70 Days WAR Plan

Day#6 Static Flash Cards Physical & World Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Korea Strait; Productive Irrigation; Volga River; Rhine River; Seine River; Danube River; Plantation crops; 'Sunrise industries'; Pastoral farming; Nomadic herding; Geothermal energy; Black bucks & Chinkara; Open-cast mining and Shaft mining;
By IT's Core Team
March 27, 2019




What is Open-cast mining and Shaft mining? What is the advantage and disadvantage of Shaft mining?

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  • Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying. Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
  • Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.

Advantage and disadvantage of Shaft mining:

  • The advantage of shaft mining is that it goes deeper and gets out all the coal. The disadvantage of shaft mining is that it isn’t as environmentally friendly when you fill it in after all the coal is out. But it does keep the erosion of the mountain down.




Which community is famous for worldwide efforts to save Black bucks & Chinkara?

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  • The Bishnoi community of Rajasthan is known worldwide for their conservation efforts to blackbuck and Chinkara.

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About Black bucks:

  • The blackbuck also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India.
  • The blackbuck is a diurnal antelope (active mainly during the day).
  • The blackbuck inhabits grassy plains and slightly forested areas. Due to their regular need of water, they prefer areas where water is perennially available.
  • The black buck generally inhabits grassy plains; thinly forested areas and scrublands are good source of forage. They also like hot and humid conditions that persist in such areas for more than 8 months in the year.
  • It is found in Central- Western India (MP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Odisha) and Southern India (Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu).
  • In India, there are a few national parks and sanctuaries inhabited by blackbuck, like the Velavadar Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat and the Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary in Karnataka. However, there are not many conservation reserves exclusively dedicated to the antelope.
  • The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) lists the blackbuck as least concerned.
  • In India, hunting of blackbuck is prohibited under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
  • The blackbuck has significance in Hinduism; Indian and Nepali villagers do not harm the antelope.




What are the advantages and disadvantages of Geothermal energy?

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The slow decay of radioactive particles in the earth’s core, a process that happens in all rocks, produces geothermal energy.

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Geothermal energy

  • Geothermal energy, form of energy conversion in which heat energy from within Earth is captured.
  • Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because heat is continuously produced inside the earth.
  • People use geothermal heat for bathing, to heat buildings, and to generate electricity.

Geothermal energy use can be divided into three categories:

  • Direct-use applications,
  • Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), and
  • Electric power generation.


  • It can be extracted without burning a fossil fuel such as coal, gas, or oil.
  • Geothermal fields produce only about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a relatively clean natural-gas-fueled power plant produces.
  • Binary plants release essentially no emissions.
  • Unlike solar and wind energy, geothermal energy is always available, 365 days a year.
  • It’s also relatively inexpensive; savings from direct use can be as much as 80 percent over fossil fuels.
  • Geothermal energy can be used as an efficient heat source in small end-use applications such as greenhouses, but the consumers have to be located close to the source of heat.
  • The capital of Iceland, Reykjavik, is heated mostly by geothermal energy.
  • Geothermal energy has a major environmental benefit because it offsets air pollution that would have been produced if fossil fuels were the energy source.
  • Geothermal energy has a very minor impact on the soil – the few acres used look like a small light-industry building complex.
  • Since the slightly cooler water is reinjected into the ground, there is only a minor impact, except if there is a natural geyser field close by.


  • The main concern is the release of hydrogen sulfide, a gas that smells like rotten egg at low concentrations.
  • Another concern is the disposal of some geothermal fluids, which may contain low levels of toxic materials.
  • Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down.




Which activities are included in Pastoral farming?

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  • Activities included in Pastoral farming are dairy farming, raising beef cattle, and raising sheep for wool.

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Pastoral farming:

  • Pastoral farming is a form of agriculture aimed at producing livestock, rather than growing crops.
  • It is also known as ranching, livestock farming or grazing.
  • Examples include dairy farming, raising beef cattle, and raising sheep for wool. In contrast, arable farming concentrates on crops rather than livestock.
  • Pastoral farming is common in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Great Britain, Ireland, New Zealand, and the Western United States and Canada, among other places.
  • Pastoral farming is categorized in: Intensive farming and Extensive Farming.
  • Intensive agriculture can be seen in many places around the world, such as the Canterbury Plains of New Zealand, pig farming in Denmark and rice cultivation in the countries of South East Asia.

Nomadic herding

  • Nomadic herding is an ecological or near ecological system of agri­culture.
  • It is carried on mainly to produce food for the family and to fulfill the needs of clothing, shelter and recreation.
  • It is the simplest form of pastoralism.
  • The nomadic herders are dependent on sheep, cattle, goats, camels, horses and reindeers for their livelihood.
  • Herds composition varies from one region to another, but throughout the dry belt sheep and goats are the most common animals and cattle are the least common as they do not like hot and arid climates.
  • The arid and semiarid areas of the world, from the shores of At­lantic in Africa to the steppes of Mongolia, have been occupied by the pastoral nomads.
  • Nomadic herding, at present, is mainly concentrated in Saharan Africa (Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Libya, Algeria), the south western and central parts of Asia, the northern parts of the Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland) and northern Canada.

Though the nomadic herd­ing areas are well scattered in the different semiarid parts of the world, they can be classified into the following three regions:

  • Central Asia,
  • Southwest Asia and Northern Africa,
  • Tundra
  • Examples of extensive farming: The cattle ranches of central Australia are a good example of extensive agriculture.
  • Another example of extensive farming can be seen in the massive cattle ranches of Brazil.




What are sunrise industries? Give some examples of sunrise industries.

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‘Sunrise industries’

  • Sunrise industry is a colloquial term for a flourishing sector or business that is just in its infancy but shows promise of a rapid boom.
  • A sunrise industry is a new industry that is expanding rapidly and is expected to be increasingly important in the future.
  • A sunrise industry is typically characterized by high growth rates, numerous start-ups and an abundance of venture capital funding.
  • Sunrise industries generally have plenty of “buzz” surrounding them as public awareness about the sector increases and investors get attracted to its long-term growth prospects.

Examples of sunrise industries

  • IT industry of California and Bangalore
  • Hydrogen fuel production,
  • Petrochemical industry
  • Food processing industry,
  • Space tourism,
  • Online Encyclopaedias




What are the Plantation crops? Mention some of the Plantation crops.

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Plantation crops

  • Plantation crops are those crops, that are grown in an extensive scale in large contiguous areas and the produce can be utilized only after processing.
  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
  • The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry.
  • Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers.
  • All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc. are important plantation crops.
  • Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are some of the important plantation crops grown in these states.
  • Since the production is mainly for market, a well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets plays an important role in the development of plantations.
  • Characteristic features: large estates or plantations, large capital investment, managerial and technical support, scientific methods of cultivation, single crop specialisation, cheap labour, a good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products.
  • They are Cashew, Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Betel vine, Areca nut, Bamboo, and Cocoa. 




Which current passes through the Korea Strait?

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  • The Tsushima Current, which is a warm branch of the Kuroshio Current, passes through the Korea Strait.

Enrich Your Learning:

Korea Strait

Korea Strait map 70 d

  • The Korea Strait separates South Korea and Japan.
  • It connects the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea (West Sea) and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in the northwest Pacific Ocean.
  • The sea passage extends northeast from the East China Sea to the Sea of Japan.
  • Tsushima Island bisects the strait, dividing it into the Western and the Eastern Channel.
  • The Eastern Channel is commonly known as the Tsushima Strait.
  • The Korea Strait is bound in the north by the Korean Peninsula’s southern coast and to the south by the Japanese Islands of Honshu and Kyushu.
  • The Tsushima Current, which is a warm branch of the Kuroshio Current, passes through the Korea Strait.




Give brief introduction about the rivers: (a) Volga River (b) Rhine River (c) Seine River and (d) Danube River:

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(a) Volga River:

  • The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres.
  • It is also Europe’s largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin.
  • The river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia.
  • Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga’s drainage basin.

(b) Rhine River:

  • The Rhine is one of the longest and most important river in Europe. It runs for over 1,232 km from its source in the in the Swiss Alps (in Switzerland).
  • The Rhine flows through six countries -Switzerland, Principality of Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands before flowing into the North Sea at Rotterdam.
  • It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe after the Danube.
  • The River Rhine is called different names depending on the country it flows through. It is called Rhein in Germany; Rhine in France and Rijn in Netherlands.

(c) Seine River:

  • The Seine River is the second longest river flowing completely in France. The Seine is a 777 kilometres (483 miles) long river and is an important commercial waterway.
  • The source of River Seine is a village named Source-Seine, 30 kilometres (19 miles) northwest of Dijon in north eastern France.
  • The Seine River is one of the most navigable rivers in France, it has been a great commercial artery since Roman times.

(d) Danube River:

  • The Danube is Europe’s second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • It rises in the Black Forest mountain of western Germany and flows for some 1,770 miles (2,850 km) to its mouth on the Black Sea.
  • Along its course it passes through 10 countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine.
  • Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable. The river is also an important source of energy and drinking water.



In Productive Irrigation, Irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above rainfall. Right or Wrong?

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Answer: Right

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Protective Irrigation:

  • Productive Irrigation protects the crops from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency.
  • Irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above rainfall.
  • It provides soil moisture to maximum possible area. It provides soil moisture in the cropping season to achieve high productivity.
  • In such irrigation the water input per unit area of cultivated land is higher than protective irrigation.
  • Its productivity is high.
70 Days Prelims Flash Cards 2019

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