Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revkision-Day-63
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#63 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Brow-antlered deer; Warsaw REDD+ framework; National REDD+ Strategy; Sounding Rockets; Pondicherry Shark; Aurora Borealis; Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme; Polar Cusps; Cool Coalition; Ku vs Ka Band; National Supercomputing Mission;
By IT's Core Team
May 23, 2019

 

 

 

National Supercomputing Mission will be implemented by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) over a period of seven years. True OR False.

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Solution:

True

  • Four supercomputers from India in Top 500 list

Enrich Your Learning:

National Supercomputing Mission:

  • National Supercomputing Mission is a proposed plan by Government of India to create a cluster of seventy supercomputers connecting various academic and research institutions across India.
  • The Mission would be implemented and steered jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) at an estimated cost of Rs.4500 crore over a period of seven years.

Mission:

  • The Mission envisages empowering our national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.
  • These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the National Knowledge Network (NKN).

Objective:

  • To make India one of the world leaders in Supercomputing and to enhance India’s capability in solving grand challenge problems of national and global relevance.
  • To empower our scientists and researchers with state-of-the-art supercomputing facilities and enable them to carry out cutting-edge research in their respective domains.
  • To minimize redundancies and duplication of efforts, and optimize investments in supercomputing.
  • To attain global competitiveness and ensure self-reliance in the strategic area of supercomputing technology.

Application areas:

  • Climate Modelling
  • Weather Prediction
  • Aerospace Engineering including CFD, CSM, CEM
  • Computational Biology
  • Molecular Dynamics
  • Atomic Energy Simulations
  • National Security/ Defence Applications
  • Seismic Analysis
  • Disaster Simulations and Management
  • Computational Chemistry
  • Computational Material Science and Nanomaterials
  • Discoveries beyond Earth (Astrophysics)
  • Large Complex Systems Simulations and Cyber Physical Systems
  • Big Data Analytics
  • Finance
  • Information repositories/ Government Information Systems

 

 

 

Which animal is the state animal of Manipur?

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Solution:

Brow-antlered deer

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Brow antlered deer:

  • It is also known as Sangai, thamin or Dancing Deer.
  • It is State animal of Manipur and listed in Schedule-1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The brow-antlered deer is found in Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur.
  • It is largely seen over the floating biomass of the Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur locally called “phumdi” in the South Eastern part of Loktak Lake inside the park.

Characteristics:

  • Sangai is a medium-sized deer, with uniquely distinctive antlers, with extremely long brow tine, which form the main beam.
  • The forward protruding beam appears to come out from the eyebrow. This signifies its name, brow-antlered deer.
  • The sexes are moderately dimorphic in body size and weight.
  • The tail is short and rump patch is not pronounced.
  • It has a dark reddish brown winter coat, which turns paler in summer.
  • The deer walks on the hind surface of its pasterns with mincing hops over floating foliage, and is hence also called the Dancing Deer.
  • It is listed as Endangered in IUCN List.

 

 

 

In context of satellite communication, what are the difference between Ku and Ka Bands?

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Solution:

  • Ku

Enrich Your Learning:

Ku vs Ka Band

  • As the more established technology platform, Ku is currently available in more regions around the world.

What is band?

  • The “band” in use refers to the radio frequencies used to and from the satellite: L-band uses frequencies in the 1 to 2GHz range.

What is Ku band used for?

  • “Ku band is primarily used for satellite communications, most notably for fixed and broadcast services, and for specific applications such as NASA’s Tracking Data Relay Satellite used for both space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) communications.
  • Ku-band utilises approximately 12-18GHz, segment of the electromagnetic spectrum.

What is Ka band used for?

  • The 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellite uplinks in either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands, and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes.
  • Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement.
  • Ka-band services use the 26.5-40GHz segment of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Important Facts:

  • Ka-band can offer greater throughput than similar sized Ku systems.
  • This is perfectly suited for customers on the move, and in other applications where terminal size and weight are important factors in making purchasing decisions, such as with military or media organisations.

 

 

 

Recently, the Global Cool Collation was formed to accelerate action on the transition to clean and efficient cooling. This coalition was launched at?

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Answer:

  • The first-ever global coalition on clean and efficient cooling was launched at the First Global Conference on Synergies between the 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement, which concluded in April, 2019, in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Cool Coalition:

  • The first-ever global coalition on clean and efficient cooling was launched at the First Global Conference on Synergies between the 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement, which concluded in April, 2019, in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Cool Coalition aims to inspiring ambition, mobilizing action, and accelerating progress toward UN 2019 Climate Change Summit.
  • As global temperatures rise and the growing energy demands of air conditioning threaten to emit more greenhouse gases.
  • It is supported by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program and Sustainable Energy for All (seforall). It includes government officials from Chile, Rwanda, Denmark as well as leaders from civil society, research and academia.
  • The Cool Coalition offers a three-in-one opportunity to cut global warming, improve the lives

of hundreds of millions of people and make huge financial savings.

  • The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol started phasing down these gases, known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This amendment can deliver almost 0.4°C of avoided warming from addressing these gases alone.
  • The Cool Coalition join forces and take actions towards cleaner and more sustainable cooling.

 

 

 

What do you know about Polar Cusps?

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Solution:

  • Interplanetary magnetic field

Enrich Your Learning:

Polar Cusps

What is the polar cusp?

  • At almost any location near the surface of the magnetopause, the Earth’s magnetic field provides a natural barrier to the solar wind particles. However, there are two regions, located above each pole, where solar wind particles have a direct access to the Earth’s ionosphere. These regions are known as the polar cusp.
  • The polar cusp is a region in which the magnetosheath plasma has direct access to the ionosphere.

What is Magnetopause?

  • The interaction between the solar wind and the earth’s vacuum dipole field leads to the formation of a discontinuity called the magnetopause.

 

 

 

Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme to increase the number and range of rhinos is an initiative of which state government?

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Solution:

Assam

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Rhino Vision 2020:

  • The Indian Rhino Vision 2020 (IRV 2020) programme was launched by the Assam Forest Department in partnership with WWF-India, the International Rhino Foundation and US Fish & Wildlife Service in 2005.
  • It aims at increasing the number and range of rhinos in Assam through wild-to-wild translocations from Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to potential Protected Areas including Manas National Park, Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary, Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, and Dibru-Saikhowa National Park. 
  • Rhinos were common in the Burachapori complex till the 1980s, but were exterminated in the mid ’80s due to several factors including poaching and social unrest in the region. The park was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1995.
  • A specially designed rhino holding enclosure – called ‘boma’ – has been constructed to ensure that the translocated rhinos receive highest protection in their new home.

 

 

 

What causes the ‘Aurora’ around the North Pole which is also called the Aurora borealis or ‘northern lights’?

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Answer:

  • When charged particles from the sun strike atoms in Earth’s atmosphere, they cause electrons in the atoms to move to a higher-energy state.
  • When the electrons come back to a lower energy state, they release a photon: light. This process creates the aurora, or northern lights.
  • These particles, mainly electrons and protons, precipitate into the upper atmosphere.
  • In nutshell, Auroras are the result of disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by solar wind.

Enrich Your Learning:

Aurora Borealis

  • Auroras are the result of disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by solar wind.

Important Facts:

  • An aurora around the North Pole is called the Aurora borealis or ‘northern lights’.
  • Around the South Pole it is the Aurora australis or ‘dawn of the south’ or ‘southern lights’.
  • It can be seen from long distances, stretching in the sky many hundreds of miles far.
  • Auroras are the result of disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by solar wind.
  • These disturbances are regularly strong enough to alter the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma.
  • Most auroras occur in a band known as the “auroral zone”, which is typically 3° to 6° wide in latitude and between 10° and 20° from the geomagnetic poles at all local times (or longitudes), most clearly seen at night against a dark sky.
  • Aurora Borealis is a natural light display in the Earth’s sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
  • Appearing in many forms from patches or scattered clouds of light to streamers, arcs, curtains or shooting rays, the northern lights’ amazing light display can be observed in the sky of high latitude regions such as Norway or Canada.

 

 

 

What do you know about Pondicherry Shark?

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Answer& Enrich your learning:

  • The Pondicherry shark was once found throughout IndoPacific coastal waters, from India and possibly extending to the Gulf of Oman into Southeast Asia, and is known to enter fresh water.
  • It may also be found in rivers such as the Hooghli River and Saigon River.

Enrich Your Learning:

Pondicherry shark:

  • The Pondicherry shark, or Long-Nosed shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon) is an extremely rare species of requiem shark belonging to the Carcharhinidae family.
  • The Pondicherry shark was once found throughout IndoPacific coastal waters, from India and possibly extending to the Gulf of Oman into Southeast Asia, and is known to enter fresh water.
  • It may also be found in rivers such as the Hooghli River and Saigon River.
  • There are no conservation measures in place for these harmless creatures, and if still alive, may be subject to commercialized fisheries.
  • The IUCN Red list lists this shark as critically endangered.

 

 

 

What are Sounding Rockets?  Where are they used?

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Solution:

  • To carry instruments from 30 to 90 miles

Enrich Your Learning:

Sounding Rocket (Probe Rockets)

  • A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
  • Sounding rockets are one or two stage solid propellant rockets used for probing the upper atmospheric regions and for space research.
  • They also serve as easily affordable platforms to test or prove prototypes of new components or subsystems intended for use in launch vehicles and satellites.
  • The basic elements of a sounding rocket are a solid-fuel rocket motor and a science payload
  • Sounding rockets made it possible to probe the atmosphere in situ using rocket-borne instrumentation.
  • The rockets are used to carry instruments from 30 to 90 miles (48 to 145 km) above the surface of the Earth.
  • The first sounding rocket launched from Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala on 21 November 1963.

Advantages of Sounding Rocket:

  • They are Advantageous for some research because of their low cost, short lead time and their ability to conduct research in areas inaccessible to either balloons or satellites.
  • They are also used as test beds for equipment that will be used in more expensive and risky orbital spaceflight missions.
  • The smaller size of a sounding rocket also makes launching from temporary sites possible allowing for field studies at remote locations, and even in the middle of the ocean, if fired from a ship.

 

 

 

 

What were the decisional outcomes of the REDD+ framework?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

Warsaw REDD+ framework:

Conference of the parties (COP) 19, held in November 2013 in Warsaw, Poland, adopted the 7 decisions of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+.

  1. Results-based finance:
  • This is an approach where payments are made after communities establish that they have reduced emissions by protecting forests.
  • The funds, provided to developing countries, should be new, additional and predictable, emerging from a variety of sources such as public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources.
  • It also calls for the Green Climate Fund to play a key role to collectively channel adequate and predictable funds, and lays down rules for developing countries seeking to obtain and receive results-based payments
  1. Monitoring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) rules:
  • Under the MRV rules, any project would be measured against the forest reference emission levels expressed in tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year.
  • Countries must report this in their biennial updates to UNFCCC. Verification would be done by a team of technical experts with representation from developed and developing countries
  1. Coordination:
  • The decision on coordination requires countries to set up a national entity or a focal point to coordinate with the UNFCCC Secretariat and the Subsidiary Body on Implementation, a technical body under the UNFCCC, and support the implementation of project activities.
  1. National monitoring:
  • The decision also outlines, among other things, that development of national forest monitoring systems for the biennial monitoring and reporting requirements should be guided by the most recent IPCC guidelines.
  1. Safeguards:
  • Developing countries are required to provide a summary of information on how all the safeguards knowledge and rights of indigenous people and local communities, their full and effective participation, conservation of natural forests and biodiversity and no conversion of natural forests, for instance are addressed throughout the implementation of the activities.
  1. Reference emission levels:
  • Developing countries can voluntarily submit reference emission levels, and gives out the scope and procedure for technical assessment of the emission levels after they are submitted, including the composition of the assessment team.
  1. Drivers of deforestation:
  • The decision recognises the importance of non-carbon benefits for the long-term sustainability of the implementation of activities and encourages developing countries to take note of existing information on addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.

Enrich Your Learning:

National REDD+ Strategy:

  • Complying with the UNFCCC decisions on REDD+, India released its National REDD+ Strategy in August 2018. The Strategy builds upon existing national circumstances which have been updated in line with India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, Green India Mission and India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to UNFCCC.
  • Paris agreement on climate change also recognizes role of forests in climate change mitigation and calls upon country Parties to take action to implement and support REDD+.
  • India has communicated in its Nationally Determined Contribution under Paris Agreement, that it will capture 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of Carbon dioxide through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

What is REDD+?

  • REDD+ means “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.
  • REDD+ aims to achieve climate change mitigation by incentivizing forest conservation.
  • The strategy seeks to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and also developing a roadmap for enhancement of forest carbon stocks and achieving sustainable management of forests through REDD+ actions.
  • Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) under UNFCCC is a global endeavour to use carbon sequestration potential of the forests to manage climate change within accepted limits of tolerance.
  • Carbon sequestration is one of the ecosystem services flowing from forests, in addition to biodiversity conservation; maintaining water cycle and soil fertility; livelihood supports to local communities.
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