Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-13] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Unemployment; Occupational Structure during the colonial period; Liberalisation; Green Revolution; Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM); Special Purpose Vehicle; Health System in India; Ozone Depletion; Central Pollution Control Board; Developmental path of China
By IASToppers
March 19, 2020

 

 

The Great Leap Forward (GLF) campaign was initiated in which country in 1958?

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Answer:

China.

Enrich Your Learning:

Developmental path of China:

Over the last two decades, the economic transformation that is taking place in different countries across the world, partly because of the process of globalisation, has both short as well as long-term implications for India. To this effect, they are forming regional and global economic groupings such as the SAARC, European Union, ASEAN, G-8, G-20, BRICS etc.

China:

  • After the establishment of People’s Republic of China under one party rule, all critical sectors of the economy, enterprises and lands owned and operated by individuals were brought under government control.
  • The Great Leap Forward (GLF) campaign initiated in 1958 aimed at industrialising the country on a massive scale. People were encouraged to set up industries in their backyards.
  • The Commune system, people collectively cultivated lands GLF campaign met with many problems.
  • A severe drought caused havoc in China killing about 30 million people.
  • When Russia had conflicts with China, it withdrew its professionals who had earlier been sent to China to help in the industrialisation process.
  • In 1965, Mao introduced the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966–76) under which students and professionals were sent to work and learn from the countryside. The present day fast industrial growth in China can be traced back to the reforms introduced in 1978.
  • In the initial phase, China’s reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. In agriculture, for instance, commune lands were divided into small plots, which were allocated (for use not ownership) to individual households.
  • In the later phase, reforms were initiated in the industrial sector. Private sector firms, in general, and township and village enterprises, i.e., those enterprises which were owned and operated by local collectives, in particular, were allowed to produce goods.
  • At this stage, enterprises owned by government (known as State Owned Enterprises—SOEs), which in India, call public sector enterprises, were made to face competition.
  • The reform process also involved dual pricing. This means fixing the prices in two ways; farmers and industrial units were required to buy and sell fixed quantities of inputs and outputs on the basis of prices fixed by the government and the rest were purchased and sold at market prices.
  • Over the years, as production increased, the proportion of goods or inputs transacted in the market also increased. In order to attract foreign investors, special economic zones were set up.

 

 

Central Pollution Control Board was established in 1974 under: a) The Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974 OR b) Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981?

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Answer:

The Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974

Enrich Your Learning:

Central Pollution Control Board:

  • The CPCB of India is a statutory organisationunder the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • It was established in 1974under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974.
  • The CPCB is entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

Functions:

  • It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • It co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boardsby providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them.
  • It is the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control, as a technical wing of MoEFCC.
  • The board is led by its Chairperson, who is generally a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service appointed by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet of the Government of India.

 

 

Montreal Protocol is related with which environmental problem?

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Answer:

Ozone depletion

Enrich Your Learning:

Ozone Depletion:

  • The problem of ozone depletion is caused by high levels of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere.
  • The origins of these compounds are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), used as cooling substances in airconditioners and refrigerators, or as aerosol propellants, and bromofluorocarbons (halons), used in fire extinguishers.
  • As a result of depletion of the ozone layer, more ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes to Earth and causes damage to living organisms.
  • UV radiation seems responsible for skin cancer in humans; it also lowers production of phytoplankton and thus affects other aquatic organisms. It can also influence the growth of terrestrial plants.
  • A reduction of approximately 5 per cent in the ozone layer was detected from 1979 to 1990. Since the ozone layer prevents most harmful wavelengths of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere, observed and projected decreases in ozone have generated worldwide concern.

This led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol banning the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds, as well as other ozone depleting chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane (also known as methyl chloroform), and bromine compounds known as halons.

 

 

What is Auxiliary Nursing Midwife?

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Answer:

Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM) is the first person who provides primary healthcare in rural areas.

Enrich Your Learning:

Health System in India:

India’s health infrastructure and health care is made up of a three-tier system —primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary health care:

  • Primary health care includes:
  • Education concerning prevailing health problems and methods of identifying,
  • Preventing and controlling them;
  • Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition and adequate supply of water and basic sanitation;
  • Maternal and child health care;
  • Immunisation against major infectious diseases and injuries;
  • Promotion of mental health and provision of essential drugs.
  • In order to provide primary health care, hospitals have been set up in villages and small towns which are generally manned by a single doctor, a nurse and a limited quantity of medicines. They are known as Primary Health Centres (PHC), Community Health Centres (CHC) and sub-centres.

Secondary health care:

  • When the condition of a patient is not managed by PHCs, they are referred to secondary or tertiary hospitals.
  • Hospitals which have better facilities for surgery, X-ray, Electro Cardio Gram (ECG) are called secondary health care institutions.
  • They function both as primary health care provider and also provide better healthcare facilities. They are mostly located in district headquarters and in big towns.
  • All those hospitals which have advanced level equipment and medicines and undertake all the complicated health problems, which could not be managed by primary and secondary hospitals, come under the tertiary sector.

Tertiary health care:

  • The tertiary sector also includes many premier institutes which not only impart quality medical education and conduct research but also provide specialised health care.
  • Example: All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi; Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh.

 

 

What is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) and why is it established?

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Answer:

A parent company creates an SPV to isolate or securitize assets in a separate company that is often kept off the balance sheet. It may be created in order to undertake a risky project while protecting the parent company from the most severe risks of its failure.

Enrich Your Learning:

Special Purpose Vehicle:

  • It is a dedicated body or an entity created to carry out a specific task or channel funds for projects like roads, ports, airports etc.
  • SPV can be formed either as a single legal entity or a joint venture consortium.
  • It may have independent ownership, management and funding.
  • It has to follow the rules of formation of a company laid down in the Companies Act.
  • It can sue and be sued in its name.

Benefits:

  • Formed to raise funds from the market. Create joint ventures or perform financial transactions. Isolates Financial risk. Has a separate legal identity. Also allows securitisation of assets without disturbing the managerial relationship.
  • For instance, Power Finance Corporation (PFC), Indian Rail Finance Corporation (IRFC), are special purpose vehicles engaged in raising funds for development of infrastructure sector projects for the sectors they are involved in.

 

 

Reports of Census of India mentions the unemployment data of India. True OR False

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Answer:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Unemployment:

  • National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) defines unemployment as a situation in which all those who, owing to lack of work, are not working but either seek work through employment exchanges, intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or express their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing condition of work and remunerations.
  • Economists define unemployed person as one who is not able to get employment of even one hour in half a day.

There are three sources of data on unemployment:

  • Reports of Census of India,
  • National Sample Survey Organisation’s Reports of Employment and Unemployment Situation,
  • Directorate General of Employment and Training Data of Registration with Employment Exchanges.

 

 

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods was launched by which central government ministry?

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Answer:

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods was launched by Ministry of Rural Development.

Enrich Your Learning:

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM):

  • It is a flagship rural poverty reduction program.
  • Launched by: Ministry of Rural Development 
  • NRLM was renamed as DAY-NRLM in 2015.
  • Objective: Creating efficient institutional platforms for the rural poor, particularly women, enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services.
  • One of the major focus areas of DAY – NRLM is promotion of existing livelihood portfolios of the rural poor in farm and non-farm sectors.
  • Implementation: NRLM works in a block for a period of ten years till community federations take responsibility of implementation. These blocks are:
  • Resource Block (support from National Resource Organization),
  • Intensive Blocks (implemented with SRLM staff and internal community resource persons),
  • Partnership Blocks (support from local community and NGO) and
  • Non-intensive Blocks (remaining blocks not taken up for implementation in the initial phase).

 

 

Cash crops and commercial crops like cotton, jute, oilseeds were not a part of the Green Revolution plan. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Green Revolution:

  • The Green Revolution started in 1965 with the first introduction of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds in Indian agriculture. This was coupled with better and efficient irrigation and the correct use of fertilizers to boost the crop.

Background:

  • After 1947 India had to rebuild its economy. Over three-quarters of the population depended on agriculture in some way. But agriculture in India was faced with several problems. Firstly, the productivity of grains was very low. And India was still monsoon dependent because of lack of irrigation and other infrastructure.
  • There was also an absence of modern technology. And India had previously faced severe famines during the British Raj, who had only promoted cash crops instead of food crops. The idea was to never depend on any other country for food sufficiency.
  • So in 1965, the government with the help of Indian geneticists S. Swaminathan, known as the father of Green Revolution, launched the Green Revolution. The movement lasted from 1967 to 1978 and was a great success.

Features of the Green Revolution:

  • The introduction of the HYV seedsfor the first time in Indian agriculture. These seeds had more success with the wheat crop and were highly effective in regions that had proper irrigation. So the first stage of the Green Revolution was focused on states with better infra – like Punjab and Tamil Nadu.
  • During the second phase, the HYV seeds were given to several other states. And other crops than wheat were also included into the plan
  • Crops from HYV seeds need alternating amounts of water supply during its growth. So the farms cannot depend on monsoons. The Green Revolution vastly improved the inland irrigation systems around farms in India.
  • The emphasis of the plan was mostly on food grains such as wheat and rice.
  • Increased availability and use of fertilizersto enhance the productivity of the farms
  • Use of pesticides and weedicidesto reduce any loss or damage to the crops
  • And finally the introduction of technology and machinery like tractors, harvesters, drills etc. This helped immensely to promote commercial farming in the country.

Market Surplus:

  • Due to the high yield and productivity of the farms, the farmers started selling their produce in the markets. The portion of the produce which is sold by them is known as market surplus.

Impact of the Green Revolution:

  • Increase in Agricultural Production: Foodgrains in India saw a great rise in output. The biggest beneficiary of the plan was the Wheat Grain. The production of wheat increased to 55 million tonnes in 1990 from just 11 million tonnes in 1960.
  • Increase in per Acre Yield:Not only did the Green Revolution increase the total agricultural output, it also increased the per hectare yield. In case of wheat, the per hectare yield increased from 850 kg/hectare to an incredible 2281 kg/hectare by 1990.
  • Less Dependence on Imports:After the green revolution, India was finally on its way to self-sufficiency. There was now enough production for the population and to build a stock in case of emergencies. In fact, India was able to start exporting its agricultural produce.
  • Employment:It was feared that commercial farming would leave a lot of the labour force jobless. But there was a rise in rural employment. This is because the supporting industries created employment opportunities. Irrigation, transportation, food processing, marketing all created new jobs for the workforce.
  • A Benefit to the Farmers:The Green Revolution majorly benefited the farmers. Their income saw a significant raise. Not only were they surviving, they were prospering. It enabled them to shift to commercial farming from only sustenance farming.

 

 

What reforms were made during the economic liberalisation in India (1991)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

The economic liberalisation in India refers to the country’s economic policies, initiated in 1991 with the goal of making the economy more market- and service-oriented, and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.

Liberalisation:

  • Liberalisation is referred to the rules and laws which were aimed at regulating the economic activities became major hindrances in growth and development.
  • Liberalisation was introduced to put an end to restrictions and open various sectors of the economy.
  • Though a few liberalisation measures were introduced in 1980s in areas of industrial licensing, export-import policy, technology upgradation, fiscal policy and foreign investment, reform policies initiated in 1991 were more comprehensive.

Deregulation of Industrial Sector:

  • The reform policies introduced in and after 1991 removed many restrictions. Industrial licensing was abolished for almost all but product categories- alcohol, cigarettes, hazardous chemicals, industrial explosives, electronics, aerospace and drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  • The only industries which are now reserved for the public sector are a part of defence equipment, atomic energy generation and railway transport.
  • Many goods produced by small-scale industries have now been dereserved. In many industries, the market has been allowed to determine the prices.

Financial Sector Reforms:

  • Financial sector includes financial institutions, such as commercial banks, investment banks, stock exchange operations and foreign exchange market.
  • The RBI decides the amount of money that the banks can keep with themselves, fixes interest rates, nature of lending to various sectors, etc.
  • One of the major aims of financial sector reforms is to reduce the role of RBI from regulator to facilitator of financial sector.
  • The reform policies led to the establishment of private sector banks, Indian as well as foreign. Foreign investment limit in banks was raised to around 50 per cent.
  • Those banks which fulfil certain conditions have been given freedom to set up new branches without the approval of the RBI and rationalise their existing branch networks.
  • Foreign Institutional Investors (FII), such as merchant bankers, mutual funds and pension funds, are now allowed to invest in Indian financial markets.

Tax Reforms:

  • Tax reforms are concerned with the reforms in the government’s taxation and public expenditure policies, which are collectively known as its fiscal policy.
  • It is now widely accepted that moderate rates of income tax encourage savings and voluntary disclosure of income. The rate of corporation tax, which was very high earlier, has been gradually reduced.
  • To reform the indirect taxes, taxes levied on commodities, in order to facilitate the establishment of a common national market for goods and commodities.
  • In order to encourage better compliance on the part of taxpayers many procedures have been simplified and the rates also substantially lowered.

Foreign Exchange Reforms:

  • In 1991, as an immediate measure to resolve the balance of payments crisis, the rupee was devalued against foreign currencies.
  • This led to an increase in the inflow of foreign exchange. Now, markets determine exchange rates based on the demand and supply of foreign exchange.

Trade and Investment Policy Reforms:

  • Liberalisation of trade and investment regime was initiated to increase international competitiveness of industrial production and also foreign investments and technology into the economy. The aim was also to promote the efficiency of local industries and adoption of modern technologies.
  • In order to protect domestic industries, India was following a regime of quantitative restrictions on imports. These policies reduced efficiency and competitiveness which led to slow growth of the manufacturing sector.
  • The trade policy reforms aimed at:
  1. dismantling of quantitative restrictions on imports and exports
  2. reduction of tariff rates and
  • removal of licensing procedures for imports.
  • Import licensing was abolished except in case of hazardous and environmentally sensitive industries.
  • Quantitative restrictions on imports of manufactured consumer goods and agricultural products were also fully removed from April 2001.
  • Export duties have been removed to increase the competitive position of Indian goods in the international markets.

 

 

In terms of occupational structure during the colonial period, the manufacturing sector accounted more than the services sector. True OR False.

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Answer:

False

Correct Statement:

  • The manufacturing and the services sectors accounted for only 10 and 15-20 per cent respectively during the colonial period.

Enrich Your Learning:

Occupational Structure during the colonial period:

  • During the colonial period, the occupational structure of India, i.e., distribution of working persons across different industries and sectors, showed little sign of change.
  • The agricultural sector accounted for the largest share of workforce, which usually remained at a high of 70-75 per cent.
  • While the manufacturing and the services sectors accounted for only 10 and 15-20 per cent respectively.
  • Another striking aspect was the growing regional variation. Parts of the then Madras Presidency, Bombay and Bengal witnessed a decline in the dependence of the workforce on the agricultural sector.
  • However, there had been an increase in the share of workforce in agriculture during the same time in states such as Orissa, Rajasthan and Punjab.

Key Fact:

  • Madras Presidency comprising areas of the present-day states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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