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70 Days WAR Plan

Day#7 Static Flash Cards Polity & Governance [70 Days WAR Plan]

Question Hour; Regulating Act of 1773; Article 352 Proclamation of Emergency; Fazal Ali Committee; Constitution Amendment Bill; Indian Councils Act of 1861; Composition of Rajya Sabha; Vote on Account; Starred and unstarred questions; Administration of Union Territories in India;
By IT's Core Team
March 28, 2019

 

 

 

Question Hour is an exclusive feature of the Lok Sabha and not present in Rajya Sabha. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Question Hour is a feature of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Enrich Your Learning:

Question hour in the parliament:

  • The question hour is the time when the members ask questions and the ministers usually give answers.
  • The first hour of every parliamentary sitting is allotted for this.
  • It includes three types of questions namely; starred, unstarred and short notice.
  • A starred question is distinguished by an asterisk mark, which requires an oral answer so that the supplementary questions can follow.
  • An unstarred question, requires a written answer and hence, supplementary questions cannot follow.
  • A short notice question is asked by giving a notice of less than ten days and it is answered orally.
  • The questions can also be asked to the private member if the subject matter of the question relates to some Bill, resolution or other matter connected with the business of the House for which that member is responsible.
  • The list of starred, unstarred, short notice questions and questions to private members are printed in green, white, light pink and yellow colour, respectively, to distinguish them from one another.

 

 

 

The governor of the state can be appointed as the administrator of its adjoining union territory by the Parliament. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • The governor of the state can be appointed as the administrator of its adjoining union territory by the President, wherein the governor acts independently from his council of ministers.

Enrich Your Learning:

Administration of Union Territories in India

  • Every union territory is administered by the President acting through an administrator appointed by him. The union territories are dealt with Articles 239 to 241 in Part VIII of the Constitution.
  • Though all the union territories belong to one category, there is no uniformity in their administrative system.
  • These administrators are agent of the President and not head of state like a governor.
  • The President can specify the designation of an administrator; it may be Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administrator.

 

 

 

What is the difference between starred and unstarred questions asked in Parliament?

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Answer:

  • A starred question (distinguished by an asterisk) requires an oral answer and hence supplementary questions can follow. These are Questions to which answers are desired to be given orally on the floor of the House during the Question Hour. These are distinguished in the printed lists by asterisks. 15 such questions are listed each day.
  • An unstarred question, on the other hand, requires a written answer and hence, supplementary questions cannot follow. These are the questions to which written answers are given by Ministers which are deemed to have been laid on the Table of the House at the end of the Question Hour. Up to 160 such questions are listed each day in a separate list.

 

 

 

In context of Indian Parliament, what is Vote on Account?

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Answer:

Vote on Account:

  • As per the constitution government cannot withdraw money from the consolidated fund of India except under appropriation made by law. This is a time-consuming process which almost takes a month or so. But after the end of the financial year, the government needs money to carry on its normal activities. To overcome this functional difficulty, the Constitution has authorised the Lok Sabha to make any grant in advance.
  • This grant is made in respect to the estimated expenditure for a part of the financial year, pending the completion of the voting of the demands for grants and the enactment of the appropriation bill.
  • This is known as the ‘vote on account’, which is passed after the general discussion on budget is over.
  • It is usually made for two months for an amount equivalent to one sixth of the total estimation.

 

 

 

Which schedule of the Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories?

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Answer:

  • The allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories is dealt with in fourth schedule.

Enrich Your Learning:

Composition of Rajya Sabha:

  • Rajya Sabha has fixed strength of members at 250, out of which, 238 are to be the representatives of the states and union territories (elected indirectly) and 12 are nominated by the president.
  • The representatives of states in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies through the election held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
  • The seats are allotted on the basis of the population due to which the number of seats varies from state to state.
  • The members of Rajya Sabha in each of the Union Territory are elected indirectly by the members of an electoral college specially constituted for the purpose and the election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
  • The president nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha from people who have special knowledge or practical experience in art, literature, science and social service.
  • The Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and not subject to dissolution. However, one-third of its members retire every second year.
  • The term of office of a member of the Rajya Sabha shall be six years.

 

 

 

In India, Portfolio system was introduced by which act?

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Answer:

  • Portfolio system in India was introduced by Indian Councils Act of 1861.

Enrich Your Learning:

Portfolio system in Indian Councils Act of 1861:

  • Indian Councils Act of 1861 is seen a s landmark because it started the era of the representative institutions by associating Indians with the law-making process.
  • The act provided that the viceroy should nominate some Indians as non-official members of his expanded council.
  • The viceroy was empowered to make rules and orders for the more convenient transaction of business in the council, which gave recognition to the ‘portfolio system’ that was introduced by Lord Canning in 1859.
  • According to portfolio system a member of the Viceroy’s council was made in-charge of one or more departments of the government and was authorised to issue final orders on behalf of the council on matters of his department(s).

 

 

 

When a Constitution Amendment Bill is presented to the President for his/her assent, which options is/are available to him/her?

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Answer:

  • As per Article 368 of the Constitution of India, President shall not withhold constitutional amendment bill duly passed by parliament.
  • When the bill is passed by both the Houses of Parliament and ratified by the state legislatures, where necessary, the bill is presented to the president for assent.
  • The president must give his assent to the bill as he can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
  • The 24th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1971 made it obligatory for the President to give his assent to a constitutional Amendment Bill.
  • After the president’s assent, the bill becomes a constitutional amendment act and the Constitution stands amended.

 

 

 

In context of India’s political history, the Fazal Ali Committee was constituted for which task?

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Answer:

  • To make an exhaustive study of the problem of state reorganisation, the Government of India set-up State Reorganisation Commission in 1953 which was headed by Fazal Ali.

More about the committee:

  • The other members of the commission were Hriday Nath Kunzru and K M Panikkar.
  • The commission, in its report submitted in 1955, accepted the language as the basis of reorganisation of the States.
  • It suggested the reorganisation of 27 states of various categories into 16 states and 3 union territories.

Some of the important recommendations of the Commission were;

  • The Indian Union was to consist of 16 States as against the existing 27 and three centrally and ministered territories.
  • Special safeguards were recommended for linguistic minorities.
  • In the interests of national unity and good administration, the Commission—recommended the reconstitution of certain All India Services. It further recommended that at least 50 per cent of the new entrants to the All India Services and at least one third of the number of Judges in a High Court should consist of persons recruited from outside that State so that, administration might inspire confidence and help in arresting parochial trends.
  • The Commission put emphasis on the need for encouraging the study of Indian languages other than Hindi but, for some time to come, English continue to occupy an important place in the universities and institutions of higher learning.
  • The Commission rejected the demand for the creation of a Punjabi Speaking State (Punjabi Suba) because “the creation of such a state will solve neither the language nor the communal problem”.
  • The State Reorganisation Act, 1956 was passed by parliament to give effect to the recommendations of the commission.

 

 

 

The term ‘Proclamation of Emergency’ mentioned in the Constitution of India denotes to:

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Answer:

  • As per Article 352, the Constitution employs the expression ‘Proclamation of Emergency’ to denote the National Emergency only due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion.

Article 352 Proclamation of Emergency:

  • Proclamation of Emergency is popularly known as ‘National Emergency’.
  • Proclamation of emergency as per article 352, is declared when the security of India or part of it is threatened due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
  • The president can declare a national emergency even before the actual occurrence of war or external aggression or armed rebellion, if he is satisfied that there is an imminent danger.
  • When a national emergency is declared on the ground of ‘war’ or ‘external aggression’, it is known as ‘External Emergency’. On the other hand, when it is declared on the ground of ‘armed rebellion’, it is known as ‘Internal Emergency’.
  • The proclamation can be applied to the entire country or only a part of it.
  • After the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 was enacted the President was enabled to limit the operation of a National Emergency to a specified part of India.
  • The President, however, can proclaim a national emergency only after receiving a written recommendation from the cabinet.
  • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 brought such declaration under judicial review.
  • It effects the Centre–state relations, life of the Lok Sabha and State assembly, and Fundamental Rights.
  • This type of Emergency has been proclaimed three times so far—in 1962 during Chinese aggression in Arunachal Pradesh, in 1971 during the attack by Pakistan and in 1975 on the ground of internal disturbance.

 

 

During the colonial period in India, which Act first started the process of territorial integration and administrative centralization in India?

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Answer:

  • The Regulating Act of 1773 is said to have started the process of territorial integration and administrative centralization in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Regulating Act of 1773:

  • The Regulating Act of 1773 holds a special significance in the legislative history of India because it marks the beginning of parliamentary control over the government of the Company.
  • It accorded supremacy to the Presidency of Bengal and the Governor of Bengal was appointed as the Governor-General.
  • A Council consisting of four members was constituted to assist the Governor-General.
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