Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-61
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#61 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Aditya-L1 mission; Eastern Himalayas; Biosphere Reserves in India; Gene Pyramiding; National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority in India; Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Bandhavgarh National Park; Pench National Park; Visible Light; Eutrophication; “Baryon asymmetry" problem; Water Molecules and Surface Tension;
By IT's Core Team
May 21, 2019

 

 

 

Density of steel is higher than of water. However, if you put a paper clip made of steel very gently on surface of water, it will not sink but rather float on water. What is the reason?

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Answer:

  • A paper clip made of steel can float on the water surface due to the high surface tension of water.

Enrich Your Learning:

Water Molecules and Surface Tension:

  • Water holds unique properties which makes it “sticky” at the surface. Each individual water molecule has one large oxygen atom and two smaller hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms hold a slightly positive charge, making the entire water molecule polar.
  • Like tiny magnets, the hydrogen atoms attract the oxygen atoms from other water molecules, creating temporary hydrogen bonds within the water.
  • Each water molecule experiences a pull from other water molecules from every direction, but water molecules at the surface do not have molecules above the surface to pull at them. These water molecules have more pull from the water below than the surface above. This difference in force packs the water molecules at the surface closer together than they are inside the liquid. The thin and dense layer of molecules produces the phenomenon called surface tension.
  • By attempting to move away from the water molecules, the hydrophobic ends of the detergent molecules push up to the surface. This weakens the hydrogen bonds holding the water molecules together at the surface. The result is a break in the surface tension of the water.
  • It was found that the surface tension increased linearly with an increase in the square of the magnetic field, the proportionality constant of which showed a marked isotope effect.

 

 

 

What is “Baryon asymmetry” problem?

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Solution:

  • During the Big Bang, cosmological model for the observable universe, large amount of equal matter and antimatter should have been created in the early universe. But today, everything on Earth is made almost entirely of matter.
  • In theory, there should be large amounts of antimatter, but the observable universe is mostly matter which is called “Baryon asymmetry” problem.

Solution:

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Antimatter?

  • Antimatter is the opposite of normal matter. The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. Antimatter and matter are actually the same, but have opposite charges.
  • The sub-atomic particles of antimatter have properties opposite those of normal matter. The electrical charge of those particles is reversed.
  • Matter is made up of atoms, which are the basic units of chemical elements such as hydrogen, helium or oxygen.
  • Each element has a certain number of atoms: Hydrogen has one atom; helium has two atoms; and so on.

Where is it?

  • Antimatter particles are created in ultra-high-speed collisions. In the first moments after the Big Bang, only energy existed. As the universe cooled and expanded, particles of both matter and antimatter were produced in equal amounts.

 

 

 

What are the effects of Eutrophication?

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Solution:

Effects of Eutrophication:

  • Abundance of particulate substances (phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacteria, fungi and debris) that determine the turbidity and colouration of the water;
  • Abundance of inorganic chemicals such ammonia, nitrites, hydrogen sulphide etc. That in the drinking water treatment plants induce the formation of harmful substances such as nitrosamines suspected of mutagenicity;
  • Abundance of organic substances that give the water disagreeable odours or tastes, barely masked by chlorination in the case of drinking water. These substances, moreover, form complex chemical compounds that prevent normal purification processes and are deposited on the walls of the water purifier inlet tubes, accelerating corrosion and limiting the flow rate;
  • The water acquires disagreeable odours or tastes (of earth, of rotten fish, of cloves, of watermelon, etc.) due to the presence of particular algae;
  • Disappearance or significant reduction of quality fish with very negative effects on fishing (instead of quality species such as trout undesirable ones such as carp become established);
  • Possible affirmation of toxic algae with potential damage to the population and animals drinking the affected water;
  • Prohibition of touristic use of the lake and bathing, due to both the foul odour on the shores caused by the presence of certain algae, as well as the turbidity and anything but clean and attractive appearance of the water; bathing is dangerous because certain algae cause skin irritation;
  • Reduction of oxygen concentration, especially in the deeper layers of the lake at the end of summer and in autumn.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

Eutrophication:

  • Eutrophication is an enrichment of water by nutrient salts that causes structural changes to the ecosystem such as: increased production of algae and aquatic plants, depletion of fish species, general deterioration of water quality and other effects that reduce and preclude use.
  • The cultural eutrophication process consists of a continuous increase in the contribution of nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus until it exceeds the capacity of the water body (i.e. the capacity of a lake, river or sea to purify itself), triggering structural changes in the waters.

These structural changes mainly depend on Three factors:

  1. Use of fertilisers: Agricultural practices and the use of fertilisers in the soil contribute to the accumulation of nutrients. When these nutrients reach high concentration levels and the ground is no longer able to assimilate them, they are carried by rain into rivers and groundwater that flow into lakes or seas.
  2. Discharge of waste water into water bodies: In various parts of the world, and particularly in developing countries, waste water is discharged directly into water bodies such as rivers, lakes and seas. The result of this is the release of a high quantity of nutrients which stimulates the disproportionate growth of algae.
  3. Reduction of self-purification capacity: Over the years, lakes accumulate large quantities of solid material transported by the water (sediments). These sediments are such as to able to absorb large amounts of nutrients and pollutants. Consequently, the accumulation of sediments starts to fill the basin and, increasing the interactions between water and sediment, the resuspension of nutrients present at the bottom of the basin is facilitated.

Effects:

  • Abundance of particulate substances (phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacteria, fungi and debris) that determine the turbidity and colouration of the water;
  • Abundance of inorganic chemicals such ammonia, nitrites, hydrogen sulphide etc. That in the drinking water treatment plants induce the formation of harmful substances such as nitrosamines suspected of mutagenicity;
  • Abundance of organic substances that give the water disagreeable odours or tastes, barely masked by chlorination in the case of drinking water. These substances, moreover, form complex chemical compounds that prevent normal purification processes and are deposited on the walls of the water purifier inlet tubes, accelerating corrosion and limiting the flow rate;
  • The water acquires disagreeable odours or tastes (of earth, of rotten fish, of cloves, of watermelon, etc.) due to the presence of particular algae;
  • Disappearance or significant reduction of quality fish with very negative effects on fishing (instead of quality species such as trout undesirable ones such as carp become established);
  • Possible affirmation of toxic algae with potential damage to the population and animals drinking the affected water;
  • Prohibition of touristic use of the lake and bathing, due to both the foul odour on the shores caused by the presence of certain algae, as well as the turbidity and anything but clean and attractive appearance of the water; bathing is dangerous because certain algae cause skin irritation;
  • Reduction of oxygen concentration, especially in the deeper layers of the lake at the end of summer and in autumn.

Control:

  • Improvement of the purifying performance of waste water treatment plants, installing tertiary treatment systems to reduce nutrient concentrations;
  • Implementation of effective filter ecosystems to remove nitrogen and phosphorus present in the run-off water (such as phyto-purification plants);
  • Reduction of phosphorous in detergents;
  • Rationalisation of agricultural techniques through proper planning of fertilisation and use of slow release fertilisers;
  • Use of alternative practices in animal husbandry to limit the production of waste water.

 

 

 

Visible light falls in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV).  True OR False

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Solution:

  • True

Enrich Your Learning:

Visible Light:

  • Visible light is defined as the wavelengths that are visible to most human eyes.
  • The different wavelengths of visible light are seen as the colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The longest wavelengths (around 700 nanometers) are red and the shortest wavelengths (380 nanometers) are violet.
  • EM radiation is transmitted in waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies. This broad range of wavelengths is known as the electromagnetic spectrum. That spectrum is typically divided into seven regions in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency. The common designations are radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), X-rays and gamma-rays.
  • Visible light falls in the range of the EM spectrum between infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV). It has frequencies of about 4 × 1014 to 8 × 1014 cycles per second, or hertz (Hz) and wavelengths of about 740 nanometers (nm) to 380 nm.

 visible

 

 

 

 

This National park is located in the Vindhya Hills. It beholds the largest breeding population of leopards and various species of deer. The park has been divided into three major zones named as Tala, Magdi and Bamera. Identify this National Park of India.

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Solution:

  • Bandhavgarh National Park

Enrich Your Learning:

Bandhavgarh National Park:

  • Bandhavgarh National Park is one of the wild life sanctuaries in the Indian state Madhya Pradesh.
  • It belongs to the Vindhyan mountain ranges of central India.
  • Declared as a national park in 1968, the Bandhavgarh National Park is spread across the area of 105 km.
  • The area of Bandhavgarh is being flourished with a large biodiversity, the place which is also being famed to grip highest density of tiger population in India.
  • Similarly, the park also beholds the largest breeding population of leopards and various species of deer and other animals like Nilgai, Chausingha, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar and a Fox or Golden Jackal.
  • This park has been divided into three major zones named as Tala, Magdi and Bamera out of which the Tala zone attracts major number of tourists. Elephant shows are also organized in Magdi zone.
  • It consists of mixed vegetations ranging from tall grasslands to thick Sal forest and so is the perfect habitat of variety of animals and birds.
  • Due to varied topography, the Bandhavgarh national park provides ample opportunity to spot the majestic Indian tiger and some rarely seen animals like leopard and sloth bear.

Pench National Park:

  • Pench National Park is located in the heart of India- Madhya Pradesh and covers a total area of 758 sq.km, which also shares a boundary with Maharashtra.
  • A treasure of rich flora and fauna, this national park has its area segregated in two divisions: Priyadarshini National Park and Mowgli Pench Sanctuary which covers an area of 299 sq.km and 464 sq.km which is considered as the buffer area.
  • The protected area is covered with small hills and well-stocked teak mixed forest in the southern reaches of the Satpura Ranges.
  • The national park is named after the river- Pench, which while flowing from north to south, divides the national park in almost equal halves namely eastern and western halves.
  • The park is just not home to wildlife but also to humans. There are 10 villages in and around the park out of which one is inside the park named Fulzari and other nine on the periphery.
  • The place is an abode of real Sher Khans (Bengal Tigers) accompanied by Chital, Jungle Cat, Wolf, Indian Leopard, Gaur, Four-horned Antelope, Sloth Bear and many other wildlife.
  • Also a great variety of birds like Crow Pheasant, Peafowl, Pintail, Lesser Whistling Teal, Indian Roller, Wagtail, Munia, Waterfowl, Blue Kingfisher, Crimson-Breasted Barbet, Red-Vented Bulbul are found here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

What do you know about Aditya-L1 mission?

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Answer:

  • Aditya-L1 is a spacecraft whose mission is to study the Sun. It has been designed and will be built in collaboration between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and various Indian research organizations.

Enrich Your Learning:

Aditya-L1 mission:

  • Aditya-L1 is a spacecraft whose mission is to study the Sun.
  • It was conceptualised by the Advisory Committee for Space Research in January 2008.
  • It has been designed and will be built in collaboration between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and various Indian research organizations and will be launched in first half of 2020.

Payloads and their science objectives:

Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC):

  • To study the diagnostic parameters of solar corona and dynamics and origin of Coronal Mass Ejections (3 visible and 1 Infra-Red channels); magnetic field measurement of solar corona down to tens of Gauss.

Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT):

  • To image the spatially resolved Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere in near Ultraviolet (200-400 nm) and measure solar irradiance variations.

Aditya Solar Wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX):

  • To study the variation of solar wind properties as well as its distribution and spectral characteristics.

Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA):

  • To understand the composition of solar wind and its energy distribution.

Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS):

  • To monitor the X-ray flares for studying the heating mechanism of the solar corona.

High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS):

  • To observe the dynamic events in the solar corona and provide an estimate of the energy used to accelerate the particles during the eruptive events.

Magnetometer:

  • To measure the magnitude and nature of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field.

 Swiss

 

 

 

The Indian Government constituted the National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority for the purpose of protecting the quality of environment under ‘Paris climate agreement’. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Right Statement:

  • The Central Government constituted the National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of environment under Kyoto Protocol.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority in India:

  • The Central Government constituted the National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of environment udner Kyoto Protocol.
  • It receives projects for evaluation and approval as per the guidelines laid down in the relevant rules pertaining to CDM in addition to the guidelines issued by the Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board and Conference of Parties serving as Meeting of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • The National Clean Development Mechanism Authority can recommend certain additional requirements to ensure that the project proposals meet the national sustainable development priorities.

Powers:

  • To invite officials and experts from Government, financial institutions, consultancy organizations, non-governmental organizations, civil society, legal profession, industry and commerce, as it may deem necessary for technical and professional inputs and may co-opt other members depending upon need.
  • To interact with concerned authorities, institutions, individual stakeholders for matters relating to CDM.
  • To take up any environmental issues pertaining to CDM or Sustainable Development projects as may be referred to it by the Central Government, and
  • To recommend guidelines to the Central Government for consideration of projects and principles to be followed for according host country approval.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) refers to a market mechanism for achieving greenhouse gas emissions reduction and is defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • It is one of the three market-based mechanisms set up under Kyoto Protocol, the other two being – Joint Implementation and emissions trading or commonly called as carbon trading.
  • CDM allows certified emission reduction (CER) (each equivalent to one tonne of CO2) generated from emission reduction projects to be used to meet a part of countries’ emissions reduction commitments.

 

 

 

What does the term Gene pyramiding refer to?

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Answer:

  • Gene pyramiding or stacking can be defined as a process of combining two or more genes from multiple parents to develop elite lines and varieties.

Enrich Your Learning:

Gene Pyramiding:

  • Gene pyramiding, which aims to assemble multiple desirable genes into a single genotype (genetic constitution of an individual organism), is a commonly used method in breeding for self-pollinated crops.
  • Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression.
  • Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to the development of genetic stocks and precise development of broad spectrum resistance capabilities.
  • The success of gene pyramiding depends upon several critical factors, including the number of genes to be transferred, the distance between the target genes and flanking markers, the number of genotype selected in each breeding generation, the nature of germplasm etc.

Objectives of gene pyramiding:

  • Enhancing trait performance by combining two or more complementary genes,
  • Remedying deficits by introgressing genes from other sources,
  • Increasing the durability.

Main factors affecting gene pyramiding:

  • Characteristics of the target traits/genes
  • Reproductive characteristics
  • A breeder’s capability to identify the ‘desired’ genotypes
  • Operating capital

Types of gene pyramiding 

  1. Conventional technique:

Serial gene pyramiding: Genes are deployed in same plant one after other     

  • Pedigree breeding
  • Backcross breeding
  • Recurrent selection
  1. Molecular technique Simultaneous gene pyramiding: Genes are deployed at a time in a single plant.
  • Marker assisted selection
  • Transgenic method

Disadvantages of conventional methods: 

  • Gene pyramiding is mainly used to improve qualitative traits such as disease and insect resistance. This is associated with the fact that the presence of target trait genes must be confirmed by phenotyping mostly at the individual level and that individual phenotypic performance is a good indicator of the genotype only if genes have a major effect on phenotypic performance and the error of phenotyping is minimal.
  • The phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism’s observable characteristics or traits, including its physical form and structure, its behaviour, and development process. Phenotyping is the process of predicting an organism’s phenotype using only genetic information.
  • In addition, to the reliability of phenotyping at individual level, other factors influencing the success of gene pyramiding are the inheritance model of the genes for the target traits, linkage and/or pleiotropism between the target trait and other traits.
  • For instance, allelic genes cannot be combined in the same genotype. The effect conferred by a recessive gene cannot be evaluated on heterozygous individuals and progeny testing is required.
  • If the target gene is tightly linked to genes with large negative effects on other traits, these undesirable genes may be transferred together with the target gene into the recipient line and result in reduced performance of other traits (linkage drag).

Advantages gene pyramiding:

  • Widely used for combining multiple disease resistance genes for specific races of a pathogen
  • Pyramiding is extremely difficult to achieve using conventional methods
  • Consider phenotyping a single plant for multiple forms of seedling resistance – almost impossible
  • Important to develop ‘durable’ disease resistance against different races
  • Main used to improve existing elite cultivar
  • Eliminates extensive phenotyping
  • Control linkage drag
  • Reduces breeding duration

 

 

 

In context of physical structure of biosphere, core zone prohibits any human settlement while Transition zone fills the gap between core zone and Buffer zone of biosphere. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Right Statement:

  • Core zone prohibits any human settlement while Buffer zone is located in between Core zone and Transition zone of biosphere.

Enrich Your Learning:

Characteristics of Biosphere Reserves in India:

The main characteristics of biosphere reserves are:

  • Achieving the three interconnected functions: conservation, development and logistic support;
  • Outpacing  traditional confined conservation zones, through appropriate zoning schemes where sustainable development is fostered by local dwellers and enterprises;
  • Focusing on a multi-stakeholder approach with particular emphasis on the involvement of local communities in management;
  • Fostering dialogue for conflict resolutionof natural resource use;
  • Integrating cultural and biological diversity, especially the role of traditional knowledge in ecosystem management;
  • Acting as sites of excellence for education and training;
  • Participating in the World Network.

Structure of Biosphere Reserve:

  • In order to undertake complementary activities of biodiversity conservation and development of sustainable management aspects, Biosphere Reserves are demarcated into three inter-related zones.
  • General overview of this zones are depicted in below picture.

Structure of Biosphere Reserve

Core Zone:

  • Core zone must contain suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including higher order predators and may contain centres of endemism.
  • Core areas often conserve the wild relatives of economic species and also represent important genetic reservoirs having exceptional scientific interest.
  • A core zone being National Park or Sanctuary/protected/regulated mostly under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Whilst realizing that perturbation is an ingredient of ecosystem functioning, the core zone is to be kept free from human pressures external to the system.

Buffer Zone:

  • The buffer zone, adjoins or surrounds core zone, uses and activities are managed in this area in the ways that help in protection of core zone in its natural condition.
  • These uses and activities include restoration, demonstration sites for enhancing value addition to the resources, limited recreation, tourism, fishing, grazing, etc; which are permitted to reduce its effect on core zone. Research and educational activities are to be encouraged.
  • Human activities, if natural within Biosphere Reserve, are likely to continue if these do not adversely affect the ecological diversity.

Transition Zone:

  • The transition area is the outermost part of a biosphere reserve.
  • This is usually not delimited one and is a zone of cooperation where conservation knowledge and management skills are applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the biosphere reserve.
  • This includes settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive recreation and other economic uses characteristics of the region.

 

 

 

Which Indian region is considered as ‘Cradle of Speciation’ due to its rich centre of primitive flowering plants?

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Solution:

  • Eastern Himalayas is considered as ‘Cradle of Speciation’ due to its rich centre of primitive flowering plants.

Enrich Your Learning:

Eastern Himalayas:

  • The Eastern Himalayas extend from the Kaligandaki Valley in central Nepal to northwest Yunnan in China, encompassing Bhutan, the North East Indian states and north Bengal hills in India, southeast Tibet and parts of Yunnan in China, and northern Myanmar.
  • The climate of this region is influenced by the monsoon of South Asia from June to September.
  • It is widely considered a biodiversity hotspot, with notable bio-cultural diversity.
  • The climate of the Eastern Himalayas is of a tropical montane ecosystem. The tropical rainforest climate is hot and wet all year round, with no dry season in the foothills as per the Koppen Climate Classification System (Af), and chilly winters mainly on higher elevations.

Flora:

  • At least 55 flowering plants endemic to this area are recognized as rare, for example, the pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana).
  • The area is recognized as ‘Cradle of Speciation’ due to its rich centre of primitive flowering plants.
  • The area is also rich in wild relatives of plants of economic significance, e.g. rice banana, citrus, ginger, chilli, jute and sugarcane.
  • The region is regarded as the centre of origin and diversification of five palms of commercial importance namely, coconut, arecanut, palmyra palm, sugar palm and wild date palm.
  • Tea (Thea sinensis) is reported to be in cultivation in this region for the last 40,000 years. Many wild and allied species of tea, the leaves of which are used as substitute of tea, are found growing in the North East in the natural habitats.
  • The ‘taxol’ plant Taxus wallichiana is sparsely distributed in the region and has come under red data category due to its over exploitation for extraction of a drug effectively used against cancer.

Fauna:

  • As regards faunal diversity, 63% of the genera of land mammals in India are know from this area.
  • During the last four decades, two new mammals have been discovered from the region: Golden Langur from Assam – Bhutan region, and Namdapha flying squirrel from Arunachal Pradesh indicating the species richness of the region.
  • More than 60% of the Indian birds are recorded in the North East. The region also has two endemic genera of lizards, and 35 endemic reptilian species, including two turtle. Of the 204 Indian amphibians, at least 68 species are known from North East, 20 of which are endemic.
  • From Namdapha National Park itself, a new genus of mammal, a new subspecies of bird, 6 new species of amphibia, four new species of fish, at least 15 new spcies of beetles and 6 new species of flies have been discovered.
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