Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-53
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#53 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Dhamma mahamattas; Joint sitting of both the houses of Parliament; Surendra Sai; Revocation of National Emergency Under Article 352 of Indian Constitution; Returning Officer; Dhamma; Article 302; James Prinsep; Article 359; Five vows taken by Jaina monks; Gyarah Sidi;
By IT's Core Team
May 13, 2019

 

 

 

In context of Medieval India, the Gyarah Sidii, an astrological observatory, was constructed during the time of which Mughal emperor?

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Solution:

  • Humayu

Enrich Your Learning:

Gyarah Sidi

  • Gyarah Sidi are the remains of the astrological observatory of the Mughal Emperor Humayun. The ruins are situated at a stone’s throw from Babur’s Mehtab Bagh, in a field on the banks of the Yamuna river in Agra.
  • Gyarah Sidi are carved out of a single stone.

Historical Importance:

  • Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed.
  • Though nowhere close to their size, Humayun’s observatory is an interesting, diminutive precursor to the massive Jantar Mantars at Jaipur and Delhi built nearly 200 years later.

 

 

 

In ancient history, what were the five vows taken by Jaina monks and nuns?

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Non-violence – Ahimsa
  • Truth – Satya
  • Non-stealing – Achaurya or Asteya
  • Celibacy/Chastity – Brahmacharya
  • Non-attachment/Non-possession – Aparigraha

The Message of Mahavira

  • The basic philosophy of the Jainas was already in existence in north India before the birth of Vardhamana, who came to be known as Mahavira, in the sixth century BCE.
  • According to Jaina tradition, Mahavira was preceded by 23 other teachers or tirthankaras – literally, those who guide men and women across the river of existence.
  • The most important idea in Jainism is that the entire world is animated: even stones, rocks and water have life.
  • Non-injury to living beings, especially to humans, animals, plants and insects, is central to Jaina philosophy.
  • In fact, the principle of ahimsa, emphasised within Jainism, has left its mark on Indian thinking as a whole.
  • According to Jaina teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma.
  • Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma. This can be achieved only by renouncing the world; therefore, monastic existence is a necessary condition of salvation.

 

 

 

The President can suspend the right to move the Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 to 21 during a National Emergency. Right or Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong

Right Statement:

  • The President cannot suspend the right to move the Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 to 21 during a National Emergency.

Enrich Your Learning:

Article 359:

  • Article 359 deals with the suspension of other Fundamental Rights (except those guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21).
  • Article 359 authorizes the president to suspend the right to move any court for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights during a National Emergency.
  • This means that under Article 359, the Fundamental Rights as such are not suspended, but only their enforcement. The said rights are theoretically alive but the right to seek remedy is suspended.
  • The suspension of enforcement relates to only those Fundamental Rights that are specified in the Presidential Order.
  • Further, the suspension could be for the period during the operation of emergency or for a shorter period as mentioned in the order, and the suspension order may extend to the whole or any part of the country. It should be laid before each House of Parliament for approval.
  • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 restricted the scope of Article 359 in two ways.
  • Firstly, the President cannot suspend the right to move the Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 to 21.
  • In other words, the right to protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20) and the right to life and personal liberty (Article 21) remain enforceable even during emergency.
  • Secondly, only those laws which are related with the emergency are protected from being challenged and not other laws and the executive action taken only under such a law, is protected.

 

 

 

Which English scholar deciphered the ‘Rock Edicts of Ashoka’?

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Solution:

  • In 1837, English Scholar James Prinsep deciphered the ‘Rock Edicts of Ahsoka’.

Enrich Your Learning:

Contribution of James Prinsep:

  • Some of the most momentous developments in Indian epigraphy took place in the 1830s. This was when James Prinsep, an officer in the mint of the East India Company, deciphered Brahmi and Kharosthi, two scripts used in the earliest inscriptions and coins.
  • He found that most of these mentioned a king referred to as Piyadassi – meaning “pleasant to behold”
  • There were a few inscriptions which also referred to the king as Asoka, one of the most famous rulers known from Buddhist texts.
  • Scholars used inscriptions and texts composed in a variety of languages to reconstruct the lineages of major dynasties that had ruled the subcontinent.
  • Scholars began to shift their focus to the context of political history, investigating whether there were connections between political changes and economic and social developments.

 

 

 

Under which article of Indian constitution, Parliament can impose restrictions on trade and commerce and within/between states in public interest?

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Solution:

  • Article 302

Enrich Your Learning:

Article 302:

  • According to the Article 302 of the constitution, Parliament can impose restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse between the states or within a state in public interest.
  • But, the Parliament cannot give preference to one state over another or discriminate between the states except in the case of scarcity of goods in any part of India.
  • The legislature of a state can impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse with that state or within that state in public interest.
  • But, a bill for this purpose can be introduced in the legislature only with the previous sanction of the president.
  • Further, the state legislature cannot give preference to one state over another or discriminate between the states.
  • The legislature of a state can impose on goods imported from other states or the union territories any tax to which similar goods manufactured in that state are subject.
  • This provision prohibits the imposition of discriminatory taxes by the state.

Article 304 (b):

  • Article 304 imposes such reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with or within that State as may be required in the public interest.
  • Provided that no Bill or amendment for the purposes of clause shall be introduced or moved in the Legislature of a State without the previous sanction of the President.

 

 

 

In which Major Rock Edict did Emperor Ashoka mention the Dhamma mahamattas first?

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Answer:

  • In Major Rock Edict V– king Ashoka mentions the Dhamma mahamattas first.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Dhamma?

  • Dhamma is a set of edicts that formed a policy of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka.
  • The word Dhamma is the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word Dharma.
  • Ashoka’s Dhamma did not involve worship of any god, or performance of sacrifice. He felt that just as a father tries to teach his children, he had a duty to instruct his subjects. He was also inspired by the teachings of Buddha.
  • The policy aimed to eliminate social tension and sectarian conflicts, and to promote a harmonious relationship between the diverse elements of the vast empire.

Who were Dhamma mahamattas?

  • Dhamma mahamatras were special officers appointed by Emperor Ashoka in order to spread and enforce the principles of dhamma.
  • Major Rock Edict V-It is here that the king mentions the Dhamma mahamattas first.
  • Major Rock Edict Vl-Instructs the Dhamma mahamattas (regarded as “informants” in an English translation of this edict) to make their reports to the king at all times irrespective of what he may be doing at that time.

Functions of Dhamma mahamattas

  • The Dhamma mahamattas were at first concerned with promoting general welfare while emphasising the practice of Dhamma.
  • A group of officers known as Dhamma mahamattas were instituted to implement and publicize the various aspects of Dhamma.
  • Ashoka made them responsible for carrying his message to various sections of society, However, they gradually developed into a type of priesthood of Dhamma with great powers and soon began to interfere in politics
  • They were allowed entry into the homes of all classes of people including the royal relatives.
  • They worked not only within the empire but also in the frontier area and neighbouring regions.

What are Edicts of Ashoka?

  • The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of more than thirty inscriptions on the pillars as well as boulders and cave walls, made by Emperor Ashoka.
  • Ashoka used the expression Dhaṃma Lipi to describe his own Edicts. These inscriptions were dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan, and provide the first tangible evidence of Buddhism.

 

 

 

Who nominates an officer of the government or a local authority as the returning officer?

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Answer:

  • The Election Commission of India (ECI) nominates an officer of the government or a local authority as the returning officer.

Enrich Your Learning:

Returning Officer:

  • The returning officer of a parliamentary or assembly constituency is responsible for the conduct of elections in the parliamentary or assembly constituency concerned as per the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • Returning officer is the statutory authority to conduct the polling, counting process and to decide validity of ballot paper and election commission has no power to overrule him or her.
  • The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an officer of the government or a local authority as the returning officer for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies in consultation with the state government/union territory administration.
  • In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more assistant returning officers for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies to assist the returning officer in the performance of his functions in connection with the conduct of elections.

 

 

 

What are the provisions for revocation of National Emergency in Indian constitution?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Revocation of National Emergency Under Article 352 of Indian Constitution:

  • The declaration of emergency can be revoked at any time by the president by a subsequent proclamation without the need of parliamentary approval.
  • This can be done when the president is satisfied that the threat has passed.
  • The president must also revoke the emergency provocation if a resolution is passed in the Lok Sabha which disapproves the continuation of the emergency.
  • This safeguard was also introduced in the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act.
  • Before this amendment, emergency proclamation could be removed at any time by the president and the Lok Sabha had no power over it.
  • Under another provision of the 44th Amendment Act 1978, if one-tenth member of the Lok Sabha give a written notice to the speaker while the house is in session, then the discontinuation of the emergency proclamation must be considered.
  • If the Lok Sabha is not in session, then the notice by the one-tenth members is given to the president so that an emergency session can be summoned to consider the revocation of emergency.
  • This session must be held within fourteen days from the date of notice.
  • The difference between the process of continuation and discontinuation is that while the continuation bill must be passed with a special majority, the discontinuation motion only requires a simple majority.
  • Also, while the continuation motion must be passed in both the houses, the discontinuation motion can be passed only in the Lok Sabha.

 

 

 

Describe about the contribution of Surendra Sai against the British colonialism.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Surendra Sai

  • The role of Veer Surendra Sai in the resistance movement of Sambalpur against the British colonialism is a landmark in the history of freedom movement of Orissa.
  • Surendra Sai was not only a great revolutionary throughout his life but also an inspiring leader of the tribal people.
  • The achievements of Surendra Sai and his uncommon heroism for the safety of the tribal people of Sambalpur have few parallels in the history of India.
  • The member of this Sai family demanded the throne, being the next to the main line of Sambalpur after the demise of Maharaja Sai in 1827 AD.
  • As Maharaja Sai had no son, Surendra Sai who then represented the Rajpur-Khinda family, asserted his claims for the ‘Gadi’ of Sambalpur.
  • The Governor General Lord Dalhousie annexed Sambalpur by applying the Doctrine of Lapse.
  • For that reason, Surendra Sai and his supporters revolted against the British imperialism over Sambalpur.
  • When the revolt of 1857 took place, then the accumulated discontentment of the tribal people of Sambalpur burst into open rebellion under the leadership of Surendra Sai.
  • Surendra Sai organized the rebels into several groups in different places. Sambalpur’s connection with Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Cuttack and Nagpur were for some time cut off by the rebels.
  • An appeal against this sentence was filed by Surendra Sai and his followers in the Court of the Judicial Commissioner, John Scarlett Campbell, which was Principal Court of Appeal in Central Provinces.
  • In spite of strong verdict of the Judicial Commissioner, Surendra Sai and six other prisoners were detained at Nagpur under Regulation III of 1818.
  • The main aim of Surendra Sai was to drive British out of Sambalpur.
  • Although he could not achieve the goal of his life but the vigorous struggle of this hero deserves to be remembered as one of those valiant fighters who defied the British colonialism in the pre-nationalist period.

 

 

 

A joint sitting of both the houses can be called for resolving deadlock regarding Money bill but cannot be called for Amendment bill. True OR False.

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Solution:

  • False

Right Statement:

  • A joint sitting of both the houses cannot be called for resolving deadlock regarding Money bill as well as for Amendment bill

What are the features of each of these Bills?

  • Constitution Amendment Bills: These are Bills which seek to amend the Constitution.
  • Money Bills: A Bill is said to be a Money Bill if it only contains provisions related to taxation, borrowing of money by the government, expenditure from or receipt to the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • Bills that only contain provisions that are incidental to these matters would also be regarded as Money Bills.
  • Financial Bills: A Bill that contains some provisions related to taxation and expenditure, and additionally contains provisions related to any other matter is called a Financial Bill.
  • Therefore, if a Bill merely involves expenditure by the government, and addresses other issues, it will be a financial bill.
  • Ordinary Bills: All other Bills are called ordinary bills.

How are these bills passed?

  • Constitution Amendment Bills: A Constitution Amendment Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament. It would require a simple majority of the total membership of that House, and a two thirds majority of all members present and voting. Further, if the Bill relates to matters like the election of the President and Governor, executive and legislative powers of the centre and states, the judiciary, etc., it must be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures.
  • Money Bills: A Money Bill may only be introduced in Lok Sabha, on the recommendation of the President. It must be passed in Lok Sabha by a simple majority of all members present and voting. Following this, it may be sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations, which Lok Sabha may reject if it chooses to.  If such recommendations are not given within 14 days, it will deemed to be passed by Parliament.
  • Financial Bills: A Financial Bill may only be introduced in Lok Sabha, on the recommendation of the President. The Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament, after the President has recommended that it be taken up for consideration in each House.
  • Ordinary Bills: An Ordinary Bill may be introduced in either House of Parliament. It must be passed by both Houses by a simple majority of all members present and voting.

How is a Money Bill different from a financial bill?

  • While all Money Bills are Financial Bills, all Financial Bills are not Money Bills.
  • For example, the Finance Bill which only contains provisions related to tax proposals would be a Money Bill.
  • However, a Bill that contains some provisions related to taxation or expenditure, but also covers other matters would be considered as a Financial Bill.
  • The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015, which establishes funds under the Public Account of India and states, was introduced as a Financial Bill.
  • Secondly, as highlighted above, the procedure for the passage of the two bills varies significantly. The Rajya Sabha has no power to reject or amend a Money Bill. 
  • However, a Financial Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament.

Who decides if a Bill is a Money Bill?

  • The Speaker certifies a Bill as a Money Bill, and the Speaker’s decision is final.
  • Also, the Constitution states that parliamentary proceedings as well as officers responsible for the conduct of business (such as the Speaker) may not be questioned by any Court.
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