70 Days WAR Plan

Day#59 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC); Gram Swaraj Abhiyan; Essential Commodities Act (ECA); Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI); ‘Arab Spring, 2010’; Operation Nistar; ‘Mycorrhiza’; DISHA dashboard; National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT);
By IT's Core Team
May 19, 2019




What are the powers, functions, and advantages of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)?

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About National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT):

  • The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies.
  • The Central Government has constituted National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) under section 408 of the Companies Act, 2013 and was constituted on 1st June 2016.
  • The NCLT was constituted on the basis of the recommendation of the justice Eradi committee on the law relating to insolvency and winding up of companies.
  • It has been set up to govern the companies registered in India and is a successor to the Company Law Board.
  • The NCLT has eleven benches, two at New Delhi (one being the principal bench) and one each at Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and
  • These Benches will be headed by the President and 16 Judicial Members and 09 Technical Members at different locations.
  • The Appellate Tribunal is required to dispose the appeal within a period of six months from the date of the receipt of the appeal.
  • Decisions of the NCLT may be appealed to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT). The decisions of NCLAT may be appealed to the Supreme Court of India.
  • No civil court has the jurisdiction to consider any suit or proceeding with reference to any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to decide.
  • Appeals can be made by any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the NCLT, within a period of 45 days from the date on which a copy of the order or decision of the Tribunal.

Advantages of NCLT:

  • NCLT is a specialized court only for Corporates, i.e., companies registered in India.
  • This will be no more than a Tribunal for the Corporate Members.
  • NCLT will reduce the multiplicity of litigation before different forums and courts.
  • NCLT has multiple branches and is able to provide justice at a close range.
  • NCLT consists of both judicial and technical members while deciding on matters.
  • The time taken to wind up a company will be reduced.
  • Speedy disposal of cases will help reduce the number of cases.
  • NCLT & NCLAT have exclusive jurisdiction.

Powers of NCLT:

  • Power to seek the assistance of Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.
  • De-registration of Companies.
  • Declare the liability of members unlimited.
  • De-registration of companies in certain circumstances when there is registration of companies is obtained in an illegal or wrongful manner.
  • The remedy of oppression and mismanagement.
  • Power to hear the grievance of the refusal of companies to transfer securities and rectification of register of members.
  • Protection of the interest of various stakeholders, especially non-promoter shareholders and depositors.
  • Power to provide relief to the investors against a large set of wrongful actions committed by the company management or other consultants and advisors who are associated with the company.
  • Aggrieved depositors have the remedy of class actions for seeking redressal for the acts/omissions of the company which hurt their rights as depositors.
  • Powers to direct the company to reopen its accounts or allow the company to revise its financial statement but do not permit reopening of accounts. The company can itself also approach the Tribunal through its director for revision of its financial statement.
  • Power to investigate or for initiating investigation proceedings. An investigation can be conducted even abroad. Provisions are provided to assist investigation agencies and courts of other countries with respect to investigation proceedings.
  • Power to investigate into the ownership of the company.
  • Power to freeze assets of the company.
  • Power to impose a restriction on any securities of the company.
  • Conversion of the public limited company into the private limited company.
  • If the company cannot or has not held an Annual General Meeting as required under the Companies Act or a required Extraordinary General Meeting, then the Tribunal has powers to call for a General Meetings.
  • Power to alter the financial year of a company registered in India.

The NCLT has the power under the Companies Act to adjudicate proceedings:

  • Initiated before the Company Law Board under the previous act (the Companies Act 1956);
  • Pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), including those pending under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985;
  • Pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction; and
  • Pertaining to claims of oppression and mismanagement of a company, winding up of companies and all other powers prescribed under the Companies Act.




What is DISHA dashboard that was launched by Ministry of Rural Development? And which schemes does it cover?

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DISHA dashboard:

  • DISHA dashboard is an application launched by Ministry of Rural Development on June 2018.
  • The app will make it easier to monitor governance by geography in real time.
  • It will help in making “data-driven decision making”.
  • It is available to all members of Parliament and State Assemblies as well district officials.
  • It allows the user to track the progress of multiple and diverse schemes in a certain district, block, or even a gram panchayat.
  • Currently, 18 schemes are covered; the ultimate plan is to integrate all 42 Central schemes which are already monitored by DISHA.
  • The application automatically turns sets of statistics and data into interactive and visually accessible graphics and maps.
  • The dashboard has three filters: time, scheme and geography.
  • Currently, the tool is only available to legislators and government officials, but the Ministry is considering the possibility of making some of its features available online to the public on a later date.

What was the need?

  • Currently, geographic mismatches make it difficult to unite data.
  • For instance, while the Rural Development Ministry tracks its schemes by gram panchayat, the Health Ministry tracks it by anganwadis, which are mapped by population, while crime data uses different boundaries.
  • So the DISHA dashboard will give the real time data to the user in the unified form for all the scheme and make decision based on that data.


  • The Union Ministry of Rural Development launched the formation of District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee (DDCMC) called “Disha” in 2016.
  • The first meeting of DISHA was held on 13th August 2016.
  • DISHA supersedes the District Vigilance & Monitoring Committee under Union Ministry of Rural Development.
  • It will work for effective development coordination of almost all the programmes of Central Government, whether it is for infrastructure development or Social and human resource development.
  • These Committees monitors the implementation of 28 schemes and programmes of Ministry of Rural Development and other Ministries to promote synergy and convergence for greater impact.
  • The main purpose of this committee is to coordinate with Central and State and local Panchayat Governments, for successful and timely implementation of the schemes.
  • This will help government officials at all levels explore and assess key government initiatives for any geographic level, at any time period.
  • It ensures the participation of people’s representative at all levels in it and successful implementation of flagship programme of central government.
  • The meetings of the committee should be held once in every Quarter (Third Saturdays of April, July, October and February) and this has been made mandatory.

Structure of the committee:

  • The Chairperson of the committee will be the senior most Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) elected from the district, nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The other Members of Parliament (Lok Sabha) representing the district will be designated as Co-Chairpersons.
  • One MP (Rajya Sabha) representing the State and exercising option to be associated with the district level Committee of that district (on first come basis) will be designated as Co-Chairperson.
  • Other members of the committee will be nominated by the Chairperson, they are:
    • All Members of the State Legislative Assembly elected from the district,
    • All Mayors / the Chairpersons of Municipalities,
    • Chairperson of the Zilla Panchayat,
    • Five elected heads of Gram Panchayat including two women,
    • One representative each of SC, ST and Women.
  • The Member Secretary of disha should be the District Collector / District Magistrate/ Deputy Commissioner except in cases where specific exemption has been given by the Union Government.

The programmes to be covered under includes:

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
  • Deen Dayal Antordaya Yojna – NRLM
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay – Gramin Kaushalya Yojna (DDU-GKY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
  • National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
  • Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojna (PMAY-G)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin (SBM- G)
  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna (PMKSY) – Intregrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
  • Digital India Land Record Modernisation Programme (NLRMP)
  • Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission – National Rurban Mission (NRuM)
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojna (DDUGJY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Housing for All – Urban)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)
  • National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY)
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
  • Smart City Mission
  • Ujjwal DISCOM Assurance Yojna (UDAY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
  • National Heath Mission (NHM)
  • Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)
  • Intregrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme
  • Pradhan Mantri UJJWALA Yojana (PMUY) – LPG Connection to BPL families
  • Jal Marg Vikash Project
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna
  • Digital India – Public Internet Access Programme – providing Common Service Centre in each Gram Panchayat
  • Infrastructure related programme like Telecom, railways, highways, waterways, mines, etc.




What is ‘Mycorrhiza’? And what are its functions and benefits?

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About ‘Mycorrhiza’:

  • A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
  • It refers to the role of the fungi in the plants’ rhizosphere, its root system.
  • Both the fungus and the plant benefit from this interaction.
  • Endomycorrhiza and Ectomycorrhiza are the two main types of mycorrhizae that produce the same overall results, but with different fungal characteristics
  • Mycorrhizae play important roles in soil biology and soil chemistry.
  • Mycorrhizae are formed with more than 90% of plant species.


  • The major function of mycorrhizae is their ability to exchange nutrients between their surroundings and their host plant.
  • Mycorrhizae form a network of filaments that associate with plant roots and draw nutrients from the soil that the root system would not be able to access otherwise.
  • With the increase in root surface area and the protection they offer to the plant’s roots, the fungus is able to acquire a lot of nutrients for its host.
  • Since the plants are aboveground, it is often easier to see the benefits of this association for the plant, but the fungus also takes advantage of this partnership.
  • The mycorrhizae aid the plant with growth, yield, improved fitness, increase the root absorption area of nutrients, while the fungus receives carbon from the associated plant.
  • Improved plant growth and yield can aid in the production of crops and therefore produce more plants per area.
  • It also makes the plant less susceptible to soil-borne pathogens and to other environmental stresses such as drought and salinity.


  • Produce more vigorous and healthy plants
  • Increase plant establishment and survival at seeding or transplanting
  • Increase yields and crop quality
  • Improve drought tolerance, allowing watering reduction
  • Enhance flowering and fruiting
  • Optimize fertilizers use, especially phosphorus
  • Increase tolerance to soil salinity
  • Reduce disease occurrence
  • Contribute to maintain soil quality and nutrient cycling
  • Contribute to control soil erosion




What was Operation Nistar conducted for?

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Operation Nistar:

  • Operation Nistar was a code name of a swift Humanitarian and Disaster Relief Operation (HADR) of Indian Navy that was carried out on 3rd June 2018.
  • It rescued 38 Indians who were stranded at the Socotra Island off the coast of Yemen for ten days.
  • The sailors were stuck at the island after a severe cyclonic storm, Mekenu, hit the area on 24 May and damaged/sunk three Indian dhows
  • These 38 Indians were rescued by INS Sunayana that was diverted by the Navy from the Gulf of Aden for the operation.
  • INS Sunayana was diverted from Gulf of Aden deployment of western Arabian Sea to Socotra Island for search and rescue operations after Indian Navy received a distress call from Directorate General of Shipping and Indian Sailing Vessels Association.
  • The ship also undertook intensive surface search and aerial reconnaissance of the area to look for any more survivors.

INS Sunayana:

  • INS Sunayna is the second Saryu-class patrol vessel of the Indian Navy, designed and constructed indigenously by the Goa Shipyard Limited.
  • It was launched on 14 November 2009, delivered to the navy for sea trials on 3 September 2013, and got commissioned into active service on 15 October 2013 at Kochi.
  • It is designed to undertake fleet support operations, coastal and offshore patrolling, ocean surveillance and monitoring of sea lines of communications and offshore assets and escort duties.




What do you know about China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)?

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About China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):

  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), is a bilateral project to improve infrastructure within Pakistan for better trade with China.
  • It further integrates the countries of the region and circumvent the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea.
  • The project was launched on April 20, 2015.
  • It will impact on Iran, Afghanistan, India, Central Asian Republic, and the South Asian region.
  • CPEC is part of the larger Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), to improve connectivity, trade, communication, and cooperation between the countries of Eurasia, that was announced by China in 2013.
  • CPEC’s potential impact on Pakistan has been likened to that of the Marshall Plan undertaken by the United States in post-war Europe.
  • The goal of CPEC is both to transform Pakistan’s economy, by modernizing its road, rail, air, and energy transportation systems and to connect the deep-sea Pakistani ports of Gwadar and Karachi to China’s Xinjiang province and beyond by overland routes.
  • It will reduce the time and cost of transporting goods and energy such as natural gas to China.
  • Pakistan and China will monitor the progress made on CPEC projects using a satellite, which is set to be launched in June 2018.
  • The area falls in restive Balochistan province, home to a major insurgency problem that has resulted in heavy military presence.
  • There is also a widespread discontent in Pakistan with CPEC among the local people over issues like inadequate employment and the overbearing presence of the military in civilian life.




The term ‘Arab Spring, 2010’ frequently appeared in news. What is it?

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Arab Spring-2010:

  • The Arab Spring was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East.
  • It was a series of pro-democracy uprisings that enveloped several largely Muslim countries, including Tunisia, Morocco, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Bahrain.
  • The events in these nations generally began in the spring of 2011, which gave it the name Arab Spring.
  • It was related to the ultimate goal of increased democracy and cultural freedom.
  • The Arab Spring was a loosely related group of protests that ultimately resulted in regime changes in these countries.
  • Activists in other countries in the region were inspired by the regime change in Tunisia and began to protest similar authoritarian governments in their own nations.
  • Not all the countries were successful instead in the aftermath most of these countries went under increased instability and oppression.
  • The impact was felt throughout northern Africa and the Middle East.
  • In some cases, these protests morphed into full-scale civil wars, as evidenced in countries such as Libya, Syria and Yemen.
  • The Arab Spring began in December 2010 when Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi set himself on fire to protest the arbitrary seizing of his vegetable stand by police over failure to obtain a permit.
  • Bouazizi’s sacrificial act served as a catalyst for the so-called Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia.




What is the role of Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI)?

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About Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI):

  • Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in November 2003, constituted the Committee on Procedures and Performance Audit of Public Services under the Chairmanship of Shri S.S.Tarapore (former Deputy Governor).
  • It aimed to address the issues relating to availability of adequate banking services to the common person.
  • It is an independent banking industry watchdog that protects consumers of banking services in India.
  • The Committee was mandated to included identification of factors that inhibited the attainment of best customer services and suggesting steps to improve the quality of banking services to individual customers.
  • Committee concluded that there was an institutional gap for measuring the performance of banks against a bench mark reflecting the best practices (Code and Standards).
  • Therefore, the Committee recommended setting up of the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI).
  • BCSBI was set up to ensure that the common person as a consumer of financial services from the banking Industry is in no way at a disadvantageous position and really gets what he/she has been promised.
  • BCSBI was registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in February 2006.
  • It functions as an independent and autonomous
  • Membership of BCSBI is voluntary and open to scheduled banks.
  • Initially the membership of BCSBI was open to scheduled commercial banks and has now been extended to include Regional Rural Banks and select Urban Co-operative Banks.

Objectives of BCSBI:

  • To plan, evolve, prepare, develop, promote and publish comprehensive Codes and Standards for banks, for providing for fair treatment to their customers.
  • To function as an independent and autonomous body to monitor,
  • To ensure that the Codes and Standards adopted by banks are adhered to, in letter and spirit, while delivering services to their customers.
  • To conduct and undertake research of Codes and Standards currently in use around the world.
  • To enter into covenants with banks on observance of codes and standards and to train employees of such banks about the Codes.
  • To help people affected by natural calamities.

BCSBI codes:

  • BCSBI has in collaboration with the Indian Banks’ Association (IBA), evolved two codes:
    • Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers and
    • Code of Bank’s Commitment to Micro and Small Enterprises.
  • These codes set minimum standards of banking practices for member banks to follow when they are dealing with individual customers and micro and small enterprises.
  • These Codes are subject to periodical review and revision.
  • The central objective of these Codes is:
    • promoting good banking practices, setting minimum standards, increasing transparency, achieving higher operating standards and above all, promoting a cordial banker-customer relationship which would foster confidence of the common man in the banking system.

BCSBI Functions:

  • Undertakes campaigns and initiatives to spread awareness of the Codes amongst customers and banks
  • Provides faculty support to training establishments of banks
  • Participates in on-location workshops held by / for member banks to increase coverage
  • associates with customer awareness programmes conducted by Banking Ombudsmen
  • provides credit counselling services in Mumbai
  • publishes quarterly newsletter entitled ‘Customer Matters’, containing matters of interest to customers
  • It is not a forum for redressal of individual grievances, but it examines each compliant to identify any systemic issue that may exist and takes up the matter with the respective bank.
  • Thus, it ensures that systems and procedures are suitably amended so that such complaints do not recur.




What do you know about Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)?

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Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI):

  • The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) was set up on December 4, 1928 by a group of players at Delhi’s Roshnara Club.
  • It is a consortium of state cricket associations and the state associations select their representatives who in turn elect the BCCI officials.
  • It was established to end the British monopoly in cricket.
  • It has membership confined to:
    • Full Member:
      • Each State shall be represented by a state cricket association duly recognized by the BCCI and such associations shall be Full Members. No State shall have more than one Full Member at any given point of time.
    • Associate Member:
      • Any Existing Member (including an Existing Member who is not exercising the rights and privileges of a Full Member) shall be an Associate Member of the BCCI.
    • BCCI had 6 regional bodies as its first members. Today it has 30 full-time members and is worth Rs 3,308 crore.
    • Its arrangement with the International Cricket Council (ICC), the world’s cricket body, only makes it richer.
    • BCCI has adopted anti-doping rules to impose clear prohibitions and controls as part of the BCCI’s continuing effort to:
      • Maintain the integrity of the sport of cricket in India;
      • To protect the rights and health of all participants in the sport of cricket in India; and
      • To keep Indian cricket free from doping.
    • Each Full Member shall have one vote, to be exercised through its authorized Representative.
    • An Associate Member shall be entitled to participate in the General Body Meetings but shall not be entitled either to vote or have its representative elected to the Apex Council.

Other facts:

  • The Parsis were the first Indian civilian community to take to cricket.
  • Calcutta Cricket Club (what we know today as CC & FC) that was established in 1792, is the second-oldest cricket club in the world, after the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) England (1787).




What is Essential Commodities Act (ECA)? And what are its features?

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Essential Commodities Act (ECA):

  • The Essential Commodities Act (ECA) was enacted by the Central Government in 1955 to control and regulate trade and prices of commodities declared essential under the Act.
  • It aims to ensure the easy availability of essential commodities to consumers and to protect them from exploitation by unscrupulous traders.
  • The State Governments are fully empowered under the Act and are thus the implementing agencies to implement the EC Act, 1955 along with the Prevention of Black marketing & Maintenance of Supplies of Essential Commodities Act, 1980.
  • In case a state doesn’t want to accept the Centre’s suggestion on implementing any provision of the Act it can do so.
  • Food and civil supply authorities execute the provisions of the Act.
  • It ensures adequate availability of essential commodities at reasonable prices, by exercising powers delegated to them.
  • The list of essential commodities is reviewed periodically at the National level.
  • Currently, the restrictions like licensing requirement, stock limits and movement restrictions have been removed from almost all agricultural commodities.
  • Wheat, pulses and edible oils, edible oilseeds and rice are the exceptions, where States have been permitted to impose some temporary restrictions in order to contain price increase of these commodities.
  • The Central Government regularly monitors the action taken by State Governments/UT Administrations to implement the provisions of the Act.
  • In 2017 the NITI Aayog pitched for completely removing agriculture commodities from the Essential Commodities Act, and a shift towards organised trading wherein lower number of traders with enough capital will dominate the market.
  • This will reduce handling costs, bring economies of scale, reduce prices and increase returns for farmers.

Features of the Act:

  • The Act empowers the Central and state governments concurrently to control production, supply and distribution of certain commodities in view of rising prices.
  • The measures under the provision of the Act include, licensing, distribution and imposing stock limits.
  • The governments also have the power to fix price limits and selling the particular commodities above the limit will attract penalties.
  • Black marketing of essential commodities is controlled to a large extent.
  • The Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) and such other orders have been issued under the powers of the ECA.
  • The act will be maintaining/increasing supplies/securing equitable distribution and availability of these commodities at fair prices.
  • The Centre can include new commodities as and when the need arises and take them off the list once the situation improves.
  • It improves supplies and brings down prices.

The essential commodities in India are as follows:

  • Cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates.
  • Coal, including coke and other derivatives.
  • Components parts and accessories of automobiles.
  • Cotton and woollen textiles.
  • Foodstuffs, including edible oilseeds and oils.
  • Iron and Steel, including manufactured products of Iron & Steel.
  • Paper, including newsprint, paperboard and strawboard.
  • Petroleum and Petroleum products.
  • Raw Cotton, either ginned or unginned and cotton seed.
  • Raw Jute.
  • Jute textiles.
  • Fertilizer, whether inorganic, organic or mixed.
  • Yarn made wholly from cotton.
  • seeds of food crops and seeds of fruits and vegetables,
  • seeds of cattle fodder and
  • Jute seeds.




What is Gram Swaraj Abhiyan?

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About Gram Swaraj Abhiyan:

  • Gram Swaraj Abhiyaan is a campaign that was being organised on the occasion of Ambedkar Jayanti during the period 14th April to 05th May, 2018.
  • The campaign is undertaken under the name of “Sabka Sath, Sabka Gaon, Sabka Vikas”.
  • It is a high-intensity outreach programme to deliver welfare schemes to select villages which need particular attention.
  • The objective of the campaign is to:
    • promote social harmony,
    • spread awareness about pro-poor initiatives of government,
    • reach out to poor households to enroll them
    • obtain their feedback on various welfare programmes
    • focus on doubling farmers’ income,
    • enhance livelihood opportunities and re-emphasise national priorities such as cleanliness and
    • strengthen Panchayati Raj institutions.
  • The campaign is being held through a partnership of beneficiaries, 33 lakh elected PRIs members, 5 crore women SHG members, MLAs and MPs to achieve goals.
  • The Central/State and Local Governments are also partners in progress.
  • The themes of the programme were:
    • Health and family welfare
    • School and education
    • Agriculture
    • Skills
    • Nutrition
  • As a special endeavour during the Gram Swaraj Abhiyan, saturation of eligible households/persons would be made under seven flagship pro-poor programmes namely:
    1. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
    2. Saubhagya
    3. Ujala scheme
    4. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana
    5. Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
    6. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana and
    7. Mission Indradhanush.
  • The initiative aims for 100% coverage of these seven schemes.
  • It will benefit 17,000 poor villages by providing them free LPG connections, electricity supply, Jan Dhan accounts, two PM Insurance schemes and immunisation of children will be available in 21 days.
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