Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-54
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#54 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

World Health Assembly; Voltage fade; Agnihotri committee; Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH); National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC); ‘Asian premium’; Loss and Damage (L&D) mechanism; kharai camels; Unsaturated fatty acids; Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package;
By IT's Core Team
May 14, 2019

 

 

 

The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of NIH (National Institute of Health). Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong

  • The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of WHO.

About World Health Assembly:

  • It is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the Executive Board.
  • It is governed by its 194-member states.
  • It is the world’s highest health policy setting body and is composed of health ministers from member states.
  • Assembly generally meet every year in May in Geneva, the location of WHO Headquarters.
  • The main functions of the World Health Assembly are to determine the policies of the Organization, appoint the Director-General, supervise financial policies, and review and approve the proposed programme budget.
  • The Health Assembly is held annually in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The 71st World Health Assembly took place on 21–26 May 2018.
  • It focused on health of the workers, universal health coverage.
  • The main international policy frameworks adopted through WHA resolutions include:
    • International Health Regulations
    • International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes adopted in 1981
    • Framework Convention on Tobacco Control adopted in 2003
    • Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel adopted in 2010.
  • The WHA is also responsible for the endorsement of the WHO Family of International Classifications, a series of internationally standardized medical classifications, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

 

 

 

The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of NIH (National Institute of Health). Right OR Wrong?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

Wrong

  • The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of WHO.

About World Health Assembly:

  • It is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the Executive Board.
  • It is governed by its 194-member states.
  • It is the world’s highest health policy setting body and is composed of health ministers from member states.
  • Assembly generally meet every year in May in Geneva, the location of WHO Headquarters.
  • The main functions of the World Health Assembly are to determine the policies of the Organization, appoint the Director-General, supervise financial policies, and review and approve the proposed programme budget.
  • The Health Assembly is held annually in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The 71st World Health Assembly took place on 21–26 May 2018.
  • It focused on health of the workers, universal health coverage.
  • The main international policy frameworks adopted through WHA resolutions include:
    • International Health Regulations
    • International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes adopted in 1981
    • Framework Convention on Tobacco Control adopted in 2003
    • Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel adopted in 2010.
  • The WHA is also responsible for the endorsement of the WHO Family of International Classifications, a series of internationally standardized medical classifications, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

 

 

 

In recent years, NASA scientists made an experiment to measure vibrations moving through the Moon. This experiment was done under which programme of NASA?

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Answer:

  • This experiment was done as part of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package.

About Lunar Vibrations:

  • The Apollo lunar modules were built for the sole purpose of landing two men on the surface of the Moon, their usefulness didn’t end after ascending from the lunar surface.
  • NASA used the spent spacecraft for science, directing these modules for controlled crashed into the Moon.
  • These crashes caused moonquakes, and scientists measured the vibrations moving through the Moon and found it rings like a bell. Thus, lunar vibration is sought to be a major tectonic force on moon.
  • The real goal of the seismic experiments was to figure out the Moon’s internal structure.
  • Measuring how long the reverberations last, how powerful they are, and how big the waves get can reveal what the Moon is made of.
  • The vibrations from these two impacts lasted longer than scientists expected, far longer than any equivalent vibrations last on Earth.

 

 

 

Unsaturated fatty acids that come from either natural or industrial sources is called?

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Answer:

  • Trans fat, or trans-fatty acids, are unsaturated fatty acids that come from either natural or industrial sources.

What is Trans-Fat?

  • There are two types of trans-fats found in foods:
    • Naturally occurring transfats and
    • Artificial transfats.
  • Naturally occurring trans-fats are produced in the gut of some animals and foods made from these animals may contain small quantities of these fats.
  • Artificial trans-fats on the other hand are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
  • The primary dietary source of trans-fats in processed foods is partially hydrogenated oils.
  • Trans-fats are easy to use, inexpensive to produce and last a long time. They help give foods a desirable taste and texture.
  • Trans-fats increase the risk of developing many chronic diseases like heart disease, stroke, hypertension, obesity and type-2 diabetes.
  • Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) are the main source of industrially-produced transfat. PHO is an ingredient in many foods.

 

 

 

It is an ecotonal breed i.e. it lives in coastal as well as dry ecosystems. It can swim long distances in the sea. It feeds on mangroves. It is found only in Gujarat’s Bhuj area. Which is this animal?

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Answer:

Kharai Camel

About kharai camels:

  • kharai camels are known as swimming camel.
  • They are also known as dariyataru (meaning sea-swimmer).
  • They are found only in Gujarat’s Bhuj area.
  • They have adapted to the extreme climate of the desert, shallow or deep-sea waters, and high salinity.
  • Kharai Camel can live in both coastal and dry ecosystems, making it an ecotonal breed.
  • As per the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, the Kharai camel is probably the only domesticated breed of camel that lives in dual ecosystems.
  • It is the ninth recognised camel breed of India.
  • It primarily grazes on saline / mangrove trees and is tolerant to high saline water.
  • The camels swim long distances in the sea to reach the grazing areas, usually more than 3 km at a time even in deep waters.
  • The Kharai camels are left to themselves on one of the seven mangrove islands that dot the creek at Mohadi in Kutch district of Gujarat.
  • They swim 10 km, along with their handlers, taking anywhere between two and three hours to reach the islands, locally called Bet, along the Gulf of Kutch.
  • Once on the islands, the camels start feeding on mangroves.
  • The camel is distinct from other camels because of its rounded back, long and thin legs and small feet.

 

 

 

When and where was the Loss and Damage (L&D) mechanism established?

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Answer:

  • The Loss and Damage (L&D) Mechanism was established at the UNFCCC climate negotiations

(the 19th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 19)) in Warsaw, Poland, in November 2013.

What is Loss and Damage (L&D) mechanism?

  • It aims to address loss and damage associated with impacts of climate change, including extreme events (such as hurricanes, heat waves, etc.) and slow onset events (such as desertification, sea level rise, ocean acidification, etc.) in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

About Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) on Loss and Damage:

  • Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage was established at the 19th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 19) in Warsaw, Poland, on November 2013.
  • It is associated with Climate Change Impacts (Loss and Damage Mechanism).
  • It aims to address loss and damage associated with impacts of climate change, including extreme events and slow onset events, in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  • It is significant because:
    • It creates a legitimate policy space to discuss and address the negative consequences of climate change if society´s efforts to mitigate and adapt are not sufficient.
    • It reflects ideas in the emerging scientific literature around barriers to adaptation, and limits to adaptation.
    • Contribute to new ways of viewing the climate change challenge (new paradigms unlock new ways of dealing with challenges),
    • mobilize resources and capacity to help these countries, and
    • find ways to prevent disruptive climate shocks from driving vulnerable areas even further from their development goals.

 

 

 

You might have heard about ‘Asian premium’ in the news. What is it and how is it related to OPEC?

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Answer:

  • Asian Premium is extra charge being collected by OPEC countries from Asian countries when selling oil in comparison to western countries.
  • It is also known as “North Atlantic Discount”.
  • Asian Premium is the high price Asian countries pay to buy the oil from OPEC.

Asia Premium:

  • It is a scourge for Asian countries whereas rich US/European countries get oil at relatively less price.
  • Under Asian Premium pricing mechanism, OPEC countries gives discriminatory treatment to Asian countries (though being largest importer of OPEC produced oil) and on other side giving discount to western countries.
  • The discriminatory Asian Premium is mainly used by OPEC countries to subsidise western buyers at cost of Asian buyers.
  • In this pricing, US and Europe had advantage because of future trading unlike Asia (no derivative market) which is represented by Dubai/Oman.
  • Asian countries (India, China etc.) oppose this Asian Premium.

OPEC:

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries (OPEC) is intergovernmental Organisation of 14 countries (6 countries of middle east, 6 of Africa and 2 of South America), accounting for 44% of global oil production, and Saudi Arabia is the de facto leader of it.
  • It aims to co-ordinate the petroleum policies of its member countries to stabilize the oil market, ensure effective and efficient supply of oil to its consumers, ensure steady income for producers.

India’s concern:

  • India has been lobbying with China and other Asian countries for replacing Asian Premium with Asian Discount (dividend).
  • It has also emphasized implementation of ‘Responsible and Reasonable Pricing’ by oil producing countries.
  • Indian Oil Corporation coordinated with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) to chalk out strategy that will result in getting better price from OPEC countries.
  • India sources about 86% of crude oil, 75% of natural gas and 95% of LPG from OPEC member nations.
  • It will allow poor Asian countries including developing countries like India to provide energy to people who have been deprived of energy so far.

 

 

 

National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) is developed under Ministry of Culture. True or False?

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Answer:

False

  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) is a not- for- profit company set up by the Ministry of Finance, under Section 25 of the Companies Act,1956 corresponding to Section 8 of the Companies Act,2013.

National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC):

  • NSDC was established in 2009.
  • NSDC aims to promote skill development by catalysing creation of large, quality and for-profit vocational institutions.
  • It was set up as part of a national skill development mission to fulfil the growing need in India for skilled manpower across sectors and narrow the existing gap between the demand and supply of skills.
  • It is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Enterprise.
  • It envisages creation of a pool of 500 million skilled people by 2022.
  • It will help to hone the talent of India’s workforce in 21 high-growth industries.
  • It works towards harnessing the energies of the private sector in supplementing the efforts being made by various Government entities.

Objectives:

  • To contribute significantly to the overall target of skilling up of people in India, mainly by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes.
  • To provide funding to build scalable and profitable vocational training initiatives.
  • To enable support system which focuses on quality assurance, information systems and train the trainer academies either directly or through partnerships.
  • Acts as a catalyst in skill development by providing funding to enterprises, companies and organizations that provide skill training.
  • To develop appropriate models to enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives.

Salient features:

  • Upgrade skills to international standards through significant industry involvement and develop necessary frameworks for standards, curriculum and quality assurance
  • Enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives for skill development through appropriate Public-Private Partnership (PPP) models; strive for significant operational and financial involvement from the private sector
  • Focus on underprivileged sections of society and backward regions of the country thereby enabling a move out of poverty; similarly, focus significantly on the unorganized or informal sector workforce.
  • Play the role of a “market-maker” by bringing financing, particularly in sectors where market mechanisms are ineffective or missing
  • Prioritize initiatives that can have a multiplier or catalytic effect as opposed to one-off impact

 

 

 

Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector. Under the MIDH, Government of India (GOI) contributes how many percent of total outlay for developmental programmes in all the states?

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Answer:

  • Under MIDH, Government of India (GOI) contributes 60%, of total outlay for developmental programmes in all the states except states in North East and Himalayas, 40% share is contributed by State Governments. In the case of North Eastern States and Himalayan States, GOI contributes 90%.
  • While in case of National Horticulture Board (NHB), Coconut Development Board (CDB), Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH), Nagaland and the National Level Agencies (NLA), GOI contributes 100%.

Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH):

  • Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) is a part of the umbrella scheme ‘Green Revolution Krishonnati Yojana’ in Agriculture Sector.
  • MIDH is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.
  • It also provides technical advice and administrative support to State Governments/ State Horticulture Missions (SHMs) for the Saffron Mission and other horticulture related activities Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)/NMSA.
  • The interventions under MIDH have a blend of technological adaptation supported with fiscal incentives for attracting farmers as well as entrepreneurs involved in the horticulture sector.

Main objectives of the Mission:

  • Promote holistic growth of horticulture sector, including bamboo and coconut through area based regionally differentiated strategies, which includes research, technology promotion, extension, post harvest management, processing and marketing, in consonance with comparative advantage of each State/region and its diverse agro-climatic features;
  • Encourage aggregation of farmers into farmer groups like FIGs/FPOs and FPCs to bring economy of scale and scope.
  • Enhance horticulture production, augment farmers, income and strengthen nutritional security;
  • Improve productivity by way of quality germplasm, planting material and water use efficiency through Micro Irrigation.
  • Support skill development and create employment generation opportunities for rural youth in horticulture and post harvest management, especially in the cold chain sector

Subsumed schemes:

  • MIDH subsumes six ongoing schemes of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation on horticulture development viz:
    • three Centrally Sponsored Schemes of NHM, HMNEH, NBM, and
    • three Central Sector Schemes viz. NHB, CDB and
    • the Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH) Nagaland.

 

 

 

Who constituted the Agnihotri committee and for what purpose?

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Answer:

Background:

  • Both Houses of Parliament of India have their own rules of procedure. These rules govern every detail of how the Houses function on a daily basis.
  • They determine MPs’ participation in parliamentary proceedings while making laws, passing budgets, questioning the government and representing the people of India. These rules are the bulwark of the parliamentary democracy.
  • For Parliament to be effective in its role, these rules require regular updating and strengthening.
  • The Constitution, through Article 118(1), gives the two Houses of Parliament the power to make rules to regulate their functioning.
  • Some of these Rules relate to Points of Order, Suspension of Rules, Discussion on Matters of Public Interest, and Notice of Privilege.

Agnihotri committee:

  • Agnihotri committee is constituted by the Chairman of Rajya Sabha during the Budget session of 2018.
  • It is a two-member committee formed to review Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business to ensure smooth conduct of proceedings.
  • The committee comprises of:
    • V K Agnihotri, former Secretary General of the Rajya Sabha, and
    • S R Dhaleta, retired Joint Secretary and Legislative Counsel, Ministry of Law and Justice.
  • Such a comprehensive review of rules was being undertaken for the first time.
  • The committee’s recommendations will be placed before the Rules Committee of the Rajya Sabha.

What was the need to constitute the committee?

  • There were concerns over repeated disruptions and adjournments in the Rajya Sabha during the Budget session, that led to form the committee.
  • The need for a review was felt because over 120 working hours of a total of 165 were lost during the Budget session.
  • There is no specific provision in Rajya Sabha, for automatic suspension of members who persistently and wilfully obstruct House proceedings by shouting slogans or by coming into the Well.
  • Lok Sabha has such Rule 374 (A) that provides for automatic suspension.
  • So, the Chairman is often left with no option but to adjourn the House if there is grave disorder.
  • Disruptions also make it difficult to get Bills passed.
  • There were differences in provisions of Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha Rules in certain matters in terms of adequacy and precision.

 

 

 

A continuous cycle-to-cycle decrease in positive electrode equilibrium voltage is known as?

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Answer:

  • Voltage fade is a continuous cycle-to-cycle decrease in positive electrode equilibrium voltage.

About Voltage fade:

  • It reduces the cell’s energy and power output under these cycling conditions.
  • After a battery goes through a series of charge-discharge cycles, its voltage fades and the amount of energy it can hold, and release later for use, also fades.
  • The nucleation of the specific type of dislocation results in voltage fade.
  • Voltage fade reduces the energy density of the battery, which in turn limits the practical applications of these materials despite their high energy density in the initial charge-discharge cycles.
  • Voltage fade is common to many, if not all, layered oxides.
  • Voltage fade significantly reduces the material’s energy output and can outweigh energy losses due to capacity loss and resistance rise.
  • It also appears to be related to the voltage hysteresis, which is particularly large in some of these materials.
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