What is ‘Population ageing’?
- The term ‘Population ageing’ refers to a phenomenon in which the median age of the population in a region or country rises significantly when compared to the total population.
- It is a shift in the distribution of a country’s population towards older ages.
- Population ageing is widespread across the world. It is most advanced in the most highly developed countries, but it is growing faster in less developed regions, which means that older persons will be increasingly concentrated in the less developed regions of the world.
- This is caused by a declining birth rate and/or rising life expectancy.
- An increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduce.
- Of these two forces, it is declining fertility that is the largest contributor to population ageing in the world today.
Aged population in India:
- According to Population Census 2011 there are nearly 104 million elderly persons (aged 60 years or above) in India; 53 million females and 51 million males.