Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-1] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Description Historique et Geographique De l’Inde; Khuzestan; Recognition of Prior Learning; Carbon fibers; 51 Pegasi b; Arka Suprabath; National Agricultural Market (NAM); Guru Nanak Dev’s travels from Tibet to Iran; Erythropoietin; Tiger TRIUMP
By IASToppers
March 06, 2020

 

 

The tri-service exercise named ‘Tiger Triumph’ is the exercise between India and______.

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Solution:

The tri-services exercise named Tiger Triumph is the exercise between India and United States.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tiger TRIUMP:

Why in news?

  • Indian and American defense forces will hold their first tri-services amphibious exercise called Tiger Triumph off the Andhra coast on India’s eastern seaboard in November this year.

Exercise Tiger Triumph:

  • India and the United States are set to hold their first tri-services exercise code-named “Tiger Triumph” at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada.
  • The focus of the drill will be on amphibious humanitarian disaster and relief (HADR) operations.
  • It is being organized under the aegis of the headquarters of the Integrated Defense Staff.
  • The delegates from the US Navy and the Marine Corps and representatives from the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force will take part in exercise.
  • India earlier conducted such tri-service exercise with Russia.

 

 

What is the name of a hormone released by human Kidney which is known to increase oxygen availability to the cells by boosting the production of red blood cells?

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Solution: Erythropoietin

Enrich Your Learning:

Erythropoietin

  • It is a hormone which is released by specialised cells present in Kidneys.
  • When oxygen level is low, as in high altitudes, more of this hormone is produced and released, leading to increased production of red blood cells in the bone marrow — helping the body adapt to high altitudes.
  • Besides increasing red blood cells, the body also grows new blood vessels to increase blood supply.
  • In simple words, erythropoietin is increases the oxygen availability to the cells by boosting the production of red blood cells.

Why do athletes use erythropoietin?

  • Athletes have been found to use erythropoietin, synthetic oxygen carriers and blood transfusions for blood
  • Each of the three substances or methods is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

What are its risks?

  • In the case of healthy people who have a normal red blood cell count, the use of external erythropoietin is highly likely to make the blood thick (increase viscosity) leading to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and cerebral or pulmonary embolism (clot that blocks the flow of blood).

 

 

The Janamsakhis are legendary biographies of Guru Nanak. True OR False.

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Solution:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Guru Nanak Dev’s travels from Tibet to Iran:

  • Rabab is the string instrument carried by Bhai Mardana who went for life long journey with Guru Nanak.
  • Guru Nanak travelled with Bhai Mardana, preaching the message of Monism — where everything is one, where we are all one.
  • Between the 15th and16th century, the universal narratives of Guru Nanak’s travels were rendered solely through oral narratives and only in the 17th century, these were documented in the form of books called Janamsakhis, written by men of faith.
  • Janamsakhis gave rise to a diverse canvas of storytelling, travelogue and hagiography.
  • The verses of Baba Farid which is enshrined in the Guru Granth Sahib were collected by Guru Nanak himself from Pakpattan.

Some important places

  • Mausoleum of Bahauddin Zakariya in Multan
  • Hinglaj Nani Mandir Caves in Balochistan
  • Baba Farid’s grave at Pakpattan

 

 

Which is the implementing agency of the ‘National Agricultural Market (NAM)?

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Answer:

  • ‘National Agricultural Market’ (NAM) is implemented by Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC).

Enrich Your Learning:

National Agricultural Market (NAM)

  • National Agriculture Market (NAM) is an electronic trading portal that networks the existing APMC mandis all over India in order to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
  • The market facilitates farmers, traders and buyers with online trading in commodities. The market is helping in better price discovery and provide facilities for smooth marketing of their produce.
  • Over 90 commodities including staple food grains, vegetables and fruits are currently listed in its list of commodities available for trade.

Who implements the eNAM?

  • Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) is the lead agency for implementing eNAM under the aegis of Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India.

Vision of NAM

  • To promote uniformity in agriculture marketing by streamlining of procedures across the integrated markets.
  • Removing information asymmetry between buyers and sellers.
  • Promoting real time price discovery based on actual demand and supply

 

 

What is the name of new variety of Mango developed by Bengaluru -based Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR)?

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Solution:  Arka Suprabath

Enrich Your Learning:

Arka Suprabath

  • Bengaluru -based Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR) has released a latest variety of MANGO named ‘Arka Suprabath’.
  • The variety is developed by crossing four other varieties. Arka Suprabath is developed after combining the best of Amrapali (for pulp, colour, taste and bearing) and Arka Anmol (for size and colour).
  • Amrapali is a crossbreed of Dashehari and Neelam and Arka anmol is a cross breed of Alphonso and Janardan Pasand.
  • The tree of Arka Suprabath is said to live for up to 60 years.
  • Arka Suprabath is a rare variety as it has got Alphonso shape with the pulp colour of Amrapali.
  • It is sweet with less acidic properties (0.12%). Its deep orange firm pulp is less fibrous than other varieties.
  • Alphonso tends to show irregular bearing after 15 to 20 years of cultivation, but Arka Suprabath grows consistently in bunches.
  • It will take four years for the crop to be available commercially.

Why was Arka Suprabath cross-bred?

  • Mango is a highly cross-pollinated and heterozygouscrop, which means it is difficult to get all the desired characters/traits in a single variety.
  • That is why Arka Suprabath was developed after combining Amrapali and Arka Anmol.

 

 

51 Pegasi b, as recently seen in news, is known for?

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Answer:

  • 51 Pegasi b is the first exoplanet discovered in 1995 by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz.

Enrich Your Learning:

51 Pegasi b

  • These two scientists have received, the Noble prize for Physics this year for discovering for the first time a planet outside our solar system orbiting a Sun-like star.
  • On October 6, 1995, the prize-winning duo discovered a planet orbiting a star 51 Pegasi present in constellation Pegasus. It was named 51 Pegasi b, as per astronomical conventions.
  • It is some 50 light years away from earth.
  • It is a gas giant, about half the size of Jupiter, which is why it was given the name Dimidium, meaning one-half.
  • It orbits its star in just four days.

What are exoplants?

  • An exoplanet is a planet outside oursolar system.
  • It is an extrasolar planet.

 

 

 

What is Carbon Fiber? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

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Solution:

Carbon Fiber is a polymer with 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms and is sometimes known as graphite.

Enrich Your Learning:

Carbon fibers:

  • Carbon Fiber is a polymer with 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms and is sometimes known as graphite.
  • Carbon fiber is made of thin, strong crystalline filaments of carbon that is used to strengthen material.

Characteristics:

  • It is a very strong material that is also very lightweight.
  • On top of being strong, carbon fiber:
  • Is high in stiffness
  • Is high in tensile strength
  • Has a low weight to strength ratio
  • Is high in chemical resistance
  • Is temperature tolerant to excessive heat
  • Has low thermal expansion

How is Carbon Fiber made?

  • Carbon fiber is made from a process that is part chemical and part mechanical.
  • It starts by drawing long strands of fibers and then heating them to a very high temperature without allowing contact to oxygen to prevent the fibers from burning.
  • This is when the carbonization takes place, which is when the atoms inside of the fibers vibrate violently, expelling most of the non-carbon atoms.
  • This leaves a fiber composed of long, tightly inter-locked chains of carbon atoms with only a few non-carbon atoms remaining.

Advantages:

  • It can be woven together to form cloth and if needed to take a permanent shape, carbon fiber can be laid over a mold and coated in resin or plastic.
  • Extra ordinary properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports.

Disadvantage:

  • However, they are relatively expensive when compared with similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers.

Key Facts:

  • Carbon fiber is five-times stronger than steel and twice as stiff. Though carbon fiber is stronger and stiffer than steel, it is lighter than steel.
  • Carbon fiber can be thinner than a strand of human hair and gets its strength when twisted together like yarn.
  • Carbon fiber composites could reduce passenger car weight by 50%, which would improve fuel efficiency by nearly 35% without compromising the performance of the car or the safety of its passengers.

 

 

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a component of a) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana OR b) Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.

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Solution:

The Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a component of PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana) and is primarily focussed on assessing and certifying the skills of informal sector workers.

Enrich Your Learning:

Recognition of Prior Learning:

  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a platform to provide recognition to the informal learning or learning through work to get equal acceptance as the formal levels of education.
  • It aims to appreciate prior learning irrespective of the medium of achieving it.
  • In short, RPL is a process of assessment of an individual’s prior learning to give due importance to learning as an outcome rather than learning as process.

Objective:

  • To enhance the industry acceptability of RPL certification and extend outreach of the scheme directly to reputed employers / industries.
  • Collaboration with Top employers will help to enhance credibility of certification and help to promote mobility of the workforce across the media sector.
  • Industry will be benefited from their workforce being certified under the National Skill Qualification Framework(NSQF).
  • Achieve economy and scale through a simplified procedure of assessment through manager/supervisor/departmental head for the other employees of his/her department.
  • Co-branded certification to incentivize and recognize the industry.

Implementation Strategy:

  • Sensitization and on boarding of eligible employers
  • Identification of employer assessor and employees
  • Project submission and approval
  • Orientation of the employer assessor
  • Internal Assessment
  • Co-branded certification

Eligibility Criteria of Employer:

  • Annual Turnover not less than 50 Crores
  • Number of Employees should be minimum 150
  • Minimum 2 Years of Operations

 

 

Recently Iran has discovered a new oil field with over 53 billion barrels of crude. This filed is located in which province of Iran?

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Solution:

Recently Iran has discovered a new oil field with over 53 billion barrels of crude is located Khuzestan province of Iran.

Enrich Your Learning:

Khuzestan:

Why in news?

  • Iran has discovered a new oil field located in Iran’s south western province of Khuzestan with over 53 billion barrels of crude.

Key Facts:

  • Iran currently has the world’s fourth-largest proven deposits of crude oil and the world’s second-largest deposits of natural gas.
  • It shares a massive offshore field in the Persian Gulf with Qatar.
  • The new oil field could become Iran’s second-largest field after Ahvaz.
  • Venezuela is largest proven deposits of crude oil in the world followed by the Saudi Arabia and Canada.

Khuzestan:

  • Khuzestan Province is one of the provinces of Iran. It is in the southwest of the country, bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf.

 

 

‘Description Historique et Geographique De l’Inde’ is a travel book written by which 18th-century missionary who travelled in India? (a) Joseph Tieffenthaler OR b) William Finch?

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Solution:

Description Historique et Geographique De l’Inde is a travel book written by the Joseph Tieffenthaler which was an 18th-century missionary who travelled in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Description Historique et Geographique De l’Inde:

  • It is a travel book written by the Joseph Tieffenthaler which was an 18th-century missionary who travelled in India for 27 years, and wrote his travelogue.

Why in news?

  • Some of the paragraphs from Tieffenthaler’s travel book are cited in the recent SC judgement on ayodhya case.

About travel book:

He mentioned in his travel book that,

  • there was a temple in Ayodhya constructed on the elevated bank of the river.
  • Aurangzeb was always keen to propagate the creed of Mohammed and abhorring the noble people and he demolished it and replaced with a mosque and two obelisks.
  • Aurangzeb did it with a view to obliterate even the very memory of the Hindu superstition.
  • Mentioned another mosque built by the Moors (The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants) is adjacent to the one towards the East.
  • Aurangzeb got the fortress called Ramcot demolished and got a Muslim temple with triple domes constructed at the same place. (Others say that it was constructed by ‘Babar’.)
  • There were Fourteen black stone pillars in temple. It is narrated that these pillars were brought from the Island of Lanca or Selendip (called Ceyian by the Europeans) by Hanuman, King of Monkeys.

Joseph Tieffenthaler:

  • He had proficient skills in mathematics, astronomy and Sanskrit language.
  • In India, he was commissioned at the famous observatory of Sawai Jai Singh, the Raja of Jaipur, and was later attached at the Jesuit College in Agra which was built with the patronage of Akbar.
  • Tieffenthaler lived in Awadh, where Ayodhya is located, for over five years.
  • Tieffenthaler underwent religious training in the Jesuit order before setting sail for Goa from Portugal in 1743.
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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