Flash Card

Day#85 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Van Allen Belts’; World Food Programme (WFP); Port of Duqm; International Nitrogen Management System (INMS); ‘Index of Economic Freedom’ 2019;
By IASToppers
November 08, 2019



Which organisation/s has/have launched project ‘International Nitrogen Management System’?

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Answer: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) have launched the project with funding from Global Environmental Facility (GEF).

Enrich Your Learning:

International Nitrogen Management System (INMS)

  • It is a 6M USD project of the UNEP and the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  • It was established to bring scientific evidence together to inform policies and the public on the multiple benefits and threats of reactive nitrogen.
  • It is developing a process that will provide scientific support for international policy development related to nitrogen management.
  • ‘Towards INMS’ will develop the evidence base to showcase the need for effective practices for global nitrogen management and highlight options to maximize the multiple benefits of better nitrogen use. 

International Nitrogen Initiative (INI)

  • The International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) is an international program, set up in 2003 under sponsorship of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) and from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP).
  • The program is currently a sustained partner of Future Earth.

The key aims of the INI are to:

  • optimize nitrogen’s beneficial role in sustainable food production, and
  • minimize nitrogen’s negative effects on human health and the environment resulting from food and energy production.



‘Port of Duqm’ was recently in news. It is located in which country?

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Answer: Oman

Enrich Your Learning:

Port of Duqm

  • The Port of Duqm is situated on the southeastern seaboard of Oman, overlooking the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
  • It is strategically located, in close proximity to the Chabahar port in Iran. With the Assumption Island being developed in Seychelles and Agalega in Mauritius, Duqm fits into India’s proactive maritime security roadmap.
  • In 2018, India signed a pact with Oman that allows the Indian Navy to use the strategic port of Duqm.
  • Recently, Duqm has seen a rise in Indian activities. In September last year, India deployed an attack submarine to this port in the western Arabian Sea.
  • India gets access to strategic Oman port for military use, reconnaissance aircraft. 

Port of Duqm



Which International organisation runs World Food Programme as its food assistance aid?

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Answer: United Nations

Enrich Your Learning:

World Food Programme (WFP)

  • The WFP or World Food Programme is the food assistance branch of the United Nations.
  • It is the leading humanitarian organization saving lives and changing lives, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience.
  • It was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the UN General Assembly on a three –year experimental basis.
  • Its main objective is to end hunger and malnutrition.
  • Its food aid is directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies and reduce child mortality with improving maternal health and combat diseases including HIV and AIDS.
  • The programme is assisting 6.7 million people in around 83 countries each year.
  • WFP’s efforts focus on emergency assistance, relief and rehabilitation, development aid and special operations. 
  • Two-thirds of our work is in conflict-affected countrieswhere people are three times more likely to be undernourished than those living in countries without conflict. 
  • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
  • The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from governments of the world, corporations and private donors. 



What is ‘Van Allen Belts’ around the Earth?

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A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet’s magnetic field.

Van Allen Belts

Enrich Your Learning:

Van Allen Belts’:

  • A Van Allen Belts refers to a layer of charged and energetic particles which is held by the planet’s magnetic field around the planet.
  • Most of particles are originate from the solar wind.
  • The Van Allen belt specifically refers to the radiation belts around the Earth.
  • These belts were discovered by a group of US scientists in 1958 under the supervision of Dr James Van Allen.
  • The Earth has two belts
  • One is Van Allen and the second appears to be temporary.
  • Planets like Jupiter and Saturn have similar belts.
  • The Sun itself has only temporary radiation belts because it lacks a global dipole field.
  • These belts are found in the inner part of the Earth’s magnetosphere.
  • The main constituents of the belts are believed to come from solar wind and cosmic rays.
  • The belt is divided into another two belts – outer and inner.
  • The outer belt of the radiation belt is formed by the energetic and charged electrons.
  • The radiation belt can be a danger to satellites that spend considerable time in the radiation belt.
  • The inner belt contains a combination of protons and electrons and is formed as a result of cosmic ray collisions in the upper atmosphere.



Which country secured the first rank under ‘Index of Economic Freedom’ in 2019?

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Answer: Hong Kong

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Index of Economic Freedom’ 2019

  • The Index of Economic Freedomis an annual index and ranking created in 1995 by the Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world’s nations.
  • Hong Kong’s economic freedom score is 90.2, sustaining its status as the world’s freest economy in the 2019 Index. The second and third rank goes to Singapore and New Zealand.
  • The Index covers 12 freedoms – from property rights to financial freedom – in 186 countries.
  • For the 2019 Index , most data covers the second half of 2017 through the first half of 2018.
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