatapikonda: Narsimhavarman I
  • Title of Maduraikonda: Parantaka I

Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Title of ‘Vatapikonda’:

  • The first important event in this long conflict conflict between Pallavas and Chalukyas took place in the reign of Pulakeshin Il (609-642), the most famous Chalukya king.
  • He is known from his eulogy written by the court poet Ravikirti in the Aihole inscription. This inscription is an example of poetic excellence reached in Sanskrit.
  • He subjugated the Kadamba capital at Banavasi and compelled the Ganges of Mysore to acknowledge his suzerainty.
  • He also defeated Harsha’s army on the Narmada and checked his advance towards the Deccan.
  • In his conflict with the Pallavas, he almost reached the Pallava capital, but the pallavas purchased peace by ceding their northern provinces to Pulakeshin Il.
  • About A.D. 610 pulakeshin Il also conquered the entire area between the Krishna and the Godavari, which came to be known as the province of Vengi.
  • Here was set up a branch of the main dynasty and it is known as the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi.
  • However, Pulakeshin’s second invasion of the Pallava territory ended in failure.
  • The Pallava king Narasimhavarman (A.D. 630-668) occupied the Chalukya capital at Vatapi in about A.D. 642, when Pulakesin Il was probably killed in fight against the Pallavas.
  • Narasimhavarmari assumed the title of Vatapikonda or the conqueror of Vatapi.
  • He is also said to have defeated the Cholas, the Cheras, the pandyas and the Kalabhras.

Title of ‘Maduraikonda’:

  • Aditya I was succeeded in 907 A.D. by Parantaka I, the first important ruler of the Cholas.
  • Parantaka I was an ambitious ruler and engaged himself in wars of conquest from the beginning of his reign.
  • He conquered Madurai from the Pandya ruler Rajasimha II.
  • He assumed the title of Maduraikonda (captor of Madurai).
  • He, however, lost to the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III at the battle of Tokkolam in 949 A. D.
  • The Cholas had to cede Tondamandalam to the adversary. At that point of time the Chola kingdom almost ceased to exist.
  • It was a serious setback to the rising Chola power. The revival of Chola power began from the accession of Parantaka II who recovered Tondamandalam to re­establish dominance of the dynasty.

 

 

 

What is the maximum time interval between two sessions of Parliament?

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Solution:

  • Six months

Enrich Your Learning:

Summoning:

  • The President from time to time summons each House of Parliament to meet.
  • But, the maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months.
  • In other words, the Parliament should meet at least twice a year.

There are usually three sessions in a year.

  • The Budget Session (February to May);
  • The Monsoon Session (July to September); and
  • The Winter Session (November to December).

 

 

 

Lex Loci Act of 1850 is related to?

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Answer:

Lex Loci Act, 1850 is related to the right to inherit ancestral property to Hindu converts to Christianity.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lex Loci Act of 1850:

  • Lex Loci Act, proposed in 1845 and passed in 1850, provided the right to inherit ancestral property to Hindu converts to Christianity.
  • The Lex Loci Act of 1850 was an Indian law designed to protect the civil rights of religious converts. The main purpose of this law was to secure the civil rights of persons who had either renounced or had been excluded from their religion or had some other reason.
  • The existence of the law (and the difficulty of getting laws passed) implies that disowning children was a common practice.

 

 

 

Currently, Which Indian state do not follow the three-language formula formulated in 1968 by the Ministry of Education?

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Solution:

  • Tamil Nadu

Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Three-language formula:

  • The three-language formula for language learning was formulated in 1968 by the Ministry of Education of the Government of India in consultation with the states.
  • The formula as enunciated in the 1968 National Policy Resolution which provided for the study of “Hindi, English and modern Indian language (preferably one of the southern languages) in the Hindi speaking states and Hindi, English and the Regional language in the non-Hindi speaking States”.
  • The formula was formulated in response to demands from non-Hindi speaking states of the South, such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and mainly Tamil Nadu.
  • Currently, the three language system is not followed in Tamil Nadu due to efforts of former Chief Minister C. N. Annadurai.

 

 

 

In context of ancient India, briefly explain the i) Agricultural ii) Craft and iii) Trade improvements during Gupta Period.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Improvement of Techniques and Crafts:

  • In the Gupta period, there was a spurt in agriculture, as new techniques and seeds were introduced.
  • More importantly, the crafts greatly improved in terms of quality as well as variety.

Agriculture:

  • Pepper and spices were grown for export as well as domestic consumption.
  • A wide variety of crops like rice, wheat, barley, sesame, pulses, beans and lentils, vegetables such as cucumbers, onions, garlic, pumpkin, and betel were grown.
  • New fruits like pears and peaches were introduced for the first time. All this did not take place at random or as a matter of chance.
  • There were proper manuals which gave information on the type and quality of soil required for each plant, various plant diseases, the distances between plants as well as sowing techniques (e.g., working of the soil before sowing).
  • These manuals also described techniques for processing grain, vegetables and fruits. As a wide variety of soil types had to be cultivated, new varieties of agricultural implements also appeared.
  • Weights and designs of ploughshares for different types of soil were fixed and the use of iron for making agricultural implements became widespread.

Crafts:

  • Rapid strides were made during this era in metallurgical and weaving crafts. Rust-proof iron and copper alloys were found and worked into intricate articles for civilian as well as military purposes.
  • The quality of the articles was so good that they were widely exported, even as far as Africa. In the design of these articles, there was, to an extent, Greco-Roman and Central Asian influence. However, on the whole, they had a local character.
  • In weaving, techniques were perfected for the making of cotton and silk materials. ‘Manufacturing of dyes and their widespread use in colouring textiles came into practice.
  • Indian textile materials, especially from Varanasi and Bengal became famous for their light weight and fine texture.
  • The textiles became popular in the West and became an important commodity for export and trade. Guilds or ‘shrenis’ of artisans in this new situation of reduced state intervention, became powerful and important.
  • They enjoyed a great deal of independence and often drew up contracts among individuals, and even entered into agreements with state authorities.
  • The ‘shrenis’ borrowed capital from individuals and paid them back with interest. This gave a tremendous impetus to improve the crafts. We also find that the improvements in crafts were greatly helped by growing trade.

Trade:

  • The importance of direct producers became greater as internal and external trade reached unprecedented volume and proportions. Opening up of previously inaccessible and uninhabited regions, organisation of better transport, communication and trade routes helped the growth of trade.
  • The existence of a huge market, spread over a vast empjre, gave rise to extensive cirkulation of money through a flourishing trade. For merchants, just as for artisans, there existed associations which were also known as shrenis.
  • The main trade routes were based around the rivers Ganges and Indus. The state still supervised the influx and sale of commodities.
  • Internal trade was augmented by rapid development of foreign trade, actively encouraged through the foreign diplomatic contacts established by the Kushanas, the Satavahanas and the Guptas.
  • Improvement in navigation by the Indians, especially using the knowledge of monsoons, and a new design of seaworthy ships played an important role in this.
  • The Indians traded with Arabs, the Mediterranean countries, especially Rome, Africa, south-east Asian countries such as Java, Sumatra and Sri Lanka.
  • The existence of these associations too, helped the growth of trade. The above description gives the picture of an Indian society, where commodity production and exchange were in full swing due to an expansion of internal market as well as foreign trade.
  • These activities demanded new techniques of production. new mathematics and numbers to facilitate administration, and new methods of construction, communication and navigation.
  • What is important is that this social demand for new technologies took place in an atmosphere where rigid state control of a previous era had been relaxed i.e. favour of individual initiative.
  • The old ruling elite was, to an extent, giving way. And there was a certain amount of social mobility that possibly encouraged contacts between the literate and illiterate strata of the society.
  • It was a society where the old caste system still prevailed, though somewhat weakened, and where a new caste system, which was not yet oppressive, came into existence, on the basis of division of labour.
  • It is in this situation that great developments took place in India, in the fields of mathematics and astronomy.

 

 

 

Briefly discuss about Exit Poll Vs. Opinion poll.

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

Exit poll:

  • An election exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations.
  • Exit polls are also used to collect demographic data about voters and to find out why they voted as they did.
  • Since actual votes are cast anonymously, polling is the only way of collecting this information.
  • Like all opinion polls, exit polls by nature do include a margin of error.
  • Because exit polls can’t reach people who voted by postal ballot or another form of absentee voting, they may be biased towards certain demographics and miss swings that only occur among absentee voters.

Opinion poll:

  • An opinion poll, which asks for whom the voter plans to vote, or some similar formulation, an exit poll asks for whom the voter actually voted.
  • An opinion poll is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample, and is designed to represent the opinions of a population.
  • An opinion poll, sometimes simply referred to as a “poll,” is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample.
  • Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals.
  • An opinion poll, sometimes simply referred to as a “poll,” is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample.
  • Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals.

 

 

 

He played a prominent role as one of the pioneers of the international working class movement. He joined the Social Democratic Federation in 1907. He joined joined the Communist Party in 1921. Who was he?

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Solution:

  • Shapurji Saklatvala

Enrich Your Learning:

Shapurji Saklatvala:

  • Shapurji Saklatvala was born in Bombay in 1874.
  • He played a glorious role as one of the pioneers of the international working class movement.
  • He symbolised such an international brotherhood of workers.
  • Saklatvala became involved in left-wing politics and in 1907, he joined the Social Democratic Federation, a socialist party led by H. M. Hyndman. Two years later he left to join the Independent Labour Party (ILP). He was a regular public speaker for the ILP and a contributor to its newspaper, The Labour Leader.
  • In 1921 Saklatvala joined the Communist Party. The following year he became the party’s candidate in North Battersea. His chances of victory increased significantly when John Archer, persuaded the local Labour Party not to oppose Saklatvala. With the support of the Battersea Trades Council, Saklatvala won the seat in the 1922 General Election.
  • In the 1923 General Election Saklatvala faced Henry Hogbin, the Liberal Party candidate. The local Conservative Party, who feared Saklatvala’s radical politics, supported Hogbin and this allowed him to win the election by 186 votes. However, he gained his revenge by beating the same candidate by 540 votes in the 1924 General Election.
  • During the General Strike in 1926 Saklatvala was a strong supporter of the Miners’ Federation. After one speech made in Hyde Park he urged the British Army not to fire on the strikers. Saklatvala was arrested and found guilty of sedition was sentenced to two months in Wormwood Scrubs Prison.
  • In the 1929 General Election, the Labour Party refused to support Communist Party candidates. John Archer now became election agent to Stephen Sanders in North Battersea who easily defeated Saklatvala. He continued to be active in politics and was twice an unsuccessful candidate in parliamentary elections.

Mancherjee Bhownaggree:

  • Mancherjee Bhownaggree was born in Bombay, India, on 15th August, 1851.
  • He was a British Conservative Party politician of Indian Parsi heritage.
  • A member of the Conservative Party, Bhownaggree was chosen as Bethnel Green candidate for the 1895 General Election.
  • He won the seat and therefore became the second Asian to be elected to the House of Commons.
  • The Liberal Party MP, Dadabhai Naoroji, had represented Finsbury Central between 1892-95. Bhownaggree, unlike Naoroji, was a strong supporter of British rule in India.
  • Bhownaggree retired from politics after being defeated in the 1906 General Election.

 

 

 

What is the tenure of the advocate general of a state?

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Answer:

  • The tenure of office of the advocate general is not fixed. He holds office during the pleasure of the governor.

Enrich Your Learning:

Advocate General for the State (AGS):

  • The Advocate General of a State is a Constitutional post and authority duly appointed as per Article 165 of the Constitution of India.
  • The Advocate General for the States is the highest law officer in the state.
  • He is corresponding to the Attorney General of India.
  • He is appointed by the governor.
  • He must be a citizen of India and must have held a judicial office2 for ten years or been an advocate of a high court for ten years.

Functions:

  • To give advice to the government of the state upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the governor.
  • To perform such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the governor.
  • To discharge the functions conferred on him by the Constitution or any other law.

 

 

 

In context of Hinduism, Enlist the various forms of guru–shishya traditions.

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Solution:

  • Śruti tradition
  • Bhakti yoga
  • Prapatti
  • Advaita Vedanta

Answer:

Characteristics of the guru–shishya relationship:

Some common elements in this relationship include:

  • The establishment of a teacher/student relationship.
  • A formal recognition of this relationship, generally in a structured initiation ceremony where the guru accepts the initiate as a shishya and also accepts responsibility for the spiritual well-being and progress of the new shishya.
  • Sometimes this initiation process will include the conveying of specific esoteric wisdom and/or meditation techniques.
  • Gurudakshina, where the shishya gives a gift to the guru as a token of gratitude, often the only monetary or otherwise fee that the student ever gives. Such tokens can be as simple as a piece of fruit or as serious as a thumb, as in the case of Ekalavya and his guru Dronacharya.

Enrich Your Learning:

Guru–Shishya tradition:

  • The guru–shishya tradition or parampara denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Vedic culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism.
  • Each parampara belongs to a specific sampradaya, and may have own akharas and gurukulas.
  • Such sharing of sacred wisdom is imparted through the formal relationship between the guru and the disciple that has many requirements including extreme respect towards the guru, and unwavering commitment, devotion and obedience in the student.
  • In some forms of Buddhism, the Guru-disciple relationship is called “dharma transmission.”
  • The Guru-Disciple relationship has provided an effective mechanism for sharing the spiritual riches of Eastern religions in a deeply personal and meaningful way; however, due to the extreme devotion and loyalty toward the Guru, there is always the potential for abuse. Unfortunately, there have been many reported cases where fraudulent gurus have taken advantage of their disciples in various ways, including sexual abuse.

Titles of gurus:

These are known variously as the kala-guru or as the “four gurus” and are designated as follows:

  1. Guru – the immediate guru
  2. Parama-guru – the guru of the Parampara or specific tradition (e.g. for the Śankaracharyas this is Adi Śankara)
  3. Parātpara-guru – the guru who is the source of knowledge for many traditions (e.g. for the Śankaracharya’s this is Vedavyāsa)
  4. Parameṣṭhi-guru – the highest guru, who has the power to bestow mokhṣa (usually depicted as Lord Śiva, being the highest guru)

Types:

  1. Śruti tradition:
  • The Guru-shishya tradition plays an important part in the Shruti tradition of Vaidika dharma.
  • The Hindus believe that the Vedas have been handed down through the ages from Guru to shishya.
  • The Vedas themselves prescribe for a young brahmachari to be sent to a Gurukul where the Guru (referred to also as acharya) teaches the pupil the Vedas and Vedangas.
  1. Bhakti yoga:
  • The best known form of the Guru-shishya relationship is found in the practice of bhakti (“Devotion” or “surrender to God).
  • Bhakti extends from the simplest expression of devotion to the ego-decimating principle of prapati, which is total surrender.

The bhakti form of the guru-shishya relationship generally incorporates three primary practices:

  • Devotion to the guru as a divine figure or avatar.
  • The belief that such a guru has transmitted, or will impart moksha, diksha or shaktipat to the (successful) shishya.
  • The belief that if the shishya’s act of focusing his or her devotion (bhakti) upon the guru is sufficiently strong and worthy, then some form of spiritual merit will be gained by the shishya.
  1. Prapatti:
  • In the ego-decimating principle of prapatti (“Throwing oneself down”), the level of the submission of the will of the shishya to the will of the guru is sometimes extreme.
  • It is one of total, unconditional submission to God or guru, often coupled with an attitude of self-effacement.
  1. Advaita Vedanta:

The guru must have the following qualities:

Śrotriya:

  • Must be learned in the Vedic scriptures and sampradaya

Brahmanişţha:

  • Figuratively meaning “established in Brahman”; must have realised the oneness of Brahman in everything and in himself.

 

 

 

Currently, the Election commission consists of how many election commissioners?

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Answer:

  • The Election Commission consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.

Enrich Your Learning:

Composition of Election commission:

  • Article 324 of Indian Constitution confers power on the President to appoint Election Commissioners and “such other Commissioners” as he may from time to time fix.
  • These Commissioners are appointed for the time period of 6 years, or up to the age of 65 years.
  • The removal procedure of the Chief Election Commissioner from office resembles the procedure of removal of a Judge of Supreme Court.
  • The salary payable to Chief Election Commissioner is also equal to that of a Judge of Supreme Court.
  • The grounds for the removal of Chief Election Commissioner includes misconduct or incapacity if two third members in both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha give their consent to the decision.
  • Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President on the recommendation by the Chief Election Commissioner.
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