CA-FC-Day-57-2020-iastoppers
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Day#57 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Red Hat sect; Drukpa Lineage; Kagyu school; Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA); Caribbean Community (CARICOM); 1.5-Degree Report (SR 1.5); Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC);
By IASToppers
September 28, 2019

 

 

What are the functions of Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)?

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Solution:

Functions

  • To appraise activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle.
  • To appraise proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimental field trials.
  • The committee or any persons authorized by it has powers to take punitive action under the Environment Protection Act.

Enrich Your Learning:

Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)

  • The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) functions in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).
  • GEAC, having 24 members, is chaired by the Special Secretary/Additional Secretary of MoEF&CC and co-chaired by a representative from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT).

Functions

  • To appraise activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle.
  • To appraise proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimental field trials.
  • The committee or any persons authorized by it has powers to take punitive action under the Environment Protection Act.

 

 

Given brief information about i) Red Hat sect ii) Drukpa Lineage and iii) Kagyu school

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Solution & Enrich Your Learning:

Red Hat sect

  • The Nyingma sect or Red Hat sect of Tibetan Buddhism is the oldest amongst the four schools and the second largest after Gelugpa sect (Yellow Hat sect).
  • Three of the four Tibetan Buddhist schools use red hats in their rituals.
  • Nyingma in Tibetan means “ancient” and has roots going back to the 8th century when the indigenous Bon religion was strongly adhered to by Tibetans.
  • The Nyingma sect is also known as the Red Hat sect because its Lamas wear red robes and hats.
  • Up to the 11th century, Nyingma was the sole sect of Buddhism in Tibet. It is the only sect in Tibetan Buddhism that did not assume political power.
  • Between the 9th and 11th centuries, many Nyingma monasteries were built across Tibet.
  • Nyingma stresses on teachings attributed to Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche and Shantarakshita), the Dzogchen (Great Perfection) doctrines as well as Tantric practices.

Drukpa Lineage

  • The Drukpa Lineage (Red Hat sect) is a branch of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism.
  • In Bhutan the Drukpa Lineage is the dominant school and state religion.
  • Druk in Tibetan means Dragon. Tsangpa Gyare, the founder of the lineage, named it “Drukpa” or “lineage of the Dragons” in 12th He was known as the First Gyalwang Drukpa. At present, the 12th Gyalwang Drukpa Jigme Pema Wangchen, is the spiritual head of the lineage.

Kagyu school

  • The Kagyu lineage is one of the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
  • It has its roots in the teachings of the historical Buddha and developed into a practical way to enlightenment in India and Tibet.
  • The teachings of the Kagyu lineage stretch back to ancient India, where the yogi Tilopa received transmissions from the primordial buddha Vajradhara.
  • The principal Kagyu lineages existing today as independent schools are those which stem from Gampopa, a monk who merged the Kagyu lineage with the Kadam tradition.

 

 

Which organization published 1.5-Degree Report (SR 1.5)?

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Solution:

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2018 at the United Nations’ 48th session of the IPCC in Incheon, Korea published 1.5-Degree Report (SR 1.5)

Enrich Your Learning:

1.5-Degree Report (SR 1.5)

  • The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C (SR1.5) was published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2018 at the United Nations’ 48th session of the IPCC in Incheon, Korea.
  • Its key finding is that meeting a 1.5 °C target of earth global temperature is possible but would require deep emissions reductions and rapid changes.
  • SR15 also shows that, for global warming to be limited to 1.5 °C, Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percent from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching net zero around 2050.

Highlights of SR 1.5

  • Human-induced warming reached approximately 1°C above pre-industrial levels in 2017, increasing at 0.2°C per decade.
  • Under emissions in line with current pledges under the Paris Agreement (known as Nationally Determined Contributions), global warming is expected to surpass 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, even if these pledges are achieved.
  • Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C compared with 2 °C would reduce challenging impacts on ecosystems, human health and well-being and that a 2 °C temperature increase would exacerbate extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice among other impacts.
  • Limiting warming to 1.5°C depends on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the next decades, where lower GHG emissions in 2030 lead to a higher chance of keeping peak warming to 1.5°C.

 

 

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) was established through which treaty?

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Solution:

  • CARICOM was first established in 1973 through the Treaty of Chaguaramas.

Enrich Your Learning:

Caribbean Community (CARICOM)

  • The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organisation of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies aimed at promoting economic integration and cooperation, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
  • It was first established in 1973 through the Treaty of Chaguaramas. This treaty was later revised in 2001. Revisions in this treaty included the implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice.
  • There were four founding members of CARICOM. These countries include: Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • CARICOM is an official United Nations Observer.
  • In 2017 Cuba and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc signed the “CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement” to facilitate closer ties.

Members of CARICOM

  • There are a total of 15 member nations and dependencies of CARICOM. Moreover, it has 5 associate members and 8 observer countries as a member.

15 permanent member of CARICOM

  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Belize
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Saint Lucia
  • Grenada
  • Saint Vincent and The Grenadines
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Dominica
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

 

 

Which government body replaced the Processed Food Export Promotion Council (PFEPC)?

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Solution:

  • Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) replaced the Processed Food Export Promotion Council (PFEPC).

Enrich Your Learning:

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)

  • APEDA is an apex body of the Ministry of Commerce to promote the export of agricultural commodities and processed food products.
  • It was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act 1985.
  • It replaced the Processed Food Export Promotion Council (PFEPC).
  • APEDA links Indian exporters to global markets besides providing comprehensive export oriented services.
  • It provides referral services and suggest suitable partners for joint ventures.
  • APEDA has marked its presence in almost all agro potential states of India and has been providing services to agri-export community through its head office, five Regional offices and 13 Virtual offices.

Functions

  • Development of industries relating to the scheduled products for export
  • Fixing of standards for the scheduled products
  • Carrying out inspection of meat and meat products
  • Collection of statistics from the owners of factories engaged in the scheduled products
  • Training in various aspects of the industries connected with the scheduled products

Composition of the APEDA Authority

  • A Chairman, appointed by the Central Government
  • The Agricultural Marketing Advisor to the Government of India, ex-offical.
  • One member appointed by the Central Government representing the Planning Commission
  • Three members of Parliament of whom two are elected by the House of People and one by the Council of States
  • Eight members appointed by the Central Government representing respectively; the Ministries of the Central Govt.

Products Monitored by APEDA

APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the following scheduled products:

  • Fruits, Vegetables and their Products.
  • Meat and Meat Products.
  • Poultry and Poultry Products.
  • Dairy Products.
  • Confectionery, Biscuits and Bakery Products.
  • Honey, Jaggery and Sugar Products.
  • Cocoa and its products, chocolates of all kinds.
  • Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages.
  • Cereal and Cereal Products.
  • Groundnuts, Peanuts and Walnuts.
  • Pickles, Papads and Chutneys.
  • Guar Gum.
  • Floriculture and Floriculture Products.
  • Herbal and Medicinal Plants.

Key Facts

  • Vietnam, UAE, Saudi Arabia, USA, Iran, Iraq and Nepal are the major destinations for export of food products from India.
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