Flash Card

Day#84 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); Indian Penal Code (IPC); ‘Pettathullal’; Special Drawing Rights; Sycamore; Quantum Computer;
By IASToppers
November 07, 2019



What is Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)?

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Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is a state-of-the-art telescope to study light from some of the coldest objects in the Universe.

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Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA):

  • The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
  • The European Southern Observatory (ESO) together with its international partners is operating ALMA at the Chajnantor plateau in the Chile.
  • This light has wavelengths of around a millimetre, between infrared light and radio waves therefore it is known as millimetre and submillimetre radiation.
  • ALMA comprises 66 high-precision antennas, spread over distances of up to 16 kilometres.
  • This global collaboration is the largest ground-based astronomical project in existence.
  • ALMA is an international partnership among Europe, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Chile.


  • ALMA is expected to provide insight on star birth and detailed imaging of star and planet formation.



Recently a word ‘Sycamore’ was in the news. What is Sycamore?

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Recently, Google announced that it had reached quantum supremacy and made quantum computer called Sycamore.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Google’s quantum computer, called Sycamore which is a 54-qubit processor, solved a particularly difficult problem in 200 seconds.
  • Although Sycamore performed a benchmark test, it has no real-world use.
  • Even if it has demonstrated quantum supremacy, it could take years or decades for the technology to be freely available.

What is Quantum Computer?

  • Quantum computer runs on the laws of quantum physics as opposed to the classical computers (i.e. phones and laptops), which run on classical physics like Newton’s laws of motion and utilising the flow of electricity.
  • A quantum computer uses the laws that govern the behaviour of atoms and subatomic particles. At that tiny scale, many laws of classical physics do not apply, and the unique laws of quantum physics come into play.
  • The quantum computer was posited by Richard Feynman for modelling quantum systems.


  • Use in labs for modelling systems, under extreme conditions, like in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
  • Data mining and artificial intelligence
  • Sciences which deal in volumes of data
  • Optimization, planning, and logistics
  • Forecasting
  • Financial modelling and Molecular modelling
  • Genomics, Drug design and discovery
  • Cybersecurity and cryptography

What is Quantum Supremacy?

  • Quantum supremacy describes the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot.
  • This term was proposed in 2012 by John Preskill, professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology.



Which currency is not part of the Special drawing rights? a) Franc OR b) Euro OR c) Japanese yen

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Answer: Franc is not part of IMF’s Special drawing rights.

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Currencies under IMF’s SDR basket:

The value of the Special drawing rights (SDR) is based on a basket of five currencies.

  1. S. dollar
  2. Euro
  3. Chinese renminbi
  4. Japanese yen
  5. British pound sterling.

Currencies under IMF’s SDR basket

What are Special Drawing Rights?

  • Special drawing rights refer to an international type of monetary reserve currency created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • In 1969 that operates as a supplement to the existing money reserves of member countries.
  • It is created in response to concerns about the limitations of gold and dollars as the sole means of settling international accounts.
  • SDRs augment international liquidity by supplementing the standard reserve currencies.
  • The IMF uses SDRs for internal accounting purposes. SDRs are allocated by the IMF to its member countries.
  • The makeup of the SDR is re-evaluated every five years.
  • To participate in this system, a country was required to have official reserves which consisted of central bank or government reserves of gold.
  • The SDR is neither a currency nor a claim against IMF assets, but a potential claim against the freely usable currencies of IMF members.



A dance named ‘Pettathullal’ belongs to which Indian state? a) Kerala OR b) Tamil Nadu.

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Answer: Kerala

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  • Pettahullal is the ritualistic sacred dance to celebrate the victory of good over evil in the legend of Lord Ayyappa.
  • It is performed during the November, December and January months in the presence of thousands of devotees at Erumely in the district of Kottayam in Kerala.
  • The pilgrims participating in Pettathullal often comes in groups and dresses like tribes with their body and face smeared by colours and charcoal, along with weapons such as sarakkol (arrow) and mace made of wood.
  • The thullal is accompanied by various instrumental music and mantras and is commenced from the Petta Sree Dharmasastha temple.
  • It also denotes the beginning of the last leg of the annual Sabarimala pilgrimage season in Kerala.
  • The chemical-based colours used during the Petta Thullal ritual are proposed to be banned by the Kerala State Pollution Board recently.



Indian Penal Code (IPC) was established under which act of British India? a) Charter Act of 1833 OR b) Pitts India Act

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Answer: Charter Act of 1833.

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Penal Code (IPC):

  • The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the official criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law.
  • The code was drafted in 1860 on the recommendations of first law commission of India established in 1834 under the Charter Act of 1833 under the Chairmanship of Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay.
  • The IPC replaced Mohammedan Criminal Law, which had a very close relationship with Islam.
  • It was the first codification of criminal law in the British Empire.
  • IPC is also the longest serving criminal code in the world.
  • Even though the IPC has been amended more than 75 times, India did not undertake any comprehensive revision based on the recommendations made in the 42nd Law Commission Report in 1971.
  • Most amendments have been ad hoc, in response to immediate circumstances in IPC.
  • In 2016, the Home Ministry had proposed insertion of two stricter anti-racial discrimination provisions in the IPC. The two amendments were: Section 153A and Section 509A that deal with racially motivated crimes.
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