Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-63
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#63 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Western Hoolock gibbon; Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR); Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2; ‘UN Resolution 2427’; Madrid International Plan of Action; ‘Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA)’; Krishi Kalyan Abhiyaan; Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS); CAPI technique; DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill 2018; Short Tandem Repeat (STR);
By IT's Core Team
May 23, 2019

 

 

 

What is a Short Tandem Repeat?

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Answer:

About Short Tandem Repeat (STR):

  • A Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.
  • STRs are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including humans.
  • They appear scattered more or less evenly throughout the human genome, accounting for about 3% of the entire genome.
  • It represents intron polymorphism among individuals that occur frequently in the human genome.
  • STR analysis is an informative approach to genetic identification and is commonly associated with DNA testing in forensic laboratories, paternity disputes or missing persons cases.
  • There are many other uses for STR analysis, such as verifying tissue sample origins, authenticating cell lines, detecting tissue or cell mixtures, determining twin zygosity and tracking genetic mutations in research studies of diseases such as cancer.
  • Researchers use it to verify the origin of biological samples, detect sample contamination and track genetic changes.

 

 

 

What are the significant features of DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill 2018?

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Answer:

Background:

  • The utility of DNA based technologies for solving crimes, and to identify missing persons, is well recognized across the world.
  • Forensic DNA profiling is of proven value in solving cases involving offences that are categorized as affecting the human body (such as murder, rape, human trafficking, or grievous hurt), and those against property (including theft, burglary, and dacoity).
  • According to the statistics of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) for 2016, there are more than 3 lakh such cases per year but very small number of such cases is subjected to DNA testing at present.

About the bill and its significance:

  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister has approved “The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill 2018”.
  • It is also known as DNA Profiling Bill 2018.
  • It allows law enforcement agencies to collect DNA samples, create “DNA profiles” and special databanks for forensic-criminal investigations.
  • It creates DNA Profiling Board (DPB) that will be final authority that will authorise creation of State-level DNA databanks, approve the methods of collection and analysis of DNA-technologies.
  • It aims for expanding the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support and strengthen the justice delivery system of the country.
  • It provides for the mandatory accreditation and regulation of DNA laboratories.
  • It seeks to ensure that with the proposed expanded use of this technology will ensure that the DNA test results are reliable, and the data remain protected from misuse or abuse in terms of the privacy rights of our citizens.
  • It will also ensure speedier justice delivery and increased conviction rate.
  • It will enable the cross-matching between persons who have been reported missing on the one hand and unidentified dead bodies found in various parts of the country on the other, and also for establishing the identity of victims in mass disasters.
  • It will set in place, an institutional mechanism to collect and deploy DNA technologies to identify persons based on samples collected from crime scenes or for identifying missing persons.
  • It allows government to set up DNA data banks across India to store profiles.
  • These banks will maintain national database for identification of victims, accused, suspects, undertrials, missing persons and unidentified human remains.
  • It also empowers government to impose jail term of up to 3 years and fine of up to Rs. 1 lakh on those who leak information stored in such facilities.
  • It prescribes similar punishment for those who seek information on DNA profiles illegally.

 

 

 

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) is launched by? What is it used for? And why was it in news?

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Answer:

About Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS):

  • National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) under the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MOSPI) is responsible to conduct Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS).
  • NSSO is responsible for the formulation of sampling design, data collection, data processing and publication of reports.
  • This survey has been launched across India in April 2017.
  • It replaces the NSSO’s Employment Unemployment surveys.
  • It generates the indicators of labour market operations using two approaches:
    • Usual Status (US) approach (for both rural and urban areas) and
    • Current Weekly Status (CWS) approach (for urban areas only).
  • PLFS is a continuous/regular survey for generating estimates of various labour force indicators on quarterly basis for urban areas and annual basis for both rural and urban areas, at State/UT and all-India level.
  • Standing Steering Committee of NSSO on IT has been constituted to facilitate switching over from the paper schedule, being used for collection of data in its regular socio-economic surveys, to digital methods & tools.
  • The statistics ministry plans to share labour force data from urban centres on a quarterly basis while numbers on rural India’s workforce would come out every year.
  • The survey is done using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) technique, which involves direct entry of data in tablets at the field level.
  • At present, the only employment data available is through National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) surveys which are done once every five years.

Usage of PLFS:

  • The survey is aimed at providing annual estimates of labour force, employment, unemployment, industry structure of workforce, nature of employment and wages nationally and regionally on an annual basis.
  • It enables effective monitoring of the labour market and to obtain employment data at shorter intervals.
  • It gives periodic, adequate and reliable data on various aspects of labour market of the country.
  • It provides critical input to the planners and policymakers both within the government and outside.
  • It will measure quarterly changes in urban employment and annual changes in employment in both rural and urban areas.

What is CAPI technique?

  • World Bank CAPI software (Survey Solutions) has been partially adapted to the Indian requirement.
  • Data for PLFS will be collected in the field using Tablets with the help of CAPI software.
  • A significant part of data validation will be an in-built process of the CAPI.
  • CAPI software also offers effective management of survey operations through its set of survey management tools.
  • All these features of CAPI software (Survey Solutions) will help in the collection of quality data and reduce time taken in data transfer and processing thereby enabling faster release of survey results.

 

 

 

What are the salient features of Krishi Kalyan Abhiyaan?

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Answer:

About Krishi Kalyan Abhiyaan:

  • Krishi kalyan Abhiyaan is launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare in line with the Prime Minister’s vision of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.
  • It will take place from 1st June, 2018 till 31st July, 2018.
  • The initiative will aid, assist and advice farmers on how to improve their farming techniques and raise their incomes.
  • It will be undertaken in 25 Villages with more than 1000 population each in Aspirational Districts identified in consultation with Ministry of Rural Development as per directions of NITI Ayog.
  • In districts where number of villages (with more than 1000 population) is less than 25, all villages will be covered.
  • An Action Plan comprising specifically identified activities under various departments of the ministry will be implemented to saturate these 25 villages in each district with these activities. These are:
    • Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW),
    • Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries (DAHD&F) and
    • Department of Agricultural Research & Education (DARE-ICAR)
  • There will be Krishi Vigyan Kendra in each district for the coordination and implementation in the 25 villages of those district.
  • Women participants and farmers will be given preference for the training program.

Activities of the action plan:

  • Distribution of Soil Health Cards to all farmers
  • 100% coverage of bovine vaccination for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in each village
  • 100% coverage of Sheep and Goat for eradication of Peste  des Petits ruminants (PPR )
  • Distribution of Mini Kits of pulses and oilseeds to all
  • Distribution of Horticulture/Agro Forestry/Bamboo plant @ 5 per family(location appropriate)
  • Making 100 NADAP Pits in each village
  • Artificial insemination saturation
  • Demonstration programmes on Micro- irrigation
  • Demonstrations of integrated cropping practice

 

 

 

The ‘Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA)’ is an initiative of which country?

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Answer:

  • WGIA is an initiative of Government of Japan

Background:

  • Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), all parties are required to develop and report their national inventories of greenhouse gases (GHG).
  • These GHG inventories provide information on trends in GHG emissions and removals.
  • This will allow policy makers to adopt measures to reduce emissions and increase removals more effectively and reliably.

About ‘Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA)’:

  • To improve the accuracy of GHG inventories in the Asia region, the Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA) has been organized since 2003.
  • It is organized under the support of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.
  • It aims to provide an opportunity for countries in the region to cooperate and share information and experience related to the development of GHG inventories.
  • Participants of the workshops include:
    • researchers and government officials engaged in preparing GHG inventories and
    • experts from relevant international organizations.
  • It is held annually in principle, and continually contribute to capacity building in GHG inventory preparation.
  • Collaboration with other projects related to climate change will be enhanced.
  • Such efforts will contribute towards meeting the requirements towards enhanced reporting and transparency as required under the Convention and its Paris Agreement.
  • 15 countries including Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam are WGIA members and around 100 GHG inventory experts from these countries participated.
  • Representatives from UNFCCC, IPCC, FAO and other specialized agencies also participated in the event.

Why in news?

  • Union Minister of Environment, Forest & Climate Change inaugurated the 16th Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA16) on 11th July 2018.
  • India is hosting WGIA for the first time.
  • The action on climate change is a moral and ethical responsibility of India to achieve its obligations as per Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) principles.

 

 

 

What is Madrid International Plan of Action known for?

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Answer:

About Madrid International Plan of Action:

  • The Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and the Political Declaration was adopted at the Second World Assembly on Ageing in April 2002.
  • It marks a turning point in how the world addresses the key challenge of “building a society for all ages”.
  • It offers a bold new agenda for handling the issue of ageing in the 21st-century.
  • It focuses on three priority areas:
    1. Older persons and development;
    2. Advancing health and well-being into old age; and
    3. Ensuring enabling and supportive environments.
  • It is a resource for policymaking, suggesting ways for Governments, non-governmental organizations, and other actors to reorient the ways in which their societies perceive, interact with and care for their older citizens.
  • It represents the first time Governments agreed to link questions of ageing to other frameworks for social and economic development and human rights, most notably those agreed at the United Nations conferences and summits of the past decade.

 

 

 

‘UN Resolution 2427’ deals with?

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Answer:

About ‘UN Resolution 2427’:

  • Resolution 2427 deals with Strengthen Protections for Children in Armed Conflict.
  • The Security Council Seeks to Strengthen Protections for Children in Armed Conflict, Unanimously by Adopting Resolution 2427.
  • The resolution was adopted on 9th July 2018.
  • It is aimed at further crystalizing the protection of children in armed conflicts, including by combating their recruitment by non-State armed groups and treating formerly recruited children primarily as victims.
  • The resolution strongly condemns recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts as well as their re-recruitment, killing and rape, maiming and other forms of sexual violence and abductions.
  • It also condemns attacks against schools and hospitals and denial of humanitarian access by parties to armed conflict and all other violations of international law committed against children in situations of armed conflict.
  • It emphasizes responsibility of all states to put end to impunity and investigate and prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other egregious crimes perpetrated against children.
  • It also stresses importance of long-term and sustainable funding for mental health and psychosocial programming in humanitarian contexts and ensuring all affected children receive timely and sufficient support and encourage donors to integrate mental health and psychosocial services in all humanitarian responses.

 

 

 

Which Article of the Directive principles of the State Policy of the Constitution of India relates with SDG goal 2? And what is SDG Goal 2?

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Answer:

  • Article 47 relates with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2.

About Article 47:

  • Article 47 of The Constitution of India is one of the Directive Principles (Part IV).
  • It directs the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health as among its primary duties.
  • The State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health.

About Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2:

  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
  • SDG 2 states about Zero Hunger.
  • It states that End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
  • It aims to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030.
  • It also commits to universal access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food at all times of the year.
  • It can be accomplished by doubling agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, by ensuring sustainable food production systems, and by progressively improving land and soil quality.
  • Other targets deal with maintaining genetic diversity of seeds, increasing access to land, preventing trade restriction and distortions in world agricultural markets to limit extreme food price volatility, eliminating waste with help from the International Food Waste Coalition, and ending malnutrition and undernutrition of children.
  • A report by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) of 2013 stated that the emphasis of the SDGs should not be on ending poverty by 2030, but on eliminating hunger and under-nutrition by 2025.

Sustainable Development Goals:

  1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  2. End hunger achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
  3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
  4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
  9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
  10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
  11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
  14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
  15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

 

 

 

What is Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)?

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Answer:

About Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR):

  • The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) provides a snapshot of the universe at a time only 380,000 years after the Big Bang.
  • It is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
  • The well-understood dynamics of the CMB enable precise calculation of its observable features, and directly connect new measurements to fundamental physics.
  • It makes the CMB one of the most powerful pieces of evidence that we live in a geometrically flat universe, dominated by non-baryonic cold dark matter and dark energy.
  • The next frontier of CMB research is to extract the wealth of cosmological information available from its polarization.

 

 

 

Where is Western Hoolock gibbon found in India? And under which category it has been classified as per IUCN Red List?

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Answer:

About Western Hoolock gibbon:

  • Western Hoolock gibbon is a primate from the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.
  • It is found in all the states of the north-east, restricted between the south of the Brahmaputra river and east of the Dibang river.
  • Outside India it is found in eastern Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar.
  • Overall, it is found in 30 protected areas in India (Choudhury 2001) and many others throughout its range.
  • They feed mostly on various fruits, with some leaves, flowers and insects.
  • This species is listed on CITES Appendix 1 and Schedule 1 of the Indian (Wildlife) Protection Act 1972.
  • The species has been declining due to habitat destruction of various forms, fragmentation, human interference and hunting for meat.
  • With long and slender arms, hoolock gibbons are swift creatures, barely needing to step on the ground.
  • They swing from tree to tree in a mode of locomotion known as Brachiation.
  • They can brachiate at speeds up to 55 km/hr, covering up to six meters in just one swing.
  • Enhancing protection for the species, the Government of Assam upgraded the status of the Hoollongapar Reserve Forest in the Jorhat District of Assam to a Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary in 1997, making this the first Protected Area ever named after a primate species.

IUCN Category of Western Hoolock gibbon:

  • It is listed as Endangered by IUCN Red list.
  • The species has declined by at least 50% over the past 40 years (approximately three generations) due primarily to hunting and habitat loss.
  • Over the coming 40 years, this decline is likely to reach similar proportions due to continuing habitat loss.
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