The hunter-gatherers move from place to place in search of the basic need such as food and water. For hunting they used stone tolls which were made mainly by two techniques.
- Stone on stone technique
- Pressure flaking technique
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Why hunter-gatherers move from place to place?
Here are the main reasons why hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
- If they had stayed at one place for a long time, they would have eaten up all the available plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
- Animals move from place to place either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves. That is why those who hunted them had to follow their movements.
- Plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So, people may have moved from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.
- Water is the basic need for survival of man, plants and animals and it is found in lakes, streams and rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial, others are seasonal. People living on their banks would have had to go in search of water during the dry seasons (winter and summer).
- Besides, people may have travelled to meet their friends and relatives.
How do we know about these people?
- Archaeologists have found some of the things hunter-gatherers made and used.
- It is likely that people made and used tools of stone, wood and bone, of which stone tools have survived best.
- Some of these stone tools were used to cut meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots.
- Some may have been attached to handles of bone or wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.
- Other tools were used to chop wood for firewood. Wood was also used to make huts and tools.
- Stone tools may also have been used for digging the ground to collect edible roots and stitching clothes made out of animal skin.
Making stone tools
Stone tools were probably made using two different techniques:
- The first is called stone on stone. In which the pebble from which the tool was to be made (also called the core) was held in one hand. Another stone, which was used as a hammer was held in the other hand. The second stone was used to strike off flakes from the first, till the required shape was obtained.
- Pressure flaking: The core was placed on a firm surface. The hammer stone was used on a piece of bone or stone that was placed on the core, to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.