Flash Card

Day#78 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Bagru block printing; Assam government’s PRANAM Bill; ‘SATAT’; Bandipur National Park; TALENs and ZFNs;
By IASToppers
October 23, 2019

 

 

TALENs and ZFNs were sometimes appeared in news. What are they?

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Answer:

‘Transcription activator-like effector nucleases’ (TALENs) and ‘Zinc-finger nucleases’ (ZFNs) are Genome editing technologies.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is genome editing?

  • Genome editing (also called gene editing) is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organism’s DNA.
  • These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome.
  • Several approaches to genome editing have been developed. A recent one is known as CRISPR-Cas9.

What is CRISPR gene-editing technique?

  • CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) allows to selectively edit genome parts and replace them with new DNA stretches.
  • Cas9 is an enzyme that can edit DNA, allowing the alteration of genetic patterns by genome modification.
  • CRISPR is a collection of DNA sequences that direct Cas9 where to cut and paste.
  • CRISPR-Cas9 technology has the potential to revolutionise the treatment of blood diseases, tumours and other genetic diseases.
  • It was named “2015 Breakthrough of the Year” by the U.S. journal Science.
  • Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops. However, its promise also raises ethical concerns.

 

 

Bagru block printing is one of the traditional techniques of printing. It belongs to which Indian state?

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Answer:

  • Bagru printing is one of the traditional techniques of printing with natural colour followed by the chippas of a remote place of Rajasthan.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Bagru block printing and how it is made?

  • Block printing is a labour intensive process. It requires a lot of skillfulness, time and tolerance power of artisan.
  • The process starts from preparing the cloth to finished printed fabrics through their indigenous methods.
  • Motifs having some specialty are transferred onto light coloured background with wooden blocks following two styles direct and resist style.
  • The fabric is first soaked in Fuller’s earth and then dipped into turmeric water to get a tone of yellow colour. Then the dyed fabric is stamped with the beautiful designs known as blocks.
  • The wooden blocks of teak-wood are used for printing the design which is soaked in oil overnight and then washed before putting in to use.
  • The cloth to be printed is soaked in the solution of clay and other chemicals to make the fabric soften and then dried before used for printing.
  • Neat stamping is foremost to get the appealing prints. After printing, the cloth is left for drying in sun for final touch-up.

 

 

Bandipur National Park is located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

The Bandipur National Park is a national park located in the south Indian state of Karnataka, which is the state with the highest tiger population in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Bandipur National Park:

  • Bandipur National Park was established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger.
  • It was formed by including most of the forest areas of the then Venugopala Wildlife Park
  • It is one of the premier Tiger Reserves in the country along with the adjoining Nagarhole national park.
  • It was once a private hunting reserve for the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore but has now been upgraded to Bandipur Tiger Reserve.
  • The Bandipur National Park is surrounded by the river Kabini in the north, River Moyar in the south and the River Nugu runs through the park.
  • The Gopalaswamy Betta which is a Hindu pilgrimage centre and it also forms part of the National Park.
  • The park has a variety of biomes including dry deciduous forests, moist deciduous forests and shrublands. But dry deciduous forest is dominant.

 

 

A term ‘SATAT’ was in news. What is it all about?

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Answer:

Sustainable Alternative towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) is an initiative aimed at providing alternative towards affordable transportation that would benefit both vehicle-users as well as farmers and entrepreneurs.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about SATAT:

  • SATAT was launched with a four-pronged agenda of utilising more than 62 million metric tonnes of waste generated every year in India.
  • This scheme is lucrative for the prospective entrepreneurs as it provides guaranteed rate of return and assured take-off by Oil marketing companies.
  • It is planned to roll out 5,000 Compressed Bio-Gas plants across India in a phased manner. This initiative is expected to generate direct employment for 75,000 people and produce 50 million tonnes of bio-manure for crops.

Objective of SATAT:

  • Cutting down import dependence
  • Supplementing job creation
  • Reducing vehicular pollution from burning of agricultural waste.

 

 

Assam government’s PRANAM Bill is related to: a) Temple entry for women OR b) elderly parents of government employees?

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Answer:

  • The Parents Responsibility and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Bill is an effort to protect elderly parents of government employees in their times of need. It is the first of its kind Bill in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Highlights of bill:

  • Under the bill, it is mandatory for state government employees to look after their parents and unmarried differently abled siblings who do not have their own sources of income.
  • Under the bill’s provisions, if the PRANAM Commission gets a complaint that parents of a state government employee are being ignored, then 10 or 15 per cent of the employee’s salary will be deducted by the government and paid to the parents or differently-abled siblings.
  • The employees of private companies and the central government working in the state would also be covered by the bill at a later stage.
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