Flash Card

Day#75 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Dhole or Asiatic wild dog; Island Protection Zone Notification, 2011; Wellcome Trust; 'World's longest salt cave'; Cultivation of coffee in India;
By IASToppers
October 19, 2019



Cultivation of coffee in India is mainly confined to which states?

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Cultivation of coffee in India is mainly confined to Karnataka (54%), Kerala (19%) and Tamil Nadu (8%) which form traditional coffee tracts.

Enrich Your learning:

  • Coffee is cultivated in India in about 4.54 lakh hectares by 3.66 lakh coffee farmers and 98% of them are small farmers.
  • India produces some of the best coffee in the world, grown by tribal farmers in the Western and Eastern Ghats, which are the two major bio-diversity hotspots in the world.
  • Coffee is also grown in non-traditional areaslike Andhra Pradesh & Odisha (17.2%) and North Eastern states (1.8%), with main emphasis on tribal development and afforestation.
  • Coffee is predominantly an export oriented commodityand 65% to 70% of coffee produced in the country is exported while the rest is consumed within the country.
  • The two main varieties of coffee viz.,Arabica and Robusta are grown in India.



‘World’s longest salt cave’ was recently discovered in which country: a) Iran OR b) Israel?

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‘World’s longest salt cave’ was discovered in Israel.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Israeli researchers revealed that an area near the Dead Sea is home to the world’s longest salt cave – ‘Malham Salt Cave’, a title previously held by Iran for the Cave of the Three Nudes on Qeshm Island.
  • Malham salt cave in Mount Sedom, is 11km long mountain that sits 170 meters below sea level at the southwestern tip of the Dead Sea.
  • The Malham Salt Cave is a river cave. Water from a surface stream flowed underground and dissolved the salt, creating caves – a process that is still going on when there is strong rain over Mount Sedom about once a year.



Wellcome Trust was recently appeared in news. What is the functional domain of this trust?

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  • The Wellcome Trust is a global charity dedicated to improving health by supporting bright minds in science, the humanities and social sciences, and public engagement.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Wellcome Trust:

  • Established in 1936 and with an endowment of around £15 billion, it is the largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research in the United Kingdom.
  • It is independent of both political and commercial interests.

Why in news?

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the continuation of the Biomedical Research Career Programme (BRCP).
  • BRCP is an alliance between Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and Wellcome Trust (WT).



What are the objectives and key features of the Island Protection Zone Notification, 2011?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • On January 07, 2011 the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) released for the first time, an Island Protection Zone Notification (IPZ), 2011 to cover Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep.
  • For the four islands namely, North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman and Great Nicobar, the Notification applies to areas within 500 metres from the High Tide Line along the seafront, while for all other islands and Lakshadweep islands, the entire geographical area, including the water area up to 12 nautical miles falls within purview of the Notification.
  • New provisions included easing floor area ratio (FAR) in coastal urban areas and slashing the NDZ in densely populated coastal rural areas to 50 metres from HTL.
  • It also includes No Development Zone (NDZ) of 20 meters for all Islands.

Objective of Protection Zone Notification (IPZ), 2011:

  • Protection of livelihoods of traditional fisher folk communities
  • Preservation of coastal ecology;
  • Promotion of economic activity that have necessarily to be located in coastal regions.

Under this notification, the coastal areas of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is classified as:

  • ICRZ-I: The areas that are ecologically sensitive and the area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line.
  • ICRZ-II: The areas that have been developed up to or close to the shoreline.
  • ICRZ-III: Areas that are relatively undisturbed and areas which are not substantially built up. Such as rural areas and also areas within municipal limits.
  • ICRZ-IV: The water area from the Low Tide Line to 12 nautical miles and tidal influenced water area

Why is a separate Island Protection Zone Notification, 2011 required?

  • The geographical areas of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands are so small that in most of the cases the 500 metres Coastal Regulation Zone regulations overlap.
  • Hence, a separate Notification is being issued which takes into account the management of the entire island (except for four islands of A&N which include North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman and Great Nicobar).



As per the IUCN Red data list, what is the conservation status of Dhole, commonly known as the Asiatic wild dog?

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Dhole is listed as endangered as per IUCN.

Enrich Your Learning:

Dhole is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia. Dholes hunt in packs and tend to venture into forested landscapes adjoining protected areas.

  • Its scientific name is Cuon alpinus.
  • Its habitat is forest, grassland, shrubland.
  • It is Schedule II of wildlife act.
  • The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans without rigid dominance hierarchies and containing multiple breeding females.
  • Dholes are susceptible to rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus and sarcoptic mange among others which are usually contracted from domestic village dogs that act as reservoirs.


  • AS per IUCN the animal is resident in following nations: Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand.
  • Dhole is a habitat generalist, and can occur in a wide variety of vegetation types, including: primary, secondary and degraded forms of tropical dry and moist deciduous forests; evergreen and semi-evergreen forests; temperate deciduous forests; boreal forests; dry thorn forests; grassland–scrub–forest mosaics; temperate steppe; and alpine steppe
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