Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-10] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Battle of Plassey; Indian Desert and Coastal plains; Delhi sultanate; Cropping patterns in India; Block Printing; Grasslands and its types; Sculpture, Agriculture and Administration of Chola empire; Decline of havelis; Factors affecting India’s climate; Natural Fibre
By IASToppers
March 16, 2020

 

 

The type of printing using wooden blocks dipped in colour is called?

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Answer: Block Printing

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Block Printing:

  • Block printing is practiced all over Western and Central India.
  • Each design is printed with a series of different intricately cut wooden blocks.
  1. Carving the blocks is itself an art, the block for the outline, for the background, one block for each of the other colours. Some designs have as many as six to eight different colours.
  2. The block is dipped in liquid colour, and pressed firmly onto the specially treated cloth with a little bang of the other hand to make it register evenly.
  3. Once the whole cloth has been printed with one block, printing with the next block follows, and then the next, in sequence.
  4. Printers have to be careful to place the little marker at the corner of the block to make sure it doesn’t slip and that each colour fits into the design accurately.

Distinctive Designs and Techniques:

  • Like weaves and embroideries, block-print designs and colours have the special stamp of the places from where they originate.
  • Those from Sanganer in Rajasthan have designs that include delicate floral butis in a range of colours.
  • Farrukhabad of Uttar Pradesh has all-over paisley jaals.
  • Bagh prints from Madhya Pradesh are in dramatic red and black.
  • Dhamadka of Kutch is famous for its double-sided ajrak, interlocked hexagonal motifs in shades of indigo, crimson and black.
  • In some, the dye is applied directly to the cloth, in others, areas are prevented from getting colored by the use of wax, mud, or chemicals.

 

 

The harvesting months of Kharif crops are?

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Answer: Kharif crops are harvested in September-October.

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Cropping pattern:

  • India has diversity in the agricultural practices and cropping patterns in the country.
  • India has three cropping seasons — Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

Rabi crops:

  • Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June.
  • Some of the important Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
  • Though, these crops are grown in large parts of India, states from the north and north-western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important for the production of wheat and other Rabi crops.
  • Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
  • However, the success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the above-mentioned Rabi crops.

Kharif Crops:

  • Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October.
  • Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, arhar, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.
  • Some of the most important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Recently, paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana.
  • In states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year.
  • These are Aus, Aman and Boro.

Zaid Crops:

  • In between the Rabi and the Kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season.
  • Some of the crops produced during ‘Zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.

 

 

Battle of Plassey was fought between?

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Answer: Battle of Plassey was fought between Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and British East India Company led by Robert Clive.

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Battle of Plassey:

  • The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India.
  • The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive.
  • The war is often known for the ‘great betrayal’ to the Nawab due to the defection of Mir Jafar Ali Khan, who was Siraj-ud-daula’s commander in chief.
  • The battle took place at Plassey on the banks of the Hooghly River, about 150 kilometres north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad, then capital of Bengal.

Consequences of Battle of Plassey:

  • The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
  • The Plassey war lasted only for few hours.
  • This shows Siraj-ud-daula’s weaknesses and inability for the throne.
  • He was defeated, captured and executed in his own capital
  • Britishers gained political and economic power in Bengal which was the wealth-house of India.
  • They could now indirectly rule their territory.
  • Company would now trade from Bengal without any restrictions.
  • Company now become more prestigious as French rule over Indian places was also vanished.
  • Company became economically strong. They no more depended on Europe for finance.
  • The company extracted huge sums of money from Mir Jafar.
  • The company got one crore and seventy-seven lakh rupees as war compensation as well.

 

 

Delhi sultanate ruled India during which centuries?

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Answer: Delhi sultanate ruled India during 13th to the 16th century.

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Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate:

  • Delhi sultanate, principal Muslim sultanate in north India from the 13th to the 16th century.
  • In the early 13th century the control of the Delhi Sultans rarely went beyond heavily fortified towns occupied by garrisons.
  • The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities and were therefore dependent upon trade, tribute or plunder for supplies.
  • Controlling garrison towns in distant Bengal and Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult.
  • Rebellion, war, even bad weather could snap fragile communication routes.
  • Delhi’s authority was also challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan and by governors who rebelled at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness.
  • The Sultanate barely survived these challenges.
  • Its consolidation occurred during the reign of Ghiyasuddin Balban and further expansion under Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughlaq.

First expansion:

  • The first set of campaigns along the “internal frontier” of the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterlands of the garrison towns.
  • During these campaigns forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter-gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat.
  • These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged.
  • New fortresses, garrison towns and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.

Second expansion:

  • The second expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate.
  • Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughlaq.
  • In their campaigns, Sultanate armies captured elephants, horses and slaves and carried away precious metals.
  • By the end of Muhammad Tughlaq’s reign, 150 years after somewhat humble beginnings, the armies of the Delhi Sultanate had marched across a large part of the subcontinent.
  • They had defeated rival armies and seized cities.
  • The Sultanate collected taxes from the peasantry and dispensed justice in its realm.

 

 

Barchans, the relief features found in deserts are?

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Answer: Crescent-shaped sand dunes

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Indian Desert and Coastal plains

The Indian Desert:

  • The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravalli Hills.
  • It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.
  • This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year.
  • It has arid climate with low vegetation cover.
  • Streams appear during the rainy season.
  • Soon after they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea.
  • Luni is the only large river in this region.
  • Barchans (crescent-shaped lifting sand dunes) cover larger areas but longitudinal dunes become more prominent near the Indo-Pakistan boundary.

The Coastal Plains:

  • The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
  • The western coast, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections.
    • The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa), the central stretch is called the Kanada Plain, while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast.
  • The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level.
  • In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast.
  • Large rivers, such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast.
  • Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern coast.

 

 

The words named Moonj, sarkanda, kora, sikki, chipkiang, madur kathi are used for what in regional areas of India?

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Answer:

A great variety of baskets, mats and floor coverings are made from grass and reed fibres which are referred to in local languages as moonj, sarkanda, kora, sikki, chipkiang, madur kathi, rice straw, kauna reed. Reeds grow naturally in marshy land and in ponds.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is a Natural Fibre?

Natural fibres made of cellulose or plant matter can be obtained from almost every part of the plant such as the root, stem or shoot, leaf, fruit and bark from many tree species.

Stems:

  • Kauna is the local name for a reed or rush belonging to the family Cyperaceae which is cultivated in the wetlands of the Imphal valley (Meitei community of Manipur).
  • Korai (Tamil Nadu) or kora (Kerala) also of the Cyperaceae family is a sedge or wetland plant which is cultivated in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. A large variety of mats—with stripes, geometrical motifs, natural and dyed colours—are woven in several districts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • In Midnapur District of West Bengal, another type of reed similar to kora called madur kathi (Cyperus corymbosus) is cultivated, harvested and processed.
  • Unlike the woven mats, shital pati or ‘cool mats’ made by the plaiting technique are made in Assam and Tripura.
  • In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar women make baskets using the technique of coiling. These compact containers are made for local use with spliced moonj or sikki grass stalks. The trays and shallow containers are used to store foodgrains and flour. Moonj baskets with multi-coloured fibres and bold patterns are made for a daughter’s trousseau.
  • In the Madhubani District of Bihar, women make figurines of deities, animals and birds for ritual and everyday use with sikki or golden grass used in combination with multi-coloured dyed stalks. The imagery of these forms echoes the folk art of Mithila, the cultural region on the northern banks of the Ganges.
  • Strips obtained from the palm leaf are also used to make coiled baskets and containers in Haryana. A bunch of moonj grass fibres forms the core material of the coil and a palm leaf strip is wound over the coil and binds consecutive rows of coils in place.
  • Furniture items such as the mooda or stools are examples of elegant products made entirely from natural fibres such as sarkanda and moonj. Sarkanda is a wild grass found in Haryana and its long stems are used in making the indigenous mooda.

 

 

India lies in the region of north easterly winds that originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

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Factors affecting India’s climate:

Latitude:

  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the India from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east.
  • Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the Tropic, lies in the sub-tropics. Therefore, India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.

Altitude:

  • India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 metres. India also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 metres.
  • The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia.

Pressure and Winds:

  • The climate and associated weather conditions in India are governed by the following atmospheric conditions:
  • Pressure and surface winds;
  • Upper air circulation; and
  • Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones.
  • India lies in the region of north easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. They blow southwards, get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force, and move towards the equatorial low-pressure area.
  • Generally, these winds carry little moisture as they originate and blow over land. Therefore, they bring little or no rain. Hence, India should have been an arid land, but it is not so.
  • The pressure and wind conditions over India are unique. During winter, there is a high-pressure area north of the Himalayas.
  • Cold dry winds blow from this region to the low-pressure areas over the oceans to the south. In summer, a low-pressure area develops over interior Asia, as well as, over northwestern India. This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer.
  • Air moves from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, in a south-easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as the Southwest Monsoon winds.
  • These winds blow over the warm oceans, gather moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India.

Jet stream:

  • These are a narrow belt of high altitude (above 12,000 m) westerly winds in the troposphere. Their speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter.
  • A number of separate jet streams have been identified. The most constant are the mid-latitude and the sub-tropical jet stream.
  • The upper air circulation in this region is dominated by a westerly flow. An important component of this flow is the jet stream. These jet streams are located approximately over 27°-30° north latitude, therefore, they are known as subtropical westerly jet streams.
  • Over India, these jet streams blow south of the Himalayas, all through the year except in summer. The western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north-western parts of the country are brought in by this westerly flow.
  • In summer, the subtropical westerly jet stream moves north of the Himalayas with the apparent movement of the sun. An easterly jet stream, called the sub-tropical easterly jet stream blows over peninsular India, approximately over 14°N during the summer months.

Western Cyclonic Disturbances:

  • The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They usually influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India.
  • Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon, as well as, in October – November, and are part of the easterly flow. These disturbances affect the coastal regions of the country.

Coriolis force:

  • An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. The Coriolis force is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere. This is also known as ‘Ferrel’s Law’.

 

 

In 17th and 18th centuries, the Mughal aristocracy called havelis was a large single- storeyed structure with a pitched roof, and usually set in one or two acres of open ground. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement

  • The colonial bungalow was a large single- storeyed structure with a pitched roof, and usually set in one or two acres of open ground.

Enrich Your Learning:

The decline of havelis:

  • The Mughal aristocracy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries lived in grand mansions called havelis. At least a hundred such havelis, which were large walled compounds with mansions, courtyards and fountains.
  • A haveli housed many families. On entering the haveli through a beautiful gateway, an open courtyard, surrounded by public rooms meant for visitors and business, used exclusively by males.
  • The inner courtyard with its pavilions and rooms was meant for the women of the household. Rooms in the havelis had multiple uses, and very little by way of furniture.
  • Even in the mid-nineteenth century Qamr-al-din Khan’s haveli had several structures within it, and included housing for the cart drivers, tent pitchers, torchbearers, as well as for accountants, clerks and household servants.
  • Many of the Mughal amirs were unable to maintain these large establishments under conditions of British rule. Havelis therefore began to be subdivided and sold.
  • Often the street front of the havelis became shops or warehouses. Some havelis were taken over by the upcoming mercantile class, but many fell into decay and disuse.

 

 

What were called ‘nadu’ during Chola empire?

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Answer:

Settlements of peasants, known as ur, became prosperous with the spread of irrigation agriculture. Groups of such villages formed larger units called nadu.

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Sculpture, Agriculture and Administration of Chola empire:

Sculpture:

  • The big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikonda-cholapuram, built by Rajaraja and Rajendra at that time.
  • Chola temples often became the nuclei of settlements which grew around them. These were centres of craft production.
  • Temples were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others. Temples were not only places of worship; they were the hub of economic, social and cultural life as well.
  • Amongst the crafts associated with temples, the making of bronze images was the most distinctive. Chola bronze images are considered amongst the finest in the world.
  • While most images were of deities, sometimes images were made of devotees as well.

Agriculture and Irrigation:

  • Many of the achievements of the Cholas were made possible through new developments in agriculture.
  • The river Kaveri branches off into several small channels that channels overflow frequently, depositing fertile soil on their banks and provides the necessary moisture for agriculture, particularly the cultivation of rice.
  • Although agriculture had developed earlier in other parts of Tamil Nadu, it was only from the fifth or sixth century that this area was opened up for large-scale cultivation.
  • Forests had to be cleared in some regions; land had to be levelled in other areas. In the delta region embankments had to be built to prevent flooding and canals had to be constructed to carry water to the fields.
  • In many areas two crops were grown in a year. In many cases it was necessary to water crops artificially. A variety of methods were used for irrigation.
  • In some areas wells were dug. In other places huge tanks were constructed to collect rainwater. Most of the new rulers, as well as people living in villages, took an active interest in these activities.

The Administration of the Empire:

  • The village council and the nadu performed several administrative functions including dispensing justice and collecting taxes.
  • Rich peasants of the Vellala caste exercised considerable control over the affairs of the nadu under the supervision of the central Chola government.

The Chola kings gave some rich landowners titles like muvendavelan (a velan or peasant serving three kings), araiyar (chief), etc. as markers of respect, and entrusted them with important offices of the state at the centre.

 

 

Elephants, deer, leopards are common in a) Tropical grasslands OR b) Temperate grasslands.

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Answer: Tropical grasslands

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Grasslands and its types:

Tropical grasslands:

  • These occur on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics. This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. The grass can grow very tall, about 3 to 4 metres in height.
  • Example: Savannah grasslands of Africa are of this type. Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards are common in tropical grasslands.

Temperate grasslands:

  • These are found in the mid-latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents. Usually, grass here is short and nutritious.
  • Wild buffaloes, bisons, antilopes are common in the temperate region.

Thorny bushes:

  • These are found in the dry desert like regions. Tropical deserts are located on the western margins of the continents. The vegetation cover is scarce here because of scanty rain and scorching heat.

Tundra:

  • In the polar region is extremely cold. The growth of natural vegetation is very limited here. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here. It grows during the very short summer. This is called Tundra type of vegetation.
  • This vegetation is found in the polar areas of Europe, Asia and North America. The animals have thick fur and thick skin to protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions.
  • Seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl, Polar bear and snow foxes are some of the animals found here.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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