Flash Card

Day#91 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC); Additive Manufacturing (AM); Puerto Williams; SAGAR Doctrine; Appointment of the governor of a state; Administration of Union territory;
By IASToppers
December 04, 2019



Can the President appoint the governor of a state as the administrator of an adjoining union territory?

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Yes. The President can also appoint the governor of a state as the administrator of an adjoining union territory.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why is administration of Puducherry in news?

  • The Supreme Court has issued notice on a plea by the Administrator, Union Territory of Puducherry to stay a Madras High Court decision to curb the Lieutenant Governor’s (LG) powers to interfere in the day-to-day administration of the Union Territory.

Madras High Court decision:

  • The high court had said that unlike Article 239AA, which imposes several restrictions on the legislature of Delhi, no such restrictions were imposed explicitly on Puducherry under Article 239A.
  • The judgment had held that government Secretaries of the Puducherry administration were required to report to the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister on all official matters.
  • The High Court also disapproved of the alleged practice of government officials being part of social media groups through which the LG was issuing instructions to them for redressal of public grievances.

Key features about the administration of Union territory:

  • Articles 239 to 241 in Part VIII of the Constitution deal with the union territories.
  • Each union territory is administered by the President acting through an administrator appointed by him.
  • The President can specify the designation of an administrator; it may be Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administrator.
  • Currently in Delhi, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands it is Lieutenant Governor and administrator in the case of Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep.
  • The Union Territories of Puducherry (in 1963) and Delhi (in 1992) are provided with a legislative assembly4 and a council of ministers headed by a chief minister.
  • The Parliament can make laws on any subject of the three lists (including the State List) for the union territories.
  • The legislative power of Parliament for the union territories on subjects of the State List remain unaffected even after establishing a local legislature for them.
  • But, the legislative assembly of Puducherry can also make laws on any subject of the State List and the Concurrent List.
  • Similarly, the legislative assembly of Delhi can make laws on any subject of the State List (except public order, police and land) and the Concurrent List.
  • The President can make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu.
  • In the case of Puducherry also, the President can legislate by making regulations but only when the assembly is suspended or dissolved.
  • The Parliament can establish a high court for a union territory or put it under the jurisdiction of the high court of adjacent state.

Can the President repeal or amend any act of Parliament in relation to these union territories?

  • A regulation made by the President has the same force and effect as an act of Parliament and can also repeal or amend any act of Parliament in relation to these union territories.

How is an administrator of UT different from the State governor?

  • An administrator of a union territory is an agent of the President and not head of state like a governor.

Acquired territories:

  • The Constitution does not contain any separate provisions for the administration of acquired territories.
  • But, the constitutional provisions for the administration of union territories also apply to the acquired territories.

Key Facts:

  • Delhi is the only union territory that has a high court of its own (since 1966).
  • The Bombay High Court has got jurisdiction over two union territories Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Puducherry are placed under the Calcutta, Punjab and Haryana, Kerala, and Madras High Courts respectively.



Recently a term ‘SAGAR Doctrine’ was in the news. This term is related to: a) Arabian Sea OR b) Indian ocean

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SAGAR refers to “Security and Growth for All in the Region” a doctrine outlined by Prime Minister in 2015 aiming to keep the Indian Ocean region peaceful and secure.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is SAGAR Doctrine?

  • SAGAR Doctrine was unveiled by India in 2016 underlining the growing salience of the Indian Ocean and global maritime commons in India’s strategic calculus.
  • It calls for intensifying cooperation among navies and maritime agencies of the world to engineer virtuous cycles of cooperation.
  • It is a maritime initiative which gives priority to Indian Ocean region for ensuring peace, stability and prosperity of India in Indian Ocean region.


  • SAGAR Doctrine approaches significant importance while India playing the role of a security provider for the entire Indian Region.
  • It calls for intensifying cooperation among navies and maritime agencies of the world to engineer virtuous cycles of cooperation.
  • The goal of it is to seek a climate of trust and transparency; respect for international maritime rules and norms by all countries; sensitivity to each other`s interests; peaceful resolution of maritime issues; and increase in maritime cooperation.



The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has more than 50 members. True OR False.

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  • It has 57 member states.

Enrich Your Learning:

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC):

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

  • OIC is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states. It is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations.
  • It is headquartered at Saudi Arabia.
  • The Organization was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Morocco in 1969 following the criminal arson of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.
  • The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony “.
  • The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union.
  • The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.
  • There are specialized organs under the OIC that includes the Islamic Development Bank and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, as well as other subsidiary and affiliate organs.
  • OIC has been criticised by many Muslims for its lack of real engagement and solutions for Muslim countries in crisis. It is said to have made progress in social and academic terms but not politically.



Which is the southernmost city of the world?

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Puerto Williams

Enrich Your Learning:

Puerto Williams:

Recently, Puerto Williams became southernmost city of world after it was upgraded to the category of city by Chilean authorities.

Puerto Williams

  • Puerto Williams is a Chilean port, located on Isla Navarino island facing the Beagle Channel.
  • Founded by geopolitical reasons, it is located in the Magallanes Province of Chile.
  • It was formally known as Puerto Luisa.
  • Since foundation in 1953, it has served primarily as a naval base for Chile.
  • The Yahgan tribe are believed to have migrated to this area more than 10,000 years ago and established their traditional hunter-gatherer culture.


  • Puerto Williams is a significant strategic location for Chile as far as marine traffic between the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans is concerned.
  • Also, Puerto Williams is the port of entry and major hub for scientific activity linked to Antarctica.



A term ‘‘Additive Manufacturing’ was recently in news. What is ‘Additive Manufacturing’?

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Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a transformative approach to industrial production that enables the creation of lighter, stronger parts and systems. It is a technological advancement made possible by the transition from analogue to digital processes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Additive Manufacturing (AM):

  • Additive manufacturing (AM) is the industrial production name for 3D printing and a computer controlled process that creates three dimensional objects by depositing materials, usually in layers.
  • Using digitally controlled and operated material laying tools, additive manufacturing can make ‘objects’ from a digital ‘model’ by depositing the constituent material/s.

Four main components of Additive Manufacturing:

  • A digital model of the object,
  • Material/s that are consolidated from the smallest possible form for example liquid droplets, wire, powder to make the object,
  • A tool for laying materials and
  • A digital control system for the tool to lay the material/s layer-by-layer to build the shape of the object.

About Additive Manufacturing (AM):

  • As per International Organization for Standardization (ISO/ASTM) standards AM can be divided into the seven process categories.

The seven type of categories are as follows:

  1. Vat Photo Polymerization:
  • A liquid photopolymer is selectively cured by light-activated polymerization to create a 3D part in this process.
  • Only Plastic can be printed using these technologies.
  1. Binder jetting process:
  • In this process a binding liquid is selectively deposited to join powder material together to form a 3D part.
  • This process is unique because it does not employ heat during the process like others to fuse the material together.
  1. Directed energy deposition:
  • Focused thermal energy such as a laser, electron beam, or plasma arc is used in this process to fuse materials by melting as they are being deposited.
  • The process is also known as “Metal Deposition” and can be used for any material.
  • It was developed by Sandia National Laboratories in 1995 under the name of LENS (Laser Engineering Net Shape).
  1. Material extrusion:
  • This technique uses continuous filament of thermoplastic or composite material to construct 3D parts.
  1. Material jetting:
  • In Material jetting, build material droplets are selectively deposited layer by layer into the build platform to form a 3D part.
  1. Powder bed fusion:
  • In this technique either laser, heat or electron beam is used to melt and fuse the material together to form a three-dimensional object.
  1. Sheet lamination:
  • It is the process of building a 3D object by stacking and laminating sheets of material.
  • Paper and metal foil are most commonly used materials and it is used to produce coloured objects in a high detailed resolution.

Additive Manufacturing Society of India:

  • Additive Manufacturing Society of India (AMSI) promote 3D printing & Additive Manufacturing Technologies in India.
  • It is a helps the design, research and development organisations, manufacturing professionals and academics in 3D Printing.

Advantages of additive manufacturing:

  • It reduces waste compared to machinery.
  • Without any tooling complex 3D geometries with internal features can be printed.
  • Different materials can be mixed during the printing process to create a unique alloy.
  • Prototypes can be made quicker allowing designers to check different iterations resulting in quicker design cycle phase.
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