Flash Cards

[History] Flash Cards Sample Set #1

Phulkari Art; Ramman: A religious festival and ritual theatre; Decline of Buddhism in India in the early medieval times; Third Battle of Panipat; Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme in 1931 Congress Session
By IT's Research Team
March 18, 2019




For the Karachi session of Indian National Congress in 1931, presided over by Sardar Patel, who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme?

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  • Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
  • In 1931, The Karachi session was presided by Sardar Patel.
  • The congress adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy which represented the Party’s Social, Economic and Political programme.
  • It was later known as Karachi Resolution.




Is Phulkari a painting art or embroidery technique?

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Phulkari is an embroidery technique from the Punjab region.



  • It literally means flower work.
  • It is a simple and sparse embroidery done on Shawls and Scarfs.
  • The embroidery is done with floss silk thread on coarse hand woven cotton fabric.
  • This whole work is done with white or yellow silk floss on cotton khaddarh and starts from the center on the fabric called “chashm-e-bulbul” and spreads to the whole fabric.
  • Geometrical patterns are usually embroidered on the Phulkaris.
  • The main characteristics of Phulkari embroidery are use of darn stitch on the wrong side of coarse cotton cloth with coloured silken thread.
  • Phulkaris and Baghs were worn by women all over Punjab during marriage festivals and other joyous occasions.
  • There is reference of Phulkari in Vedas, Mahabharat, Guru Granth Sahib and folk songs of Punjab.




Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times?

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  • The decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent has been attributed to various factors, especially the regionalisation of ancient India after the end of the Gupta empire (320-650 CE), which lead to a competition with Hinduism and Jainism and the loss of patronage and donations; and the conquest and subsequent persecutions by Huns, then Muslim Turks and Persians particularly from the 10th century onwards.
  • Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism.
  • Buddhism largely disappeared from most of India with the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India.




Ramman is a religious festival and ritual theatre of which Indian state?

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Ramman is a religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.



  • The festival is based on the story of Ramayana.
  • The festival is held in honour of Bhumichetrapal, also known as Bhumiyal Devta every year after Baisakhi, a harvest festival that also marks the beginning of the Hindu Solar New Year.
  • In 2009, UNESCO inscribed Ramman on its Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.




What was the immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and fight the Third Battle of Panipat?

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  • Ahmad Shah Abdali wanted to avenge the expulsion by marathas of his viceroy Timur “Shah from Lahore.
  • To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India and brought Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on the Indian side of Attock under Maratha rule.
  • Thus, upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Amidst appeals from Muslim leaders like Shah Waliullah, Ahmad Shah chose to return to India and confront the Maratha Confederacy.

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