70 Days WAR Plan

Day#64 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Mangrove cover in Maharashtra; Wetlands; Power of a Lens; Multi-layered Plastic (MLP); Fermentation of Foods by Microorganisms; Circadian rhythm; Solar City programme; State of Forest Report 2017; Kuno National Park; Nahargarh Biological Park; Sariska National Park; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA);
By IT's Core Team
May 24, 2019




What is the primary aim of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures?

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  • The primary aim of EIA procedures is to gauge the potential environmental impact of an economic project so as to allow for measures to minimize that impact.

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

  • The environmental impact assessment (EIA) process is an interdisciplinary and multistep procedure to ensure that environmental considerations are included in decisions regarding projects that may impact the environment.
  • In other words, it is the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment.
  • The EIA process helps identify the possible environmental effects of a proposed activity and how those impacts can be mitigated.
  • A decision tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits.
  • Therefore, the primary aim of EIA procedures is to gauge the potential environmental impact of an economic project so as to allow for measures to minimize that impact.
  • EIA, is an important management tool for ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development.
  • The EIA document itself is a technical tool that identifies, predicts, and analyses impacts on the physical environment, as well as social, cultural, and health impacts.

Evolution of EIA in India:

  • There are two types of EIA models – statutory model which makes the assessment of impact compulsory under an enacted law and administrative model under which an administration exercises its discretion to find out whether an impact study is necessary. Till 1992, India was following the administrative model of EIA.
  • In 1994, Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, promulgated an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification.
  • New EIA was issued in 2006 in supersession of EIA 1994.
  • Since EIA 2006, the various developmental projects have been re-categorised into category ‘A’ and category ‘B’ depending on their threshold capacity and likely pollution potential, requiring prior Environmental Clearance (EC) respectively from MoEF or the concerned State Environmental Impact Assessment Authorities (SEIAAs).
  • The amendments to EIA in 2009 exempts environmental clearance process of the biomass based power plants up to 15 MW, power plants based on non hazardous municipal solid waste and power plants based on waste heat recovery boilers without using auxiliary fuel.

Benefits of The EIA Process:

  • Potentially screens out environmentally-unsound projects
  • Proposes modified designs to reduce environmental impacts
  • Identifies feasible alternatives
  • Predicts significant adverse impacts
  • Identifies mitigation measures to reduce, offset, or eliminate major impacts
  • Engages and informs potentially affected communities and individuals
  • Influences decision-making and the development of terms and conditions

Stages of The EIA Process:

  • The EIA process, while not uniform from country to country, generally consists of a set of procedural steps culminating in a written impact assessment report that will inform the decision-maker whether to approve or reject a proposed project.
  • Identifying and Defining the Project or Activity: Although this step may seem relatively simple, defining a “project” for the purposes of an EIA can become complex and even controversial if a mining project is large, has several phases, or involves multiple sites.
  • Screening: The screening process determines whether a particular project warrants preparation of an EIA.
  • Scoping: Scoping is a stage, usually involving the public and other interested parties, that identifies the key environmental issues that should be addressed in an EIA.
  • Preparing Terms of Reference: The Terms of Reference serve as a roadmap for EIA preparation and should ideally encompass the issues and impacts that have been identified during the scoping process.
  • Preparing Draft EIA: A draft EIA is prepared in accordance with the Terms of Reference and/ or the range of issues identified during the scoping process.
  • Public Participation: Best EIA practice involves and engages the public at numerous points throughout the process with a two-way exchange of information and views.
  • Preparing Final EIA: This step produces a final impact assessment report that addresses the viewpoints and comments of the parties that reviewed the draft EIA.
  • Decision: A decision to approve or reject a mining project is generally based on the final EIA, but in some instances, an environmental clearance may be just one step in the mine permitting process.
  • Administrative or Judicial Review: Depending on the jurisdiction, there may be opportunities for a party to seek administrative and/or judicial review of the final decision and the EIA process.
  • Project Implementation: Provided all regulatory requirements are met and permits are obtained, mine development will proceed following the project decision and once opportunities for administrative and/or judicial review are exhausted.
  • Monitoring: Monitoring is an important part of project implementation.




Discuss in detail about: (1) Kuno National Park, (2) Nahargarh Biological Park and (3) Sariska National Park.

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Kuno National Park:

  • Kuno National Park is a protected area in Madhya Pradesh that received the status of national park in 2018.
  • The protected area was established in 1981 as a wildlife sanctuary with an area of 344.686 km2 in the Sheopur and Morena districts.
  • It was also known as Kuno-Palpur and Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary. It is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.
  • The vegetation of the protected area includes dry savanna forest and grassland and tropical riverine forest.
  • The main predators occurring in the protected area are Indian leopard, jungle cat, sloth bear, dhole, Indian wolf, golden jackal, striped hyena and Bengal fox.
  • Ungulates include chital, Sambar deer, nilgai, four-horned antelope, chinkara, blackbuck and wild boar.

Nahargarh Biological Park:

  • Nahargarh Biological Park, a part of the Nahargarh sanctuary is located about 12 km from Jaipur on the Jaipur-Delhi highway.
  • It encompasses a large area of 720 hectares and is situated under the Aravalli range.
  • The Park is famous for its vast flora and fauna, and its main aim is to conserve it. It also doubles up as a great place to educate people and conduct research on existing flora and fauna.
  • At Nahargarh Biological Park, ornithologists can expect to see over 285 species of birds, of which, the most popular is the white-naped tit, which can only be found here.
  • The Nahargarh Zoological Park is also worth a visit and houses animals such as Asiatic lions, Bengal tigers, panthers, hyenas, wolves, deer, crocodiles, sloth bear, Himalayan black bear, wild boar, etc.
  • This park consists of granite rocks, quartzite rocks and also consists of the region covered by dry deciduous and tropical rain forests.

Sariska National Park:

  • Sariska is located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan.
  • Sariska was declared a wildlife reserve in 1955.
  • The reserve was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958 and came under the “Project Tiger” as a Sariska tiger reserve in 1979. The total area of the sanctuary is about 800 km2.
  • The Sariska tiger reserve was declared as a National park in 1982.
  • It is a part of the Aravalli Range and the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests’ ecoregion. It is rich in mineral resources, such as copper.
  • The topography of Sariska supports scrub-thorn arid forests, rocky landscapes, tropical forest, grasslands, dry deciduous forests, rocks and hilly cliffs.
  • Sariska park is home to numerous carnivores including Leopard, Wild Dog, Jungle Cat, Hyena, Jackal, and Tiger. These feed on an abundance of prey species such as Sambar, Chitel, Nilgai, Chausingha, Wild Boar and Langur.
  • Sariska is also well known for its large population of Rhesus Monkeys, which are found in large numbers around Talvriksh.
  • The avian world is also well represented with a rich and varied birdlife. These include Peafowl, Grey Partridge, Bush Quail, Sand Grouse, Tree Pie, Golden backed Wood Pecker, Crested Serpent Eagle and the Great Indian Horned Owl.




As per the State of Forest Report 2017, Which state had got highest amount of increase in Mangrove areas since 2015?

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Highlights of Mangroves as per the ‘State of Forest Report 2017’

  • Intertidal tropical and subtropical regions between latitudes 240 ­N – 380 S bear halophytic vegetation (salt-tolerant plants that grows in waters of high salinity) called Mangroves.
  • Mangrove forests have increased by 181 sq kms since 2015. West Bengal, Gujarat and Maharashtra are the top three highest mangrove area.
  • The highest increase were noticed in Maharashtra (82), Andhra Pradesh (37) and Gujarat ( 33) since the last assessment in 2015.
  • Sundarbans mangroves located in Bay of Bengal were the first mangroves in the world which were considered under scientific management since 1982.
  • Asia has the largest Mangroves in the world. The most extensive area of Mangroves are found in South east Asia followed by South America and North Central America.
  • Mangroves are spread over an area of 4921 sq km in India which is nearly 3.3% of the world’s mangrove vegetation. This mangrove area is nearly 0.15% of India’s total geographic area.
  • The report classified mangroves in three categories: Very Dense Mangrove, Moderately Dense and Open Mangrove. Odisha has highest amount of Very Dense Mangrove, West Bengal has highest amount of Moderately Dense and Gujarat topped in Open Mangrove.




The State of Forest Report is published by?

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  • The State of Forest Report is published by the Forest Survey of India biannually since 1987.

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Mangrove cover in Maharashtra:

  • Maharashtra has reported the highest growth in mangrove cover, of 82 square kilometres, in the last two years in the country.
  • The state’s mangrove cover increased from 222 sq km to 304 sq km, registering an increase of 37% over the previous assessment in 2015. It has been mentioned in the State of Forest Report 2017 published by the Forest Survey of India.
  • According to the report, the mangrove covers in the India increased by 181 sq km during this period. Of this, 45 per cent was contributed by Maharashtra. This is the highest recorded in the country. Andhra Pradesh comes a distant second with an increase of 37 sq km.
  • Raigad district had recorded the maximum increase of 29 sq km of mangrove cover followed by Thane and Palghar which together registered an increase of 31 sq km, whereas the increase in Mumbai Suburban district was 16 sq km.
  • The mangrove covers in Maharashtra had remained constant at 186 sq km between 2005 and 2013, but increased to 222 sq km in 2013.
  • Maharashtra is the only state in the country with a dedicated Mangrove Cell, which came into existence in 2012, and it is also the only state to have constituted all mangroves on government land as reserved forests under section 4 of the Indian Forest Act, 1927.
  • The increase in mangrove cover is attributed to stricter enforcement of law, increased awareness among the public about the importance of mangroves and the wider knowledge about the legal protection available to mangroves.




What are the objectives of the Solar City programme?

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Objectives of the Solar City programme:

The Solar City programme aims:

  • To enable and empower Urban Local Governments to address energy challenges at City – level.
  • To provide a framework and support to prepare a Master Plan including assessment of current energy situation, future demand and action plans.
  • To build capacity in the Urban Local Bodies and create awareness among all sections of civil society.
  • To involve various stakeholders in the planning process.
  • To oversee the implementation of sustainable energy options through public – private partnerships.

What is a Solar City?

  • In February 2008, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched a program on “Development of Solar Cities”. The programme was modified in January 2014 for implementation during the 12th Five Year Plan.
  • The Solar City aims at minimum 10% reduction in projected demand of conventional energy at the end of five years, through a combination of enhancing supply from renewable energy sources in the city and energy efficiency measures.
  • The basic aim is to motivate the local Governments for adopting renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measures.
  • In a Solar City all types of renewable energy based projects like solar, wind, biomass, small hydro, waste to energy etc. may be installed along with possible energy efficiency measures depending on the need and resource availability in the city.
  • Up to Rs. 50.00 Lakhs per city/town is provided depending upon population and initiatives decided to be taken by the City Council/ Administration.

Number of cities to be developed as Solar Cities:

  • Under ‘Development of Solar Cities” ,60 Cities including 13 Pilot and 5 Model Cities up to 12th Five-year Plan period were approved for implementation.
  • At least one city in each State to a maximum of five cities in a State may be supported by the Ministry.

Need for Solar Cities:

  • Urbanization and economic development are leading to a rapid rise in energy demand in urban areas in our country leading to enhanced Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
  • Many cities around the world are setting targets and introducing polices for promoting renewable energy and reducing GHG emissions and the countries like Australia and USA are developing the solar cities.
  • Several Indian cities and towns are experiencing rapid growth in the peak electricity demand.
  • The local governments and the electricity utilities are finding it difficult to cope with this rapid rise in demand and as a result most of the cities/towns are facing electricity shortages.
  • In this context, the “Development of Solar Cities” programme is designed to support/encourage Urban Local Bodies to prepare a Road Map to guide their cities in becoming ‘renewable energy cities’ or ‘solar cities’.




What is Circadian rhythm?

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  • A circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria.

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Circadian Rhythms:

  • Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle.
  • They respond primarily to light and darkness in an organism’s environment.
  • Sleeping at night and being awake during the day is an example of a light-related circadian rhythm.
  • Circadian rhythms are found in most living things, including animals, plants, and many tiny microbes.
  • The study of circadian rhythms is called chronobiology.
  • Circadian rhythms are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals, including human beings.
  • There are clear patterns of brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration and other biological activities linked to this daily cycle.




How does the fermentation process affect food?

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  • A common effect of these fermentations is that the food product is less hospitable to other microorganisms, including pathogens and spoilage-causing microorganisms, thus extending the food’s shelf-life.

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Fermentation of Foods by Microorganisms:

  • Fermentation is one way microorganisms can change a food. Yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine.
  • A common effect of these fermentations is that the food product is less hospitable to other microorganisms, including pathogens and spoilage-causing microorganisms, thus extending the food’s shelf-life.
  • Certain bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are used to make yogurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles, fermented sausages and dishes such as kimchi.
  • Food fermentations are ancient technologies that harness microorganisms and their enzymes to improve the human diet.
  • Fermented foods keep better, have enhanced flavours, textures and aromas, and may also possess certain health benefits, including superior digestibility.
  • For vegetarians, fermented foods serve as palatable, protein-rich meat substitutes.
  • A number of traditional drinks and foods are also made by fermentation by the microbes.
  • ‘Toddy’, a traditional drink of some parts of southern India is made by fermenting sap from palms.
  • Microbes are also used to ferment fish, soyabean and bambooshoots to make foods.




Give information on Multi-layered Plastic (MLP).

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Multi-layered Plastic (MLP) in India:

  • Multi-layered plastics are made up of a layered composition of various types of plastics.
  • This is a commonly used method because of the properties that the thus composed material acquires.
  • Sometimes, the plastics material is also combined with non-plastics such as aluminium foil.
  • Neither multi-layered plastics products made up of only plastics nor those made up in combination with a non-plastics material can be recycled.




What is the power of a Lens?

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Power of a Lens:

  • The degree of Convergence or Divergence of light rays achieved by a lens is expressed in terms of its POWER.
  • The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length. It is represented by the letter P.


The power P of a lens of focal length f is given by

  • The Sl unit of power of a lens is ‘dioptre’. It is denoted by the letter D.
  • If f is expressed in metres, then the power is expressed in dioptres.
  • Thus one dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length is one metre.
  • The power of a convex lens is Positive.
  • The power of a concave lens is Negative.
  • If an optical instrument consists of more than one lens, the net power can be obtained by adding the individual powers.




In terms of the proportion of the geographical area, which state has the highest and the lowest proportion of the area under wetlands?

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In terms of the proportion of the geographical area, Gujarat has the highest proportion (17.5%) and Mizoram has the lowest proportion (0.66%) of the area under wetlands.

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  • Wetlands are amongst the most productive ecosystems on the Earth.
  • Wetlands exhibit enormous diversity according to their genesis, geographical location, water regime and chemistry, dominant species, and soil and sediment characteristics


One of the first widely used wetland classifications systems categorized wetlands into below categories based on their hydrological, ecological and geological characteristics.

  • Marine (coastal wetlands),
  • Estuarine (including deltas, tidal marshes, and mangrove swamps),
  • Lacustarine (lakes),
  • Riverine (along rivers and streams), and
  • Palustarine (‘marshy’ – marshes, swamps and bogs)


  • The wetlands are distributed in different geographical regions ranging from Himalayas to Deccan plateau.
  • Wetlands in India account for 4.7% of the total geographical area of the country.
  • Out of this, area under inland wetlands accounts for 69%, coastal wetlands 27%, and other wetlands (smaller than 2.25 ha) 4%.
  • In terms of average area under each type of wetland,5 natural coastal wetlands have the largest area.
  • In terms of the proportion of the geographical area, Gujarat has the highest proportion (17.5%) and Mizoram has the lowest proportion (0.66%) of the area under wetlands.
  • Among Union Territories in India, Lakshadweep has the highest proportion (around 96%) and Chandigarh has the least proportion (3%) of geographical area under wetlands.

Importance of wetlands:

  • Ecosystem goods provided by the wetlands mainly include: water for irrigation; fisheries; non-timber forest products; water supply; and recreation.
  • Major services include: carbon sequestration, flood control, groundwater recharge, nutrient removal, toxics retention and biodiversity maintenance.

Growing threat to wetland ecosystem:

  • Reasons for wetlands loss in India are urbanization, land use changes and pollution.
  • There is no proper regulatory framework for conservation of wetlands in India.
  • It has been found that management of wetlands has received inadequate attention in the national water sector agenda.
  • As a result, many of the wetlands are subject to anthropogenic pressures, including land use changes in the catchment; pollution from industry and households; encroachments; tourism; and over exploitation of their natural resources.
  • Further, majority of research on wetland management in India relates to the limnological aspects and ecological/environmental economics of wetland management.
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