Flash-Cards-Quiz-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-65
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#65 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Lagrangian point; Compressed Natural Gas (CNG); Function of an artery, the capillary and the vein; Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park; United Nations Environment Programme – Finance Initiative (UNEP FI); Alpha Rays, Beta Rays, Gamma Rays; Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH); Usages of Multi layered Plastic (MLP); Cells of the central nervous system; Wetland
By IT's Core Team
May 25, 2019

 

 

 

What is a wetland?

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Answer:

  • A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh or somewhere in between.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh or somewhere in between.
  • Marshes and ponds, the edge of a lake or ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently flood—all of these are wetlands.
  • The destruction of wetlands is a concern because they are some of the most productive habitats on the planet.
  • They often support high concentrations of animals—including mammals, birds, fish and invertebrates—and serve as nurseries for many of these species.
  • Wetlands also support the cultivation of rice, a staple in the diet of half the world’s population.
  • And they provide a range of ecosystem services that benefit humanity, including water filtration, storm protection, flood control and recreation.
  • Without wetlands, cities have to spend more money to treat water for their citizens, floods are more devastating to nearby communities, storm surges from hurricanes can penetrate farther inland, animals are displaced or die out, and food supplies are disrupted, along with livelihoods.
  • WWF, governments and other organizations have pursued efforts to conserve and protect wetlands for more than 40 years through the Ramsar Convention, the only international treaty devoted to a single ecosystem type.
  • More than 476,000 acres of wetland have been protected through this treaty, saving them and their services for future generations.
  • Two sites — Chilika Lake (Odisha) and Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur) are protected as water-fowl habitats under the Convention of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention).

India’s wetlands have been grouped into eight categories:

  • The reservoirs of the Deccan Plateau in the south together with the lagoons and other wetlands of the southern west coast;
  • The vast saline expanses of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Gulf of Kachchh;
  • Freshwater lakes and reservoirs from Gujarat eastwards through Rajasthan (Keoladeo National Park) and Madhya Pradesh;
  • The delta wetlands and lagoons of India’s east coast (Chilika Lake);
  • The freshwater marshes of the Gangetic Plain;
  • The floodplains of the Brahmaputra; the marshes and swamps in the hills of northeast India and the Himalayan foothills;
  • The lakes and rivers of the montane region of Kashmir and Ladakh; and
  • The mangrove forest and other wetlands of the island arcs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

 

 

 

Give information about the cells of the central nervous system.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Cells of the central nervous system:

  1. Neurons:
  • Neurons connect with one another to send and receive messages in the brain and spinal cord. Many neurons working together are responsible for every decision made, every emotion or sensation felt, and every action taken.
  • The complexity of the central nervous system is amazing: there are approximately 100 billion neurons in the brain and spinal cord combined.
  • Each neuron is made up of a cell body, which houses the nucleus. Axons and dendrites form extensions from the cell body.
  1. Astrocytes:
  • Astrocytes is a kind of glial cell, are the primary support cells of the brain and spinal cord.
  • They make and secrete proteins called neurotrophic factors.
  • They also break down and remove proteins or chemicals that might be harmful to neurons (for example, glutamate, a neurotransmitter that in excess causes cells to become overexcited and die by a process called excitotoxicity).

Astrocytes aren’t always beneficial:

  • After injury, they divide to make new cells that surround the injury site, forming a glial scar that is a barrier to regenerating axons.
  1. Microglia:
  • Microglia are immune cells for the brain. After injury, they migrate to the site of injury to help clear away dead and dying cells.
  • They can also produce small molecules called cytokines that trigger cells of the immune system to respond to the injury site.
  • This clean-up process is likely to play an important role in recovery of function following a spinal injury.
  1. Oligodendrocytes:
  • Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that produce a fatty substance called myelin which wraps around axons in layers.
  • Axon fibers insulated by myelin can carry electrical messages (also called action potentials) at a speed of 100 meters per second, while fibers without myelin can only carry messages at a speed of one meter per second.

 

 

 

Discuss about various government steps to regulate the use of Multi layered Plastic (MLP)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Use of Multi layered Plastic (MLP):

  • In 2016, the government passed the Plastic Waste Management Rules that mandated phasing out “non-recyclable multi-layered plastic” in two years.
  • But in March, 2018, it amended them and “non-recyclable multi-layered plastic” was substituted with “multi-layered plastic which is non-recyclable or non-energy recoverable or with no alternate use”.
  • The 2016 rules also mandated companies to practise extended producer responsibility (EPR) and collect MLP that they have used to package their products. But they did not mandate a minimum percentage of the waste they must retrieve.
  • Technically, companies can use MLP even if they retrieve just one per cent of what they sent in the market.
  • Due to low source segregation and lack of continuous supply of MLP to the industries, it is not recycled. There are no proven industry solutions for tackling MLP.
  • The only way is to recover aluminium and convert the plastic into a chemical or fuel via a process called pyrolysis.

Solution:

  • The government needs to frame a comprehensive EPR policy with clear responsibilities of all the stakeholder throughout the lifecycle of MLP.
  • Initiatives, like deposit-and-return schemes or advanced disposal fee, should be enforced.
  • It is also necessary to bring the informal sector into the mainstream of plastic waste management.

 

 

 

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH) is Centrally Sponsored Scheme or Central sector scheme?

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Answer:

  • Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH) is Centrally Sponsored Scheme.

Enrich Your Learning:

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats:

  • Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ (IDWH) is an on-going Centrally Sponsored Scheme which has been made operational by adding more components and activities to the erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Scheme – “Assistance for the Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries” during the 11th Plan Period.
  • Under IDWH, the financial assistance is provided to State/UT Governments for protection and conservation of wildlife and its habitats in Protected Areas (PAs) as well as outside PAs and also for the recovery programmes of the critically endangered species.

Components of the scheme:

  1. Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger (CSS-PT)
  2. Development of Wildlife Habitats (CSS-DWH)
  3. Project Elephant (CSS-PE)
  • A total of 18 tiger range States, distributed in five landscapes of the country would be benefitted under the Project Tiger scheme.
  • Similarly, for other two schemes, the coverage is entire country in case of Development of Wildlife Habitats (DWH) and 23 elephant range States for Project Elephant.
  • It would foster wildlife conservation in general with specific inputs for tiger in Project Tiger area and elephant in Project Elephant area.
  • The implementation of the schemes would be done through the respective States in designated Tiger Reserves, Protected Areas and Elephant Reserves.

Outcomes:

  • Besides immense environmental benefits and effective implementation of tiger conservation inputs in and around tiger reserves under Project Tiger, wildlife conservation inputs in Protected Areas & nearby areas under Development of Wildlife Habitats and Elephant conservation inputs in Project Elephant areas, the schemes would result in overall strengthening/ consolidation of tiger, elephant and wildlife conservation in the country.
  • The schemes would address the human wildlife conflict effectively.
  • Besides, the communities opting for voluntary relocation from the Core/Critical Tiger Habitat (6900 families) would be benefitted under Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger (CSS-PT) and 800 families under Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Development of Wildlife Habitat.
  • These schemes would generate employment opportunities resulting in economic upliftment of people in and around tiger reserves/ Protected Areas besides leading to reduction in natural resource dependency with substitution by clean energy use.
  • It will generate direct employment of about 30 lakh man days annually which shall include many local tribes besides non-tribal local workforce.
  • These schemes would result in resource generation through tourist visits, thereby fostering in securing tiger source areas and other areas important for wildlife conservation.

 

 

 

Describe about the Alpha Rays, Beta Rays, Gamma Rays.

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

Alpha Rays

  • In order to gains stability by an atom, particles like alpha, beta & gamma rays are emitted by an atom during radioactivity trying to gain stability.

Alpha Rays:

  • The alpha particles are nuclei of helium atoms. It is made up of two protons and two neutrons.
  • Alpha particles were first identified by Rutherford and Royds in 1909 by spectroscopic method where they found traces of helium in an originally pure sample of Radon gas which is an α emitter.
  • Alpha particles are commonly emitted by all of the larger radioactive nuclei such as uranium, thorium, actinium, and radium, as well as the transuranic elements.
  • α rays can be stopped by thin sheet of paper.
  • α rays can cause intense ionization in air. Ionizing power of alpha rays is high.
  • Any group of α particles emitted from same type of nuclei always have definite energy and definite velocity.
  • The α particles cover a definite distance in a material without any loss of intensity and suddenly in a small distance they are absorbed completely.
  • The distance α rays travel within a given material is called their range in that material.
  • Alpha rays get deflected by electric field and magnetic field as they are positively charged.
  • Alpha rays have low penetrating power.
  • Alpha particles can’t penetrate the normal layer of dead cells on the outside of our skin but could damage the cornea of the eye.
  • Alpha-particle radiation is normally only a safety concern if the radioactive decay occurs in an atom that is already inside the body or inside a cell. Alpha-particle emitters are particularly dangerous if inhaled, ingested, or if they enter a wound.

Beta Rays:

  • β particles are identical with electrons. They have mass 1 ⁄ 1836 of mass of proton.
  • Beta particles are emitted by neutron rich unstable nuclei. Beta particles are high energy electrons.
  • β rays cause much less ionization in air, but are ˜ 100 times more penetrating then α rays.
  • β rays can penetrate an aluminum sheet of few mm thickness.
  • A particular β active element emits β particles with energies varying between zero and a certain maximum. This maximum energy is called end point energy.
  • Beta rays get deflected by electric field and magnetic field as they are negatively charged.
  • Beta rays have high penetrating power.
  • Ionizing power of beta rays is lesser than alpha rays.

Gamma Rays:

  • Gamma rays are Electromagnetic radiation. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • They are produced by the hottest and most energetic objects in the universe, such as neutron stars and pulsars, supernova explosions, and regions around black holes. On Earth, gamma waves are generated by nuclear explosions, lightning, and through radioactive decay.
  • Gamma rays are un-deflected by the electric field and magnetic field as they are neutral.
  • Gamma rays have largest penetrating power.
  • Ionizing power of gamma rays is least.
  • Gamma-rays can be used to treat cancer.
  • Gamma ray photons are more energetic and more penetrating then X-rays photons.
  • Ionization due to Gamma rays is a photoelectric effect.
  • Owing to their large energies, the Gamma rays photons can dislodge electrons not only from outer orbits (valence orbits on conduction band) of atoms but also from the inner orbits
  • Besides photoelectric effect, gamma ray loose energy by Compton effect and through Pair Production.

 

 

 

Which two organizations are the only signatories of United Nations Environment Programme – Finance Initiative (UNEP FI)?

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Solution:

  • Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (ILFS)
  • Yes Bank Limited

Enrich Your Learning:

United Nations Environment Programme – Finance Initiative (UNEP FI):

  • United Nations Environment Programme – Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) is a partnership between United Nations Environment and the global financial sector created in the wake of the 1992 Earth Summit with a mission to promote sustainable finance.
  • More than 240 financial institutions, including banks, insurers, and investors, work with UN Environment to understand today’s environmental, social and governance challenges, why they matter to finance, and how to actively participate in addressing them.
  • UNEP FI’s work also includes a strong focus on policy – by facilitating country-level dialogues between finance practitioners, supervisors, regulators and policy-makers, and, at the international level, by promoting financial sector involvement in processes such as the global climate negotiations.
  • UNEP FI hosts its Global Roundtable every other year and has done so since 1994.
  • In 2017, UNEP FI established regional roundtables to celebrate its 25th Anniversary.
  • UNEP FI is hosting its second round of Regional Roundtables on Sustainable Finance in 2019 in Cairo (Egypt), Shanghai (Chain), New York (USA), Sao Paulo (Brazil) and Luxembourg.
  • The International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) and UNEP FI co-hosted the G20 Global Summit on Financing Energy Efficiency, Innovation and Clean Technology on behalf of the G20 Energy Efficiency Finance Task Group in Tokyo, Japan on June 12th

Indian Financial institutions which are UNEP FI Signatories:

  • Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (ILFS)
  • Yes Bank Limited

About the Statement of Commitment:

  • The UNEP Statement of Commitment by Financial Institutions on Sustainable Development represents the backbone of the Initiative.
  • By signing up to the Statement, financial institutions openly recognize the role of the financial services sector in making the economy and lifestyles sustainable and commit to the integration of environmental and social considerations into all aspects of their operations.
  • All financial institutions wishing to join the UNEP Finance Initiative must adhere to the Statement.

 

 

 

In context of outer space of earth, what is Lagrangian point?

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Answer:

  • A Lagrangian point is a position or location in space where the combined gravitational forces of two large bodies is equal to the centrifugal force that is felt by a third body which is relatively smaller.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lagrangian point:

Lagrangian point

  • A Lagrangian point, also known as Lagrange point, Liberation point or L-point, is a position or location in space where the combined gravitational forces of two large bodies is equal to the centrifugal force that is felt by a third body which is relatively smaller.
  • The two large bodies here may be the Earth and Sun or the Earth and Moon.
  • The lagrangian points are named after an eighteenth century astronomer and mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
  • Lagrange wrote about these points as a solution to the ‘three body problem’ for the Earth, Moon and Sun.
  • A major body (planet or star) has five lagrangian points around it. Out of these five points, three points lie along the line that connects the two large bodies.
  • In the Sun-Earth system, the first point (L1) lies between the Sun and Earth and the second point (L2) lies in the opposite direction of the Sun, with both L1 and L2 at a distance of about 1 million miles from the Earth.
  • The third point (L3) lies opposite the orbit of the Earth behind the Sun. All of these three points are unstable.
  • The fourth and fifth points, i.e. L4 and L5, lie along the orbit of Earth, with one being ahead of it and the other behind it, at an angle of 60 degrees. Points L4 and L5, unlike L1, L2 and L3, are stable points.

Uses:

  • L1 – These points are used for the satellite to cancel sum of the sun’s gravitational pulls. It is good position to monitor the Sun.
  • L2 – Similar effect which causes L1, also occurs on the ‘night’ side of Earth beyond Earth’s orbit. L2 is a great place from which to observe the larger Universe.
  • L3 – It offers the potential to observe the far side of the Sun.
  • L4 and L5 – To study the objects such as dust and asteroids tend to accumulate in these regions.

 

 

 

What are the differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

The difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:

  • Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat is protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
  • When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
  • To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
  • Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries, but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.

Similarities between Wild Life Sanctuary and National Parks?

  • Declared by Notification of State Government
  • Alteration of boundaries – No alteration of the boundaries of a sanctuary shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of the State. Here remember that only resolution to be passed, no need to pass an act by state legislature.

 

 

 

In context of Human body, give the general comparison of structure and function of an artery, the capillary and the vein.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The tubes transporting blood are called Blood Vessels. Blood vessels are one of the important sections of Human circulatory system.
  • The wall of a blood vessel has three layers, tunica externa, tunica media and tunica interna. There are 3 kinds of blood vessels: (i) Artery (ii) Capillary and, (iii) Vein. These three vessels differ in structure and speed of blood flow.
  • Arteries divide into Arterioles and then into Capillaries.
  • This way they come in contact with all the tissues and bathe the cells with blood plasma.
  • Capillaries join to form venule. Venules are thin blood vessels that join to form veins.

Arteries:

  • Arteries transports blood away from the heart.
  • Tunica media is thick and composed of elastic, muscular tissue.
  • No semi-lunar valves, along arteries.
  • Pressure of blood is high and arteries are pulsatile.
  • Rapid Blood flow
  • Low blood volume, Blood is oxygenated except in pulmonary artery
  • Small lumen

Capillary:

  • Capillaries link arteries to veins for exchange of material between blood and tissues which also have capillaries.
  • No tunica media. Only single layer of cells forming endothelium. No elastic fibers.
  • A semi-lunar valve present.
  • Pressure of blood falling and non-pulsatile.
  • Blood flow slow
  • High blood volume Mixed oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
  • Extremely narrow lumen

Veins:

  • Site of Transport of blood towards the heart.
  • Tunica media is relatively thin and only slightly muscular. Few elastic fibers.
  • Semi-lunar valves are present all along the length of vein at intervals to prevent back flow of blood.
  • Pressure of blood low and non-pulsatile.
  • Blood flow slow
  • Increased blood volume
  • Blood deoxygenated except in pulmonary vein
  • Large lumen

Major Arteries and Veins:

  • Blood that has been circulated through the body has lost much of the O2, it carried. This de-oxygenated blood returns to the heart by two major veins.
  1. Superior vena cava-brings:
  • De-oxygenaled blood from head and shoulder region.
  1. Inferior vena cava-brings:
  • Deoxygenated blood from lower parts of the body.
  • These venae cavae open in the right atrium. Contraction of right atrium forces this blood into the right ventricle.

 Major Arteries and Veins

Key Facts:

  • Pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries the de-oxygenated (blood poor in O2) blood. It is called artery as it carries blood away from heart.
  • Pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries oxygenated blood (blood rich in O2). It is called vein as it carries blood into heart.

 

 

 

What are the advantages of Compressed natural gas (CNG)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Advantages of CNG:

  • CNG does not contain any lead, thereby eliminating fouling of spark plugs (unleaded fuel is lead free, but still can cause plugs to foul).
  • CNG-powered vehicles have lower maintenance costs than other hydrocarbon-fuel-powered vehicles
  • CNG fuel systems are sealed, preventing fuel losses from spills or evaporation
  • Increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil
  • Being a gaseous fuel, CNG mixes easily and evenly in air.
  • CNG is less likely to ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 °C), and a narrow range (5–15 percent) of flammability
  • CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles
  • CNG emits significantly less pollution directly than gasoline or oil when combusted (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and PM (particulate matter).
  • Due to lower carbon dioxide emissions, switching to CNG can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, natural gas leaks represent an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing.
  • The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from California’s pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO2-equivalent per mega joule (gCO2e/MJ) by CARB (the California Air Resources Board), approximately 28 percent lower than the average gasoline fuel in that market.

Compressed natural gas (CNG):

  • Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
  • CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the fuels mentioned above.
  • It is safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released.
  • CNG may be found above oil deposits, or may be collected from landfills or wastewater treatment plants where it is known as biogas.
  • CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure.
  • It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 MPa, usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.
  • CNG is used in traditional gasoline/internal combustion engine automobiles that have been modified or in vehicles which were manufactured for CNG use, either alone (‘dedicated’), with a segregated gasoline system to extend range (dual fuel) or in conjunction with another fuel such as diesel (bi-fuel).
  • Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in Iran, especially Pakistan, the Asia-Pacific region, Indian capital of Delhi, and other large cities like Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata – as well as cities such as Lucknow, Kanpur, etc.
  • Its use is also increasing in South America, Europe and North America because of rising gasoline prices.
  • In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks, transit and school buses, and trains.
  • The cost and placement of fuel storage tanks is the major barrier to wider/quicker adoption of CNG as a fuel.
  • It is also why municipal government, public transportation vehicles were the most visible early adopters of it, as they can more quickly amortize the money invested in the new (and usually cheaper) fuel.
  • In spite of these circumstances, the number of vehicles in the world using CNG has grown steadily (30 percent per year).
  • Now, as a result of industry’s steady growing, the cost of such fuel storage tanks have been brought down to a much acceptable level.
  • Especially for the CNG Type 1 and Type 2 tanks, many countries are able to make reliable and cost effective tanks for conversion need.
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