Flash Card

Day#82 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Battle of Singhagad; Sahel region; Treaty of Purandar; Indian festival - ‘Pushkaram’; Ik Onkar; National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB); NCRB 2017 Report;
By IASToppers
November 02, 2019



According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which Indian state has the maximum number of offences?

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According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), Haryana has the maximum number of offences in India followed by UP.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB):

  • National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is a part of central Home Ministry of India.
  • NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
  • It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force and National Police Commission by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Statistical Branch of BPR&D, Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.

NCRB 2017 Report:

  • Recently, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released its latest data on crime incidents across the country.
  • According to the latest NCRB report, there has been a 30 per cent rise in incidents of offences against the state as compared to 2016.
  • This category includes offences such as sedition, waging war against the country and damage to public property among others.

NCRB 2017 Report

  • The maximum number of such offences were reported from Haryana (2,576) followed by UP (2,055).
  • The maximum number of sedition cases were reported from Assam (19) followed by Haryana (13). Jammu and Kashmir recorded just one case of sedition while Chhattisgarh and all North East states, barring Assam, recorded zero incident.
  • A new category of offences committed by various categories of “Anti-National Elements” showed that the maximum offences were committed by Left Wing Extremist (LWE) operatives followed by North East insurgents and Terrorists.
  • The maximum number of killings were carried out by LWE insurgents followed by Chhattisgarh and killings by terrorists.
  • According to the data, a total of 50,07,044 cognizable crimes — 30,62,579 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 19,44,465 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes — were registered in 2017, an increase of 3.6 per cent in registration of cases over 2016.
  • Majority cases under crimes against women out of the total IPC crimes against women were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ (33.2 per cent) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (27.3 per cent), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (21.0 per cent) and ‘Rape’ (10.3 per cent).
  • In percentage terms, major crime heads under ‘Crime Against Children’ during 2017 were kidnapping and abduction (42.0 per cent) and cases under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (25.3 per cent) including child rape.



What is the meaning of symbol of ‘Ik Onkar’ in Sikh religious philosophy?

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Answer: God is one.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar

  • It is the symbol in that represent the one supreme reality and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy.
  • It has a prominent position at the head of the Mul Mantar and the opening words of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
  • It means one and only one who cannot be compared with any other.
  • It is a symbol of the unity of God in Sikhism meaning God is one.
  • It is found in the Gurumukhi script.
  • The symbol be noticed on buildings, monuments, Sikh Temples (Gurudwaras) and even the property of Sikh devotees.



Who is worshipped in Indian festival called ‘Pushkaram’?

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Answer: The Indian rivers are worshipped in the Indian festival ‘Pushkaram’.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Pushkaram is an Indian festival dedicated to worshiping of rivers.
  • It is also known as Pushkaralu (in Telugu), Pushkara (in Kannada) or Pushkar.
  • It is celebrated at shrines along the banks of 12 major sacred rivers in India, in form of ancestor worship, spiritual discourses, devotional music and cultural programmes.
  • The celebration happens annually, once in 12 years along each river. Each river is associated with a zodiac sign, and the river for each year’s festival is based on which sign Jupiter is in at the time.
  • Due to regional variations, some of the zodiac signs are associated with multiple rivers. For example, in Maharashtra, river Bhima is associated with Scorpio sign while rive Tamrapani in Tamil Nadu is associated with it.
  • The first 12 days and last 12 days of the month of Jupiter entering a zodiac sign are considered most auspicious.
  • The first twelve days are known as Adi Pushkaram, and the last twelve days are called Anthya Pushkaram.



In which continent, ‘Sahel Region’ is located?

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Answer: Africa (Northern part)

Enrich Your Learning:

Sahel region

  • The Sahel is a biogeographic and ecoclimatic zone of transition between the Sahara Desert ecoregion to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.


  • The area is located in the northern part of Africa stretching from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Sahel, being an eco-climatic and biographical zone has a variety of distinct and unique physical and biological features and a set of human-environmental conflicts.
  • The Sahel region experiences a tropical semi-arid climate, mainly hot and dry conditions throughout the year.
  • The Sahelian climate is influenced by the dry Harmattan winds as well as wind movements within the inter-tropical convergence zone. 
  • The terrain is dotted with isolated plateaus, mountain ranges, steppes, thorny shrublands, grasslands and the Savannah which is the primary vegetation zone.
  • The sahel region is covered by savannah and grassland with some areas with woodland and shrubland.
  • The Sahel region includes parts of Senegal, Mauritiana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Algeria, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.



Under which treaty, the Fort Kandhana or Fort Singhagad was given up by Maratha to Mughals?

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Answer: Treaty of Purandar

Enrich Your Learning:

Battle of Singhagad

  • The battle took place in the year 1670.
  • In the battle, Subedar Taanaji Malusare (a closed aid of Chhatrapati Shivaji) fought against Udaybhan Rathore (a formidable Rajput warrior) who was put in charge of Fort Kandhana (later named Singhagad) by Jai Singh.


  • In the year 1665, the Treaty of Purandar was signed between Jai Singh and Shivaji.
  • Amongst several demands, the treaty had required the Maratha ruler to give up Fort Kandhana to the Mughals. Located near Pune, the fort was one of the most heavily fortified and of high strategic importance.
  • After it was taken over by the Mughals, the fort was guarded by Rajput, Pathan and Arab troop guards and was said to be impenetrable.
  • Shivaji entrusted Taanaji of reconquering the fort Kondhana at any cost.
  • The fort was renamed as Singhagad (lion’s fort) by Shivaji to honour Tanaji.
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