Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-60
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#60 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); ‘Red Sea’; Inter-Linking of Rivers (ILR) programme; ‘Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF)’; Nagarhole National Park; UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2018 report; Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5; Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016; Safeguard Duty; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO);
By IT's Core Team
May 20, 2019

 

 

 

What is the purpose of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?

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Answer:

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of countries from Europe and North America.
  • It is a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, 1949.
  • It was sought to create a counterweight to Soviet armies stationed in central and eastern Europe after World War II.
  • It is an alliance of 28 countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • It provides a unique link between these two continents, enabling them to consult and cooperate in the field of defence and security, and conduct multinational crisis-management operations together.
  • It has an active role in a broad range of crisis-management operations and missions, including civil emergency operations.
  • NATO is also cooperating with a wide network of international organisations.
  • The heart of NATO is expressed in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty (Washington Treaty), in which the signatory members agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.
  • But recent worry of member countries is that US President Trump’s criticism of NATO and praise of Russia’s leader, Vladimir Putin, mean they can no longer rely on the United States as an ally in case of attack.

Purpose of NATO:

  • NATO’s purpose is to protect the freedom of its members.
  • Its targets include weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and cyber-attacks.
  • To promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes.
  • If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations.
  • These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO’s founding treaty, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.

 

 

 

What are the functions of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)?

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Answer:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD):

  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a group of 34-member countries.
  • It was established on Dec. 14, 1960, by 18 European nations plus the United States and Canada.
  • It was previously established as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in 1948, to administer the predominantly U.S.-funded Marshall Plan for post-war reconstruction on the continent, in the after math of world war 2.
  • It is headquartered in the Chateau de la Muette in Paris, France.
  • It discusses and develop economic and social policy.
  • The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems.
  • It has expanded to include members from South America and the Asia-Pacific region.
  • It includes most of the highly developed economies.
  • its members are democratic countries that support free market economies.
  • It aims to foster economic development and cooperation; fighting poverty; and ensuring the environmental impact of growth and social development is always considered.
  • The organisation has dealt with the range of issue like raising the standard of living in member countries, contributing to the expansion of world trade and promoting economic stability.

Objectives:

  • Restore confidence in markets and the institutions that make them function.
  • Re-establish healthy public finances as a basis for future sustainable economic growth.
  • Foster and support new sources of growth through innovation, environmentally friendly ‘green growth’ strategies and the development of emerging economies.
  • Ensure that people of all ages can develop the skills to work productively and satisfyingly in the jobs of tomorrow.
  • To recommend policies designed to improve the quality of people’s lives.

Functions:

  • It analyses and reports on the impact of social policy issues such as gender discrimination on economic growth and makes policy recommendations designed to foster growth with sensitivity to environmental issues.
  • The organization also seeks to eliminate bribery and other financial crime worldwide.
  • The OECD publishes economic reports, statistical databases, analyses and forecasts on the outlook for economic growth worldwide.
  • To maintain a so-called “black list” of nations that are considered uncooperative tax havens.

 

 

 

In recent past, India has imposed a 25% safeguard duty on imported solar cells. What is the significance associated with this imposition of this “Safeguard Duty”?

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Answer:

Safeguard Duty:

  • Safeguard Duty is tariff barrier imposed by government on the commodities to ensure that imports in excessive quantities do not harm the domestic industry.
  • It is the duty payable on import of goods which is already being manufactured in India but cost of which is high compared to import price.
  • A WTO member may restrict imports of a product temporarily (take “safeguard” actions) if its domestic industry is injured or threatened with injury caused by a surge in imports.
  • It is imposed so that the Indian manufacturers do not suffer due to import of cheaper goods from outside.

Significance:

  • It is mainly temporary measure undertaken by government in defence of the domestic industry which is harmed or has potential threat getting harmed due to sudden cheap surge in imports.
  • They are used when imports of a particular product, as a result of tariff concessions or other WTO obligations undertaken by the importing country, increase unexpectedly to a point that they cause or threaten to cause serious injury to domestic producers of “like or directly competitive products”.
  • When imposed, a safeguard measure should be applied only to the extent necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and to help the industry concerned to adjust.
  • A safeguard measure should not last more than four years, although this can be extended up to eight years, subject to a determination by competent national authorities that the measure is needed and that there is evidence the industry is adjusting.
  • Safeguards give domestic producers a period of grace to become more competitive vis-à-vis imports.
  • It is seen as the brakes on the trade liberalisations.

 

 

 

Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016 was recently in news. What are the salient features of the bill? and why is it in controversy?

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Answer:

About Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016:

  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, was introduced in the Lok Sabha on July 15, 2016, and referred to a parliamentary committee.
  • It will make changes to the existing Citizenship Act 1955.
  • The Bill after been discussed in the Lok Sabha, was referred to a joint select committee in August 2016.
  • Presently the government plans to change the definition of illegal migrants in the 2016 bill.
  • The main objective is to provide citizenship to illegal migrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who are of Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, Sikh, Parsi or Christian who have entered the country without legal documentation or whose documents have expired.
  • However, the Act doesn’t have a provision for Muslim sects like Shias and Ahmediyas who also face persecution in Pakistan.
  • The idea is to make them eligible to apply for Indian citizenship.
  • The main aim is to help persons of Indian origin, including those from these minority communities in the three countries, who are unable to produce proof of their Indian origin while applying for citizenship by registration.
  • But naturalisation is their only means of acquiring citizenship, the government wants to reduce the residency requirement from 12 to seven years.
  • The long waiting period in the present law would deny them “opportunities and advantages” that accrue to citizens, even though they are likely to stay in India permanently.
  • The proposed amendment is that it enables cancellation of the registration of any Overseas Citizen of India cardholder for violation of Indian law.
  • The bill seeks to reduce the number of continuous years of stay in India needed to obtain citizenship by naturalisation from 11 to 6 years.

Who are illegal immigrants?

  • According to the Citizenship Act, 1955, an illegal immigrant is one who enters India without a valid passport or with forged documents. Or, a person who stays beyond the visa permit.

What was the controversy?

  • If the Bill is passed, these individuals will be eligible for citizenship by naturalisation.
  • Presently as per law citizenship by naturalisation requires applicants to have stayed in the country for 11 years of the previous 14 years, and throughout the last 12 months.
  • The proposed amendment reduces the residency requirement to six years, besides the last 12 months.
  • Opposition to the Bill is strong in Assam, where there is fear that non-Muslim migrants from Bangladesh will become Indian citizens.
  • The Bill is also seen as discriminatory as it does not cover Muslim sects fleeing persecution from dominant sections in these countries.
  • States sharing borders with Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan are likely to be affected.

Why in news?

  • The All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) on 3rd July 2018 demanded immediate withdrawal of the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016.
  • They were claiming that it was unconstitutional as it seeks to grant Indian citizenship only on the basis of religion.
  • This may violate Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees right to equality.
  • It was also criticised that it would nullify the updated National Register of Citizens (NRC), which is currently under way in Assam.

 

 

 

What do the Sustainable Development Goal 5 target?

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Answer:

About Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5:

  • Sustainable Development Goal 5 is to “achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”.
  • SDG 5 aims to eliminate all forms of discrimination and violence against women in the public and private spheres and to undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources and access to ownership of property.
  • It aims to:
    • Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
    • Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
    • Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
    • Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
    • Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
  • Making Every Women and Girl Count is a UN Women flagship programme that aims to bring about a radical shift in how gender statistics are used, created and promoted at the global, regional and national levels.

SDG and India:

  • Although India has achieved gender parity at the primary education level and is on track to achieve parity at all education levels, the proportion of seats in Parliament held by women had only reached 12% against the target of 50%.
  • India is also confronting the challenge of violence against women.
  • As an example, a baseline study revealed that in New Delhi, 92% of women had experienced some form of sexual violence in public spaces during their lifetime.
  • The Government of India has identified ending violence against women as a key national priority, which resonates with the Sustainable Development targets of the United Nations on gender equality.
  • The prime minister’s Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative aims at equal opportunity and education for girls in India.
  • In addition, specific interventions on female employment, programmes on the empowerment of adolescent girls, the Sukanya Samridhi Yojana on girl child prosperity and the Janani Suraksha Yojana for mothers advance India’s commitment to gender equality, and the targets of Goal 4.

Outcome of SDG 5:

  • About two thirds of countries in the developing regions have achieved gender parity in primary education
  • In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. By 2012, the enrolment ratios were the same for girls as for boys
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia, girls still face barriers to entering both primary and secondary school
  • Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector. The proportion of women in paid employment outside the agriculture sector has increased from 35 per cent in 1990 to 41 per cent in 2015
  • In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 per cent of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber

 

 

 

Mention key highlights of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2018 report

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Answer:

About UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG):

  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
  • The SDGs came into effect in January 2016, and they will continue to guide UNDP policy and funding until 2030.
  • There are 17 Goals build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals, while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities.
  • It works to improve life, in a sustainable way, for future generations.
  • They tackle the root causes of poverty and unite us together to make a positive change for both people and planet.

17 goals:

  • No Poverty
  • Zero Hunger
  • Good Health and Well-Being for People
  • Quality Education
  • Gender Equality
  • Clean Water and Sanitation
  • Affordable and Clean Energy
  • Decent Work and Economic Growth
  • Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
  • Reducing Inequalities
  • Sustainable Cities and Communities
  • Responsible Consumption and Production
  • Climate Action
  • Life Below Water
  • Life on Land
  • Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
  • Partnerships for the Goals

2018 report on SDG:

  • It was issued in May 2018 by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres.
  • It was the advanced yearly report on progress towards the SDGs.
  • The report is based on selected SDG indicators for which data were available.
  • The report titled, ‘Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals,’ is produced to inform the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF).
  • The global indicator framework used in the report was developed by the UN Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (IAEG-SDGs), and later adopted by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in July 2017.
  • The report provides an overview on the progress of 17 SDG’s.
  • Some of the SDGs’ 169 targets are not reflected in the report, due to lack of data or methodological development on their respective indicators.
  • The report stresses the need for quality, accessible, open, timely and disaggregated data, brought about through strengthened capacities of national statistical systems.

Highlights of the report:

  • A fast-changing climate, conflict, inequality, persistent pockets of poverty and hunger and rapid urbanization are challenging countries’ efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • The conflict and climate change were major contributing factors leading to growing numbers of people facing hunger and forced displacement, as well as curtailing progress towards universal access to basic water and sanitation services.
  • Goal 2 (zero hunger) reports that “after a prolonged decline, world hunger appears to be on the rise again,” and the prospect of ending hunger and malnutrition by 2030 has become more difficult.
  • There are now approximately 38 million more hungry people in the world, rising from 777 million in 2015 to 815 million in 2016.
  • The conflict is now one of the main drivers of food insecurity in 18 countries.
  • Goal 7 (affordable and clean energy), the report says ensuring access for all “has come one step closer,” and notes improvements in industrial energy efficiency.
  • The proportion of population with access to electricity has more than doubled between 2000 and 2016.
  • More people are leading better lives than they were just a decade ago.
  • The proportion of the world’s workers living with their families on less than 1.90 per person a day declined significantly over the past two decades, falling from 26.9 per cent in 2000 to 9.2 per cent in 2017.
  • The under-five mortality rate dropped by almost 50 per cent and in the least developed countries.
  • Rates of child marriage have continued to decline around the world. In Southern Asia, a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood has dropped by over 40 per cent between 2000 and 2017.
  • Nine out of 10 people living in cities breathe polluted air.
  • In 2016, the absolute number of people living without electricity dropped below the symbolic threshold of one billion.
  • Land degradation threatens the livelihoods of over one billion people.
  • In 2016, there were 216 million cases of malaria compared to 210 million cases in 2013 and close to 4 billion people were left without social protection in 2016.
  • Goal 13 (climate action), the report notes that 2017 was one of the three warmest years on record, and the world continues to experience rising sea levels, calling for countries implement their commitments under the Paris Agreement on climate change.

 

 

 

Nagarhole National Park is located in which Indian State?

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Answer:

About Nagarhole National Park:

  • Nagarhole National Park is also known as Rajiv Gandhi National Park. It is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka.
  • It was given the status of a National Park in 1983.
  • The park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghats spreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south towards Kerala state
  • It lies between the latitudes 12°15’37.69″N and longitudes 76°17’34.4″E.
  • It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • The park is filled with waterfalls, hills, valleys, streams, and The park is famous for its rich population of animals and birds.
  • Nagarhole national park has the highest density of herbivores in Asia. This park is best for spotting elephants, guar, tiger, and
  • It was declared the thirty-seventh Project Tiger, Tiger reserves of India in 1999.
  • The Nilgiri subcluster and the whole of Nagarhole park are under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.
  • The park has rich forest cover, small streams, hills, valleys, and The park has a healthy predator-prey ratio, with many tigers, Indian bison, and elephants.
  • The Jenu Kurubas, primary inhabitants of this forest area, are a tribe in Karnataka state.
  • There are threats like; Timber smuggling, Cattle disease, Poaching, Non-payment of forestry staff, Forest fire, Human-wildlife conflict and Human habitations.

Other parks located nearby Nagarhole National Park:

  • It is one of India’s premier Tiger Reserves along with the adjoining Bandipur Tiger Reserve and National park.
  • The Kabini reservoir separates the two parks.
  • Together with the adjoining Bandipur National Park, Mudumalai National Park, and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, it forms the largest protected area in Southern India.

 

 

 

What do you know about the ‘Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF)’?

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Answer:

About ‘Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF)’:

  • The New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants (New York Declaration) is a milestone for global solidarity and refugee protection.
  • It states that the protection of those who are forced to flee, and support for the countries that shelter them, are a shared international responsibility.
  • The New York Declaration calls upon UNHCR to develop and initiate the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF).
  • It is a milestone for global solidarity and refugee protection at a time of unprecedented displacement across the world.
  • The CRRF specifies key elements for a comprehensive response to any large movement of refugees that include:
    • rapid and well-supported reception and admissions;
    • support for immediate and on-going needs (e.g. protection, health, education);
    • assistance for local & national institutions and communities receiving refugees; and
    • expanded opportunities for solutions.
  • It was adopted by all 193 Member States of the United Nations in September 2016.
  • CRRF plays a significant role in the provision of long-term solutions for the refugees for peaceful and hassles free integration into the host communities.
  • The approach is built upon the idea that the refugees should gradually be included in the host communities.
  • If States take these commitments seriously, the numbers of people fleeing will decrease and the potential for durable solutions becomes more likely.
  • The framework envisions ensuring access to education and right to work legally to the refugees so that they become self-reliant, contribute to the local economy and develop their own skills.

Objectives:

  • Focus on the various elements and phases of displacement.
  • To address root causes of violence and armed conflict.
  • To work towards political solutions and the peaceful settlement of disputes.
  • To assist in reconstruction.
  • Ease pressure on countries that welcome and host refugees.
  • Build self-reliance of refugees.
  • Expand access to resettlement in third countries and other complementary pathways.
  • Foster conditions that enable refugees voluntarily to return to their home countries.
  • To support conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity.

 

 

 

What do you know about Inter-Linking of Rivers (ILR) programme?

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Answer:

About Inter-Linking of Rivers (ILR) programme:

  • The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a proposed large-scale civil engineering project that aims to effectively manage water resources in India by linking Indian rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals and so reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts of India.
  • The project has been split into three parts:
    • a northern Himalayan rivers inter-link component,
    • a southern Peninsular component and
    • an intrastate river linking component.
  • The project is being managed by India’s National Water Development Agency (NWDA), under its Ministry of Water Resources.
  • NWDA has studied and prepared reports on 14 inter-link projects for Himalayan component, 16 inter-link projects for Peninsular component and 37 intrastate river linking projects.

 

 

 

Which countries share borders with the ‘Red Sea’?

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Answer:

Rivar

  • Red Sea runs between the two continents Africa and Asia.
  • It is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean
  • Four African countries border the Red Sea on the western side, while two Asian countries in east.
  • The countries that border Red Sea are:
    1. Egypt to the west and north, and
    2. Sudan, Djibouti, and Eritrea to the west.
    3. Yemen and Saudi Arabia in East.
  • The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal).
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