Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-56
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#56 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya; “Save the children” report; Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme; Judges Enquiry Act 1968; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants; Currency derivatives; National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR); Justice Verma Committee; VISION 2020: The Right to Sight;
By IT's Core Team
May 16, 2019

 

 

 

What is VISION 2020: The Right to Sight?

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Answer:

About Vision 2020: The Right to Sight:

  • VISION 2020: The Right to Sight is the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness, a joint programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB).
  • It was launched in 1999.
  • It sought to promote: “A world in which nobody is needlessly visually impaired, where those with unavoidable vision loss can achieve their full potential.”
  • It was set up to intensify and accelerate prevention of blindness activities so as to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness by 2020.
  • It is a collaborative effort of INGOs, NGOs, eye care organisations in India and the Government to coordinate and advocate for improved eye care programs; gaining and sharing knowledge and think solutions together to achieve quality, comprehensive and equitable eye care.
  • VISION 2020 stakeholders developed an action plan for the period 2006-11, which extended the remit to focus not only upon the elimination of avoidable blindness, but to include visual impairment – particularly that caused by uncorrected refractive error.
  • VISION 2020 has made a huge difference to global eye health.
  • It has created a major focus in the countries and districts where action is needed.

Vision 2020 and India:

  • India is also the part of the Vision 2020.
  • 80% of blindness in India is because of cataract and uncorrected refractive errors.
  • VISION 2020 INDIA Forum has a unique privilege and opportunity:
    • to work as a team in mission mode with a laser sharp focus
    • to eliminate avoidable blindness to a level that it ceases to be a public health problem for its citizens residing in 626 districts of India.

World Sight Day:

  • World Sight Day (WSD) is an annual day of awareness held on the second Thursday of October.
  • It is celebrated to focus global attention on blindness and vision impairment.
  • World Sight Day 2018 is on 11 October 2018.

 

 

 

What are the key recommendations given by the Justice Verma Committee in its report?

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Answer:

About Justice Verma Committee:

  • Justice Verma Committee was constituted to recommend amendments to the Criminal Law.
  • It provided for quicker trial and enhanced punishment for criminals accused of committing sexual assault against women.
  • The Committee submitted its report on January 23, 2013.
  • It made recommendations on laws related to:
    • rape, sexual harassment, trafficking, child sexual abuse, medical examination of victims, police, electoral and educational reforms.

Recommendations by the committee:

  • Any non-consensual penetration of a sexual nature should be included in the definition of rape.
  • The Committee recommended that the exception to marital rape should be removed. Marriage should not be considered as an irrevocable consent to sexual acts.
  • Non-penetrative forms of sexual contact should be regarded as sexual assault.
  • The offence of sexual assault should be defined so as to include all forms of non-consensual non-penetrative touching of a sexual nature.
  • The use of words, acts or gestures that create an unwelcome threat of a sexual nature should be termed as sexual assault and be punishable for 1 year imprisonment or fine or both.
  • The death penalty should not be awarded for the offence of rape as there was considerable evidence that death penalty was not a deterrence to serious crimes. It recommended life imprisonment for rape.
  • The continuance of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) in conflict areas needs to be revisited.
  • The central and state government create a corpus to compensate victims of crimes against women.
  • In case of Acid attacks punishment of imprisonment for 10 years or life.
  • Terms ‘harm’ and ‘health’ be defined under the Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 to include mental and physical harm and health, respectively, of the juvenile.
  • Provisions of the IPC on slavery be amended to criminalise trafficking by threat, force or inducement.
  • It recommended the criminalising employment of a trafficked person.
  • Juvenile and women protective homes should be placed under the legal guardianship of High Courts and steps should be taken to reintegrate the victims into society.
  • Discontinuation of the two-finger test which is conducted to determine the laxity of the vaginal muscles.
  • Establishment of State Security Commissions to ensure that state governments do not exercise influence on the state police.
  • It has recommended that sexuality education should be imparted to children.
  • Adult literacy programs are necessary for gender empowerment.
  • Candidates contesting the elections should be disqualified for committing sexual offences, filing of charge sheet and cognizance by the Court was sufficient for disqualification of a candidate.
  • A Rape Crisis Cell should be set up that should be immediately notified when an FIR in relation to sexual assault is made. The Cell must provide legal assistance to the victim.
  • All police stations should have CCTVs at the entrance and in the questioning room.
  • A complainant should be able to file FIRs online.
  • Police officers should be duty bound to assist victims of sexual offences irrespective of the crime’s jurisdiction.
  • Members of the public who help the victims should not be treated as wrong doers.
  • The police should be trained to deal with sexual offences appropriately.
  • Number of police personnel should be increased. Community policing should be developed by providing training to volunteers.

 

 

 

What are the powers and functions of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)?

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Answer:

About National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR):

  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is a statutory body under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It was set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It comes under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • It aims to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • It emphasizes the principle of universality and inviolability of child rights and recognizes the tone of urgency in all the child related policies of the country.
  • The commission consist of:
    • Chairperson and
    • Six members, out of which at least two are woman appointed by the Central Government from amongst person of eminence, ability, integrity, standing and experience.
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.

Functions and powers of the NCPCR:

  • Examine and review the safeguards provided by or under any law.
  • Present the reports upon working of the safeguards.
  • Inquire into violation of child rights and recommend initiation of proceedings in such cases.
  • Examine all factors that inhibit the enjoyment of rights of children affected by terrorism, communal violence, riots, natural disaster, domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, trafficking, maltreatment, torture and exploitation, pornography and prostitution and recommend appropriate remedial measures.
  • Look into the matters relating to the children in need of special care and protection including children in distress, marginalized and disadvantaged children, children in conflict with law, juvenile’s children without family and children of prisoners and recommend appropriate remedial measures.
  • Inquire into complaints and take suo motu notice of matter relating to :
    • Deprivation and violation of child rights;
    • Non-implementation of laws providing for protection and development of children;
    • Noncompliance of policy decisions, guidelines or instructions aimed at mitigating hardships to and ensuring welfare of the children and provide relief to such children; or
    • take up the issues arising out of such matters with appropriate authorities.
  • Study treaties and other international instruments and undertake periodical review of existing policies, programmes and other activities on child rights.
  • Make recommendations for their effective implementation in the best interest of children.
  • Undertake and promote research in the field of child rights.
  • Spread child rights literacy among various section of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for protection of these rights through publications, the media, seminar and other available means.
  • Produce and disseminate information about child rights.
  • Compile and analyse data on children.
  • Promote the incorporation of child rights into the school curriculum, training of teachers or personnel dealing with children.

 

 

 

What are Currency derivatives? In India, different derivatives instruments are permitted and regulated by which authorities?

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Answer:

What is derivative?

  • A derivative is a financial security with a value that is reliant upon or derived from an underlying asset or group of assets.
  • The derivative itself is a contract between two or more parties based upon the asset or assets.
  • Its price is determined by fluctuations in the underlying asset.
  • The most common underlying assets include stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates and market indexes.
  • Four most common examples of derivative instruments are Forwards, Futures, Options and Swaps.
  • Derivatives can either be traded over-the-counter (OTC) or on an exchange.
  • OTC derivatives constitute the greater proportion of derivatives in existence and are unregulated, whereas derivatives traded on exchanges are standardized.
  • OTC derivatives generally have greater risk for the counterparty than do standardized derivatives.

About Current Derivatives:

  • A currency future, also known as FX future, is a futures contract to exchange one currency for another at a specified date in the future at a price (exchange rate) that is fixed on the purchase date.
  • Currency future contracts allow investors to hedge against foreign exchange risk.
  • Currency Derivatives are available on four currency pairs viz. US Dollars (USD), Euro (EUR), Great Britain Pound (GBP) and Japanese Yen (JPY).
  • Cross Currency Futures & Options contracts on EUR-USD, GBP-USD and USD-JPY are also available for trading in Currency Derivatives segment.

Regulating authority of derivatives in India:

  • Derivatives instruments in India are regulated by:
    • Union Ministry of Finance,
    • The Reserve Bank of India,
    • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and
    • Forward Markets Commission (FMC).
  • Subsequent to the passing of the Finance Act 2015, FMC was merged with SEBI with effect from 29 September 2015.

 

 

 

Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya belonged to which Indian State? And why was he in news?

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Answer:

About Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya:

  • Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya was the last ruling maharaja of Tripura.
  • He succeeded his father, Birendra Kishore Manikya Debbarman.
  • He ascended the throne in 1923, and before his death in 1947, he settled Tripura’s accession to the newly independent country of India.
  • He is considered the father of modern architecture in Tripura.
  • He is also considered one of the pioneers in land reforms.
  • In 1939, he reserved land for the local Tripura tribal’s, which was later instrumental in the creation of the Tripura autonomous district council.
  • He also built the first airport in Tripura.
  • Tripura officially became part of India on Oct. 15, 1949.
  • It was made a union territory on September 1, 1956, and it became a state on January 21, 1972.

Why was he in news?

  • The Union Cabinet in July 2018, decided to name the Agartala airport in Tripura after Maharaja Bir Bikram Manikya Kishore, the erstwhile ruler of the state.
  • The airport was constructed in 1942 on the land donated by the maharaja.
  • The airport is the second busiest airport in the north east and provides crucial air connectivity to Tripura.

 

 

 

What is the significance of New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants?

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Answer:

About New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants:

  • The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants on 19 September 2016.
  • It expresses the political will of world leaders to save lives, protect rights and share responsibility on a global scale.
  • It reaffirms the importance of the international refugee regime and contains a wide range of commitments by Member States to strengthen and enhance mechanisms to protect people on the move.
  • It has paved the way for the adoption of two new global compacts in 2018:
    • a global compact on refugees and
    • a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration.
  • The New York Declaration sets out the key elements of a Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) to be applied to large-scale movements of refugees and protracted refugee situations.
  • The CRRF focuses on the importance of supporting those countries and communities that host large number of refugees, promoting the inclusion of refugees in host communities, ensuring the involvement of development actors from an early stage, and developing a ‘whole-of-society’ approach to refugee responses.
  • Its four key objectives are to:
    • Ease the pressures on host countries and communities;
    • Enhance refugee self-reliance;
    • Expand third-country solutions; and
    • Support conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity.
  • The New York Declaration contains bold commitments to address the issues faced now and to prepare the world for future challenges.

Commitments of the declaration:

  • Protect the human rights of all refugees and migrants, regardless of status. This includes the rights of women and girls and promoting their full, equal and meaningful participation in finding solutions.
  • Ensure that all refugee and migrant children are receiving education within a few months of arrival.
  • Prevent and respond to sexual and gender-based violence.
  • Support those countries rescuing, receiving and hosting large numbers of refugees and migrants.
  • Work towards ending the practice of detaining children for the purposes of determining their migration status.
  • Strongly condemn xenophobia against refugees and migrants and support a global campaign to counter it.
  • Strengthen the positive contributions made by migrants to economic and social development in their host countries.
  • Improve the delivery of humanitarian and development assistance to those countries most affected, including through innovative multilateral financial solutions, with the goal of closing all funding gaps.
  • Implement a comprehensive refugee response, based on a new framework that sets out the responsibility of Member States, civil society partners and the UN system, whenever there is a large movement of refugees or a protracted refugee situation.
  • Find new homes for all refugees identified by UNHCR as needing resettlement; and expand the opportunities for refugees to relocate to other countries through, for example, labour mobility or education schemes.
  • Strengthen the global governance of migration by bringing the International Organization for Migration into the UN system.

 

 

 

What is the aim of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)?

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Answer:

  • UNDP aims to help countries eliminate poverty and achieve sustainable human development, an approach to economic growth that emphasizes improving the quality of life of all citizens while conserving the environment and natural resources for future generations.

About UNDP:

  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is a United Nations (UN) organization formed in 1965.
  • It is headquartered in New York City.
  • UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly.
  • UNDP was one of the main UN agencies involved in the development of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.
  • The UNDP Administrator is the third highest-ranking official of the United Nations after the United Nations Secretary-General and Deputy Secretary-General.

Functions:

  • UNDP advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life.
  • It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries.
  • It promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations.
  • To accomplish the SDGs and encourage global development, UNDP focuses on poverty reduction, HIV/AIDS, democratic governance, energy and environment, social development, and crisis prevention and recovery.
  • It encourages the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women in all of its programmes.
  • It helps countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • It helps developing countries increase their capacity for good governance—by building political and legal institutions that are equitable, responsive, and open to public participation—and to expand the private sector of their economies in order to provide more jobs.

 

 

 

Recently an impeachment motion was initiated by Members of Parliament in Rajya Sabha as per the provisions of Judges Enquiry Act 1968. What do you know about it?

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Answer:

About Judges Enquiry Act 1968:

  • The constitution provides that a judge can be removed only by an order of the president, based on a motion passed by both houses of parliament.
  • The procedure for removal of judges is elaborated in the Judges Inquiry Act, 1968.
  • The Act aims to regulate the procedure for the investigation and proof of the misbehaviour or incapacity of a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court.
  • It also regulates for the presentation of an address by Parliament to the President and for matters connected therewith.

Removal of judges:

  • Judges can be removed by the order of the president after an address to this has been made to him in this regard.
  • They can be removed two grounds for the removal of judges of Supreme Court and High court, they are proved misbehaviour and incapacity.
  • The Judges Enquiry act 1968, outlines the procedure for the removal of judges:
    • A motion for the removal signed by 100 members in case of Lok Sabha or 50 members in case of Rajya Sabha must be presented to speaker/chairman of the house.
    • Speaker/chairman may admit or refuse to admit the motion.
    • If admitted the speaker/chairman would constitute a 3 member committee to investigate the charges.
    • The committee should consist of Chief justice/Judge of Supreme Court, Chief justice of a high court and a distinguished jurist.
    • If the committee finds the judge guilty, then the house would take up the motion for consideration.
    • The motion must be passed with special majority of 2/3rd of members present and voting corresponding to absolute majority of the house.
    • Then the motion would be placed before the president who would pass the order of removal.pro

 

 

 

What is Ethanol? and what is Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme? What are the benefits of this programme?

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Answer:

About Ethanol:

  • Ethanol, an anhydrous ethyl alcohol that can be produced from sugarcane, maize, wheat, etc which are having high starch content.
  • Ethanol is mainly produced from sugarcane molasses by fermentation process.
  • It can be mixed with gasoline to form different blends.
  • Because it contains oxygen molecules, it allows the engine to more completely combust the fuel, resulting in fewer emissions and thereby reducing the occurrence of environmental pollution.
  • Ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered as renewable fuel.
  • Ethanol blending is the practice of blending petrol with ethanol.
  • It reduces vehicle exhaust emissions and also to reduce the import burden on account of crude petroleum from which petrol is produced.
  • It is estimated that a 5% blending (105 crore litres) can result in replacement of around 1.8 million Barrels of crude oil.

About Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme:

  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme was launched in January 2003.
  • The programme sought to promote the use of alternative and environment friendly fuels and to reduce import dependency for energy requirements.
  • The Government of India decided to launch Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme in January 2003 for supply of 5% ethanol blended Petrol.
  • Subsequent to this, Ethanol Blended Petrol programme was launched in January 2003 in 9 States i.e. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and 4 Union Territories.
  • The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG) in 2006 directed the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to sell 5% Ethanol Blended Petrol subject to commercial viability as per Bureau of Indian Standards specifications.
  • At present, including the state of Telangana, EBP programme is being implemented in 21 states and 4 UTs.

Benefits:

  • Increased ethanol blending in petrol has many benefits including reduction in import dependency, support to agricultural sector, more environmental friendly fuel, lesser pollution and additional income to farmers.
  • It will reduce import dependency for energy requirements and give boost to agriculture sector, more environmental friendly fuel, lesser pollution and additional income to farmers.
  • All distilleries will be able to take benefit of the scheme and large number of them are expected to supply ethanol for the EBP programme.

 

 

 

What does the recently released “Save the children” report states?

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Answer:

About “Save the children” report:

  • A report released by leading child rights organisation “Save the Children” titled Wings 2018: World of India Girls, A Study on perception of girl’s safety in public spaces.
  • It was launched by the Hon’ble Union Minister of State for Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • The report was based on a survey collected from six states representing 6 regions of the country.
  • They were selected on the basis of high cases of crime against women as recorded by National Crime Records Bureau data, high instances of child marriage, among other factors.
  • These states were; Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Assam, West Bengal and Maharashtra.
  • Save the Children works across 20 states of India; it focusses on issues related to education, health, protection of children and humanitarian work — especially for the most deprived and marginalized children.

Highlights:

  • Girls living both in urban and rural areas of the country fear harassment while encountering public spaces.
  • One in every three adolescent girls were “scared of traversing the narrow by-lanes of their locality, as well as the road to go to school or the local market”.
  • One in four adolescent girls felt unsafe when using open spaces/agricultural fields for open defecation in rural areas.
  • Three in five girls felt unsafe in overcrowded public place.
  • There were limited family support systems while determining the perception of adolescent girls about their safety in public spaces.
  • 50 % parents agreed that they will probably end up scolding their daughters for letting this happen.
  • 42 % feel that they are likely to regulate their daughters’ movement in public spaces if they came to know of any incidence of harassment experienced by their daughters.
  • The girls and their families were not confident of reporting to the police.
  • Inadequate lighting was amongst one of the determining factors about the safety in public.
  • 60% of adolescent girls expressed feeling unsafe in streets or other public spaces with inadequate lighting.
  • The parents and girls also raised apprehension about using public transport, particularly using over-crowded buses, trains, metros, local trains.
  • Over one in every four adolescent girls perceived the threat of being physically assaulted, including getting raped, while venturing into public spaces.
  • One in three expected to be inappropriately touched or even stalked.
  • The role of by-standers was also pointed at as an important area that needed more support expected by the girls.
  • 13 % felt that girls are safe while travelling alone using public transport.
  • 5% felt that the biggest fear of girls in public places is sexual abuse.
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