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70 Days WAR Plan

Day#57 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

International Energy Agency (IEA); Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve; Anshi National Park; ‘Reciprocal Logistic Support’ agreement’; NABH Nirman initiative; “Fugitive economic offender”; Lhotshampa; ‘Cortisol’; Service Voter; National Food Security Mission (NFSM); Cotonou Agreement;
By IT's Core Team
May 17, 2019

 

 

What is the Cotonou Agreement known for?

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Answer:

The Cotonou Agreement:

  • In the year 2000, a treaty was signed between the European union (EU) and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States which is popularly known as Cotonou Agreement.
  • Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) is a comprehensive partnership treaty signed in Cotonou Benin for the period 2000 to 2020.
  • It was first enforced in 2003 and revised in 2005 and March 2010.
  • It is the most comprehensive partnership agreement between developing countries and the EU.
  • It has been the framework for EU’s relations with 79 countries from ACP.
  • The CPA aims at poverty reduction and eventual eradication for sustainable development.
  • It establishes north-south cooperation on three pillars:
    1. Development Cooperation,
    2. Political Cooperation, and
    3. Economic and Trade Cooperation.
  • The guiding principles provide equal partnership and provision for ACP countries to own their own development strategies, participation of additional non-state actors, continuous dialogue and mutual responsibility on fundamental and universal issues such as human rights and differentiation and regionalization based on a partners’ level of development, performance, economic needs, and development strategy.
  • It considered emerging global challenges that includes the growing importance of regional integration in tackling cross-border challenges, the need to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), climate change, and stability.
  • Migration is the main concern for Cotonou Negotiations because EU is taking drastic measure to protect its borders, keeping out migrants and sending them back.
  • Migrants are forced to take more dangerous routes, relying on human traffickers.
  • The Agreement will expire in 2020 and the official negotiations will start in August 2018.

 

 

What is the role of International Energy Agency (IEA)?

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Answer:

International Energy Agency (IEA):

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization.
  • It was established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  • It focuses of four core areas that are:
    • Energy security,
    • Economic development,
    • Environmental awareness and
    • Engagement worldwide.
  • The Governing Board is the main decision-making body of the IEA, composed of energy ministers or their senior representatives from each member country.
  • The head of the International Energy Agency Secretariat is the Executive Director, who may serve a maximum of two terms of four years each.
  • The IEA operates within the financial framework of the OECD.
  • It publishes “World Energy Outlook” report regularly.

Role of IEA:

  • It works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its member countries and beyond.
  • Work on the area of:
    • Carbon capture and storage
    • Clean energy technologies
    • Climate change
    • Coal
    • Electricity
    • Energy access
    • Energy and Gender
    • Energy efficiency
    • Energy security
    • Engagement worldwide
    • Investment
    • Natural gas
    • Nuclear
    • Oil
    • Renewables
    • Transport
  • To acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia.
  • It promotes alternate energy sources (including renewable energy), rational energy policies, and multinational energy technology co-operation.

 

 

Explain National Food Security Mission (NFSM)?

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Answer:

National Food Security Mission (NFSM)

  • National Food Security Mission (NFSM) is a part of the umbrella scheme ‘Green Revolution Krishonnati Yojana’ in Agriculture Sector.
  • The scheme has a total central share of Rs.6893.38 crore.
  • It aims to increase production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops, through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a suitable manner in the identified districts of the country, restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level and enhancing farm level economy.
  • It augments the availability of vegetable oils and to reduce the import of edible oils.
  • NFSM will have three components –
    • National Food Security Mission – Rice (NFSM-Rice);
    • National Food Security Mission – Wheat (NFSM-Wheat); and
    • National Food Security Mission – Pulses (NFSM-Pulses).
  • The basic strategy of the Mission is to promote and extend improved technologies.

 

 

As per Representation of People’s Act, 1950, who are called Service Voter?

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Answer:

Service Voter:

  • Service voter is a voter having service qualification.
  • According to the provisions of sub section (8) of Section 20 of Representation of People Act, 1950, service qualification means:
    • Being a member of the armed Forces of the Union; or
    • Being a member of a force to which provisions of the Army Act, 1950 (46 of 1950), have been made applicable whether with or without modification;
    • Being a member of an Armed Police Force of a State, and serving outside that state; or
    • Being a person who is employed under the Government of India, in a post outside India.
  • A service voter is not issued Elector Photo Identity Card (EPIC).
  • Because the service voters are issued postal ballots or votes through his ‘proxy’, they are not required to visit the polling stations personally.
  • While an ordinary elector is registered in the electoral roll of the constituency in which his place of ordinary residence is located, person having service qualification can get enrolled as ‘service voter’ at his native place even though he actually may be residing at a different place (of posting).
  • The members of Indian Army, Navy and Air Force and personnel of General Reserve Engineer Force (Border Road Organization), Border Security Force, Indo Tibetan Border Police, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force and Sashastra Seema Bal are eligible to be registered as service voters.
  • The wife of a service voter shall, if she is ordinarily residing with him, be also deemed to be a service voter in the constituency specified by that person.
  • This facility is available only to the wife of a male service voter and is not available to the husband of a female service voter.

Who is a Classified Service Voter?

  • Service voter belonging to Armed Forces or forces to which provisions of Army Act, 1950 are applicable, has 0ption of either voting through postal ballot or through a proxy voter duly appointed by him.
  • A service voter who opts for voting through a proxy is called Classified Service Voter (CSV).

 

 

What is ‘Cortisol’? and what are its functions?

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Answer:

‘Cortisol’:

  • Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
  • It is produced in humans by the adrenal gland, a triangle-shaped organ at the top of the kidneys.
  • It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration.
  • It works with certain parts of the brain to control your mood, motivation, and fear.
  • Cortisol production by the adrenal glands is regulated by the pituitary gland.
  • When a person wakes up, exercise or you’re facing a stressful event, your pituitary gland reacts. It sends a signal to the adrenal glands to produce just the right quantity of cortisol.

Functions:

  • It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
  • It also decreases bone formation, favouring long-term development of osteoporosis.
  • It stimulates gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose) and activates anti-stress and anti-inflammatory pathways.
  • When released into the bloodstream, cortisol can act on many different parts of the body and can help:
    • The body respond to stress or danger
    • Increase your body’s metabolism of glucose
    • Manages how your body uses carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
    • Control your blood pressure
    • Reduce inflammation.
    • Controls your sleep/wake cycle
    • Boosts energy so you can handle stress and restores balance afterward
  • It plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose.
  • It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.
  • It is used to treat skin problems such as rashes and eczema.
  • It stimulates many copper enzymes probably to increase copper availability for immune purposes.
  • Cortisol also reduces calcium absorption in the intestine.
  • Cortisol down-regulates the synthesis of collagen, an important component of connective tissue vital for structural support and found in muscles, tendons, and joints, as well as throughout the entire body.
  • It stimulates gastric-acid secretion.
  • It inhibits memory retrieval of already stored information.
  • Sustained stress can lead to high levels of circulating cortisol, which can create an allostatic load that can lead to various physical modifications in the body’s regulatory networks.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of too much cortisol include:

  • weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face
  • thin and fragile skin that is slow to heal
  • acne
  • for women, facial hair and irregular menstrual periods.

Symptoms of not enough cortisol include:

  • continual tiredness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • weight loss
  • muscle weakness
  • pain in the abdomen.

 

 

What is the issue of Lhotshampa, Bhutanese refugees that led to their migration to different countries?

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Answer:

Lhotshampa, Bhutanese refugees:

  • The Lhotshampa is an ethnic group with its origins in Nepal which made up one-sixth of Bhutan’s population.
  • These people are a heterogeneous Bhutanese people of Nepalese descent.
  • It is said that people of Nepalese origin have been in Bhutan since 1620, when Newar craftsmen were commissioned to come to and build a stupa in Bhutan.
  • Being native to southern Bhutan, they are referred to as Southerners.
  • Bhutan in the 1990s expelled them to preserve its unique national identity.
  • This generated one of the highest numbers of refugees in the world in proportion to its population.
  • In 2007, most of the Lhotshampas, or Bhutanese Refugees, were resettled to third countries, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and other European countries.
  • Today their number in Nepal is much lower than in the United States and other countries where they were resettled.
  • Since then, Bhutanese people of Nepalese origin started to settle in uninhabited areas of southern Bhutan.
  • Over 105,000 Bhutanese have spent 15 – 20 years living in UNHCR-run refugee camps in Nepal.
  • Bhutanese refugees now live all over the world, but they are largely unknown.

 

 

What is “Fugitive economic offender”? And what are the salient features of Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill 2018?

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Answer:

What is “Fugitive economic offender”?

  • A fugitive economic offender is an individual who has committed some specified offence(s) involving an amount of one hundred crore rupees or more and has absconded from India or refused to come back to India to avoid or face criminal prosecution in India.
  • A Fugitive Economic Offender is a person declared so by a ‘Special Court’ set up under the Prevention of Money-laundering Act (PMLA), 2002.
  • It is against a person for whom an arrest warrant has been issued in respect of any of the economic offences provided in the schedule to Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, 2018 and who has left India so as to avoid criminal prosecution, or being abroad, refuses to return to India to face criminal prosecution.
  • Offences under some 15 Acts are listed in the Schedule to the Bill.

Salient features of the “Fugitive Economic Offenders (FEO) Bill 2018”:

  • The Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill 2018, aimed at preventing culprits from evading the legal process and fleeing the country was passed by the Lok Sabha on 19th July 2018.
  • The Bill allows for a person to be declared as a fugitive economic offender (FEO) if:
    • an arrest warrant has been issued against him for any specified offences where the value involved is over Rs 100 crore, and
    • he has left the country and refuses to return to face prosecution.
  • To declare a person an FEO, an application will be filed in a Special Court (designated under the Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002) containing details of the properties to be confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts.
  • The Special Court will require the person to appear at a specified place at least six weeks from issue of notice.
  • The Bill allows authorities to provisionally attach properties of an accused, while the application is pending before the Special Court.
  • Upon declaration as an FEO, properties of a person may be confiscated and vested in the central government, free of encumbrances (rights and claims in the property).
  • The property of a such offender, resulting from the proceeds of crime, including Benami property, can be confiscated once he is declared so by the Court.
  • But the provisional attachment may happen before confiscation.
  • Properties abroad are also liable for confiscation.
  • The person would be disentitled from defending any civil claim.
  • Further, the FEO or any company associated with him may be barred from filing or defending civil claims.
  • An Administrator will be appointed to manage and dispose of the confiscated property.
  • However, if, at any point of time in the course of the proceeding prior to the declaration, the alleged Fugitive Economic Offender returns to India and submits to the appropriate jurisdictional Court, proceedings under the proposed Act would cease by law.
  • All necessary constitutional safeguards in terms of providing hearing to the person through counsel, allowing him time to file a reply, serving notice of summons to him, whether in India or abroad and appeal to the High Court are also provided.
  • The Bill does not require the authorities to obtain a search warrant or ensure the presence of witnesses before a search.
  • This differs from other laws, such as the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973, which contain such safeguards. These safeguards protect against harassment and planting of evidence.
  • In keeping with the principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty’, the burden of proof for establishing that an individual is a fugitive economic offender is part of the proceeds of a crime and it lies on the Director appointed to file an application seeking fugitive economic offender status.

 

 

What is NABH Nirman initiative?

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Answer:

  • The Nabh Nirman scheme, was announced in Budget 2018.
  • It is an abbreviation of NextGen Airports for Bharat (NABH).
  • It will provide a big push to the country’s civil aviation sector.
  • The scheme aims to increase the number of Airports and their capacity to handle traffic.
  • The three key aspects of NABH Nirman are:
    • fair and equitable land acquisition,
    • long-term master plan for airport and regional development and
    • balanced economics for all stakeholders.
  • It proposes to expand it and increase the traffic handling capacity of airports by more than five times the airport capacity to handle a billion trips a year.
  • The project aims for construction of 100 new airports in the next 10 years, by investing Rs 2 trillion

 

 

What is ‘Reciprocal Logistic Support’ agreement?

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Answer:

About ‘Reciprocal Logistic Support’ agreement:

  • Reciprocal Logistic support is a defence agreement signed between armed forces of India and France, on 10th March 2018.
  • The logistical support agreement came in the backdrop of professed closer cooperation in the Indian ocean region.
  • It aims to extend logistical support on reciprocal access to respective facilities for Indian and French armed forces.
  • The strategic pact providing for use of each other’s military facilities including opening naval bases to warships.
  • The agreement reflects growing depth between both countries in defence ties and comes amid China’s growing military expansionism in Indo-Pacific region.
  • It will facilitate reciprocal provision of logistic support, supplies and services between armed forces during authorised port visits, joint exercises and joint training among others.
  • It will help to maintain the safety of international sea lanes for unimpeded commerce and communications in Indo-Pacific region.
  • The deal is similar to logistical support pact (LEMOA) with US on use of each other’s land, air and naval bases and is indicator of strategic depth and maturity reached in India-France defence ties.
  • Both the countries have also signed pact on exchange and reciprocal protection of classified or protected information.
  • The agreement also provides the opportunity to Indian and French defence enterprises to enter into co-development and co-production projects in defence sector, including through transfer of technologies.

 

 

Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve consists of which national park and sanctuary? And where is it located?

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Answer:

About Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve:

  • Dandeli-Anshi is the fourth tiger reserve of Karnataka state, located in Uttara Kannada district.
  • It got Tiger Reserve status in January 2007.
  • It includes Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and Anshi National Park.
  • Anshi National Park and Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary were together granted the status of Project Tiger “Tiger reserve”, being declared as ‘Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve’ in January 2007.
  • In December 2015, Dandeli Anshi Tiger reserve was renamed to Kali Tiger Reserve (JOIDA).
  • It is also a home for endangered Hornbill species and rare black panthers.

Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary is a birdwatchers paradise, housing nearly 200 species of birds,[3] most famous for the great hornbill (great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill) and the Malabar pied hornbill.
  • Karnataka state government has officially notified the Dandeli Elephant Reserve under Project Elephant on 4 June 2015.
  • It is also the only known tiger reserve in India to report frequent sightings of the elusive black panther.
  • It is also known to house the Indian sloth bear, the Indian pangolin, the giant Malabar squirrel, dhole, the Indian jackal and the muntjac (barking deer).
  • Sightings of the Indian elephant and the Indian peafowl are pretty common.
  • The king cobra and the mugger crocodile (Indian crocodile) are the prime reptilians in Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The forests in Dandeli are a mixture of dense deciduous trees interspersed with bamboo and teak plantations.

Anshi National Park:

  • The Karnataka state government proposed carving out a section of the Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary to form the Anshi national park, and the proposal was implemented on 2 September 1987.
  • It was renamed to Kali Tiger Reserve in Dec 2015.
  • The park is home to several hydroelectric dams and a nuclear power station.
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