Flash Cards

[Geography] Flash Cards Sample Set #1

‘Mixed Farming’; ‘Population ageing’ and factors responsible for it; Major characteristics of the Laurentian type of climate; Rural or Village roads in India; Dew and ideal conditions for its formation
By IT's Research Team
March 18, 2019



What is dew and what are the ideal conditions for its formation?

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iastoppers dew

  • When the moisture is deposited in the form of water droplets on cooler surfaces of solid objects (rather than nuclei in air above the surface) such as stones, grass blades and plant leaves, it is known as dew.
  • The ideal conditions for its formation are clear sky, calm air, high relative humidity, and cold and long nights.
  • For the formation of dew, it is necessary that the dew point is above the freezing point. It is more likely on clear nights due to increased radiative cooling.
  • The temperature at which condensation begins is termed the dew point.
  • The best conditions for dew formation are high humidity in the lowest layers of air and the absence of a strong wind, which would create a larger, more homogeneous layer of air.



What do you understand by the term ‘Mixed Farming’?

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  • Mixed farming is an agrarian system that comprises farming along with the raising of livestock simultaneously.
  • When on a farm along-with crop production, some other agriculture based practice like poultry, dairy farming or bee keeping etc. is adopted, then this system of farming is known as mixed farming.
  • It is the dominant system in Europe and now in parts of India, where most farms have a mixture of fields and pastures.
  • It was first mainly used for self-consumption, but now in Advanced countries like USA, Japan, etc., this is done for a commercial purpose.



Rural or Village roads constitute the maximum length of roads in India, followed by State Highways. Right or wrong?

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Rural or Village roads account for over 58% of the total length of roads in the country followed by State Highways with 3.5 %. National Highways constitute 2 %.

ias-toppers-Rural or Village roads



What are the major characteristics of the Laurentian type of climate?

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  • It is an intermediate type of climate between the British Type Climate (moderate) and the Taiga Type Climate (extreme) of climate.
  • It is found only in two regions, that too in northern hemisphere only. One in North eastern North America wherein warm Gulf Stream meets with cold Labrador currents and second in Eastern coast of Asia where warm Kuroshio meets with cold Oyashio currents. [The fusion of currents is most favourable condition for fishes to grow.]

Laurentian type of climate

  • In the southern hemisphere, this climatic type is absent because only a small section of the southern continents extends south of the latitude of 40°S.
  • The Laurentian type of climate has cold, dry winters and warm, wet summers.
  • Winter temperatures may be well below freezing-point and snow falls to quite a depth.
  • Summers are as warm as the tropics (70° – 80°F.) and if it were not for the cooling effects of the off-shore cold currents from the Arctic the summer might be even hotter.
  • Though rainfalls through-out the year, there is a distinct summer maximum from the easterly winds from the ocean.



What do you understand by the term ‘Population ageing’? and What are the factors responsible for it?

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What is ‘Population ageing’?


  • The term ‘Population ageing’ refers to a phenomenon in which the median age of the population in a region or country rises significantly when compared to the total population.
  • It is a shift in the distribution of a country’s population towards older ages.
  • Population ageing is widespread across the world. It is most advanced in the most highly developed countries, but it is growing faster in less developed regions, which means that older persons will be increasingly concentrated in the less developed regions of the world.

Factors responsible:

  • This is caused by a declining birth rate and/or rising life expectancy.
  • An increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduce.
  • Of these two forces, it is declining fertility that is the largest contributor to population ageing in the world today.

Aged population in India:

ias-toppers-Population ageing-india

  • According to Population Census 2011 there are nearly 104 million elderly persons (aged 60 years or above) in India; 53 million females and 51 million males.

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