Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-16] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Dokra metalwork;World Heritage Committee; Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM); Location of North Korea; Location of South Korea; International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC); Chandrayaan-2 mission; Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR); Oxytocin; Yogyakarta Principles; Toda shawl; Agroforestry.
By IASToppers
March 22, 2020

 

 

What is Agroforestry?

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Answer: Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems involving trees combined with crops and/or animals on the same unit of land.

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Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems involving trees combined with crops and/or animals on the same unit of land. It combines:

  • Production of multiple outputs with protection of the resource base;
  • Places emphasis on the use of multiple indigenous trees and shrubs;
  • Particularly suitable for low-input conditions and fragile environments;
  • It involves the interplay of socio-cultural values more than in most other land-use systems; and
  • It is structurally and functionally more complex than monoculture.

Functional Classification of Agroforestry Systems:

  • Two fundamental attributes of all AF systems are productivity and sustainability.
  1. Productive functions (producing one or more products):
  • Food,
  • Fodder,
  • Fuelwood,
  • Other woods,
  • Other products.
  1. Protective functions (protecting and maintaining production systems):
  • Wind-break,
  • Shelter-belt,
  • Soil conservation,
  • Moisture conservation,
  • Soil improvement,
  • Shade (for crop, animal and man)

Types of Agro forestry in non-forest areas:

  1. Farm Forestry: It refers to programmes which promote commercial tree growing by farmers on their own land. It is defined as the practice of forestry in all its aspects in and the around the farms or village lands integrated with other farm operations.
  2. Extension Forestry: It is the practice of forestry in areas devoid of tree growth and other vegetation situated in places away from the conventional forest areas with the object of increasing the area under tree growth. It includes the following.
  • Mixed forestry: It is the practice of forestry for raising fodder grass with scattered fodder trees, fruit trees and fuel wood trees on suitable wastelands, panchayat lands and village commons.
  • Shelter belts: Shelter belt is defined as a belt of trees and or shrubs maintained for the purpose of shelter from wind, sun, snow drift, etc.
  • Linear Strip plantations: These are the plantations of fast growing species on linear strips of land.
  1. Rehabilitation of Degraded forests: The degraded area under forests needs immediate attention for ecological restoration and for meeting the socio economic needs of the communities living in and around such areas.
  2. Recreation Forestry: It is the practice of forestry with the object of raising flowering trees and shrubs mainly to serve as recreation forests for the urban and rural population. This type of forestry is also known as Aesthetic forestry.

 

 

Toda Embroidery and Dokra metalwork, both the artworks are protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999. True or False?

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Answer:

Toda Embroidery and Dokra metalwork both artworks are protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999.

Enrich Your Learning:

Toda shawl

  • Toda Embroidery is an art work among the Toda tribe of Nilgiris, in Tamil Nadu.
  • The Toda women embroider the traditional draped garment called poothkuli or shawl. The word Pugur in Toda language means flower.
  • It is a thick white cotton cloth used as a mantle by both men and women. The main material of unbleached, white cotton, is hand woven in single width and the embroidery is done by counting of threads of red and black colour.
  • The embroidery is worked on the reverse of the cloth to produce a rich, embossed effect on the surface.
  • They create the design on the cloth without tracing the pattern or referring to a book. The finished cloth is reversible, in the sense that both sides have a neat design.
  • This handicraft product is listed as a geographically tagged product and is protected under the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

Dokra metalwork

  • Dokra metalwork an ancient metal craft that is popular in the tribal regions of the states Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, India.
  • The uniqueness of this art form is that no two sculptures are the same, as they are not made out of a pre-designed cast.
  • As part of this technique, the craftsmen use clay and design a model of the sculpture that they want to create.
  • They wrap the clay with wax threads before baking the mould, so that the wax melts away and the molten metal is poured into the mould.
  • It is also known as the lost-wax technique. Apart from India it was used in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and Greece.
  • This metal craft is protected under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.

 

 

Yogyakarta Principles are related to?

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Answer:  Yogyakarta Principles are the standards of international human rights law to address the abuse of human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and intersex people.

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Yogyakarta Principles:

  • The Yogyakarta Principles is a document about human rights in the areas of sexual orientation and gender identity, published as the outcome of an international meeting of human rights groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.
  • The Principles were supplemented in 2017, expanding to include new grounds of gender expression and sex characteristics, and a number of new principles.
  • The Principles affirm binding international legal standards with which all States must comply.
  • The Principles and the supplement contains a set of precepts intended to apply the standards of international human rights law to address the abuse of human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and intersex people.

Coverage:

  • The Yogyakarta Principles address the broad range of human rights standards and their application to issues of sexual orientation and gender identity.
  • These include extrajudicial executions, violence and torture, access to justice, privacy, non-discrimination, rights to freedom of expression and assembly, employment, health, education, immigration and refugee issues, public participation, and a variety of other rights.

Principles:

  1. The Right to the Universal Enjoyment of Human Rights and Non-Discrimination and Recognition before the Law.
  2. Rights to Human and Personal Security
  3. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  4. Rights to Expression, Opinion and Association
  5. Freedom of Movement and Asylum
  6. Rights of Participation in Cultural and Family Life
  7. Rights of Human Rights Defenders
  8. Rights of Redress and Accountability etc.

 

 

A hormone named Oxytocin is secreted by which gland in human?

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Answer:  Oxytocin is secreted by Pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain.

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Oxytocin:

  • Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus.
  • It is transported to, and secreted by the pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain.
  • It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter.
  • The release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to regulate two female reproductive functions: Childbirth and Breast-feeding.

  • Oxytocin has also been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecule, and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction.
  • The drug is used by dairy owners and farmers to boost milk production and make vegetables look bigger and fresher. But, it was found that indiscriminate use of Oxytocin in milch animals and by farmers was causing irreversible hormone damage.

 

 

Suppose the government targets an economic growth of 9% for next year and the capital output ratio in India is 4. To meet this target, should investment be increased or decreased at what rate?

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Answer:

Suppose the government targets an economic growth of 9% for next year and the capital output ratio in India is 4. Here, to realize 9% growth, investment should be increased to 36% (9 x4).

Enrich Your Learning:

Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR)

  • The incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) is a frequently used tool that explains the relationship between the value of capital invested and the value of output.
  • ICOR indicates the additional unit of capital or investment needed to produce an additional unit of output. ICOR reflects how efficiently capital is being used to generate additional output.
  • For example, if the 10% additional capital is required to push the overall output by a percent, the ICOR will be 10.
  • Lower the ICOR, the better it is. So a country with ICOR of 3 is better than a country with ICOR of 5.
  • A lower capital output ratio shows that only low level of investment is needed to produce a given growth rate in the economy. This is considered as a desirable situation.
  • Lower capital output ratio shows that capital is very productive or efficient.
  • The Formula the Incremental Capital Output Ratio is

ICOR= Annual Investment/Annual Increase in GDP

Capital output ratio in economic planning

  • Capital output ratio has very good use in economic planning.
  • It explains the relationship between level of investment and the corresponding economic growth.
  • There is a simple equation in economics that shows the relationship between investment, capital output ratio and economic growth.

G = S/V

  • Here, G is economic growth, S is saving as a percentage of GDP and V is capital output ratio.

 

 

Chandrayaan-2 mission aimed to land at which region of the Moon?

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Answer: Chandrayaan-2 mission aimed to land on the south pole of the Moon.

Enrich Your Learning:

Chandrayaan-2 mission:

Overview:

  • Chandrayaan 2 mission was a ₹1000-crore ambitious mission of ISRO to explore the South Pole of Moon.
  • It was launched on 22 July 2019 and was expected to have soft landing on the moon on September 7, 2019.
  • It suffered partial failure after its communication was lost with mission’s Vikram lander and Pragyan rover due to hard landing over the surface of moon.

India’s second mission to the Moon:

  • The Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar mission, after the previously successful Chandrayaan-1 mission that was launched in 2008.
  • Chandrayaan-2 mission had three parts: an orbiter, a Lander (named Vikram) and a Rover (named Pragyan).
  • The orbiter aimed to perform mapping of moon from an altitude of 100 kilometres, while the lander was to made a soft landing in a high plain between two craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N and send out the rover on the moon surface.

Life:

  • The mission life of Orbiter is one year whereas the mission life of lander and rover was one Lunar day (14 earth days).
  • The mission also carried Laser retroreflector arrays (a passive experimental instrument of NASA) to calculate exact distance between moon and earth.

Objective:

  • To study Moon’s topography, mineralogy, exosphere along with study of seismic activities.
  • To study the density of the electrons in the Moon’s ionosphere (the uppermost part of the atmosphere ionized by radiation).
  • To demonstrate the ability to have a soft landing on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on moon.
  • To study the water distribution using infrared spectroscopy, synthetic aperture radiometry & polarimetry and mass spectroscopy techniques.

Significance of the mission:

  • It was first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with indigenous technology.
  • Earlier only three countries- US, Russia and China had made soft landing over Moon.
  • It was the first mission of any country to land on the south pole of the Moon.

Moon’s South Pole region:

  • The South Pole region of Moon is still unexplored, has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.
  • Due to the moon’s low angular tilted axis, few regions on the south pole of moon remains forever dark (sunlight cannot reach there or reached very few).
  • In other words, the lunar south pole remains in shadow than north pole.
  • Hence, it is more likely that water, in the form of ice, and some other volatile elements could be found in the south pole region.

 

 

Which countries established the International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) in 2000?

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Answer:

INSTC is an ambitious multimodal transport system established in 2000 by Iran, Russia and India to promote transportation cooperation.

Enrich Your Learning:

International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC):

  • It is aimed to provide the shortest multi-model transportation route linking the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Iran and St Petersburg.
  • Objective: to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali and etc.
  • The estimated capacity of the corridor is 20-30 million tonnes of goods per year.

Route:

  • It is planned to connect the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea through Iran and then onwards to St. Petersburg and northern Europe through Russia.
  • The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.

 

 

Which countries are located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea?

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Answer:

The North Korea and the South Korea are located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea.

Enrich Your Learning:

Location of North Korea

  • North Korea is a country in East Asia. It occupies the northern portion of the Korean peninsula, which juts out from the Asian mainland.
  • It is located between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea.
  • North Korea shares land borders with 3 countries: Russia, South Korea, China.
  • Pyongyang is the capital city of Korea, North.
  • North Korea faces South Korea across a demilitarized zone (DMZ)5 miles (4 km) wide.
  • North Korea is among the top 20 countries exporting fishery products.

Location of South Korea

  • The Republic of Korea (ROK) is a country in eastern Asia that occupies the southern part of the Korean peninsula.
  • It is located between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in east, the Yellow Sea in west. It has the Korea Strait, a sea passage between South Korea and Japan in the south.
  • South Korea has a land border with North Korea in north. The country also shares maritime borders with China and Japan.
  • Seoul is the capital city of South Korea.

 

 

Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) is an initiative of which ministry?

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Answer: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Enrich Your Learning:

Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM):

  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan Scheme is an initiative of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for farmers.
  • It is aimed to aid the farmers in installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.

Provisions:

The proposed scheme consists of three components:

  • Component-A: 10,000 MW of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants.
  • Component-B: Installation of 17.50 lakh standalone Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps.
  • Component-C: Solarisation of 10 Lakh Grid-connected Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps.
  • All three components combined, the scheme aims to add a solar capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022.
  • The total central financial support provided under the scheme would be Rs. 34,422 crores.

Component A:

  • Under Component A, Renewable power plants of capacity 500 KW to 2 MW will be setup by individual farmers/ cooperatives/panchayats /farmer producer organisations (FPO) on their barren or cultivable lands.
  • The power generated will be purchased by the DISCOMs at Feed in tariffs determined by respective SERC.

Component B:

  • Under Component B, individual farmers will be supported to install standalone solar pumps of capacity up to 7.5 HP.
  • Solar PV capacity in kW equal to the pump capacity in HP is allowed under the scheme.

Component C:

  • Under Component C of the scheme, individual farmers will be supported to solarise pumps of capacity up to 7.5 HP.
  • Solar PV capacity up to two times of pump capacity in kW is allowed under the scheme.
  • The farmer will be able to use the generated energy to meet the irrigation needs and the excess available energy will be sold to DISCOM.

Benefits:

  • The scheme will open a stable and continuous source of income to the rural land owners for a period of 25 years by utilisation of their dry/uncultivable land.
  • Further, in case cultivated fields are chosen for setting up solar power project, the farmers could continue to grow crops as the solar panels are to be set up above a minimum height.
  • The proposed scheme would ensure that sufficient local solar/ other renewable energy based power is available for feeding rural load centres and agriculture pump-set loads, which require power mostly during the day time.
  • As these power plants will be located closer to the agriculture loads or to electrical substations in a decentralized manner, it will result in reduced Transmission losses for STUs and Discoms.
  • The solar pumps will save the expenditure incurred on diesel for running diesel pump and provide the farmers a reliable source of irrigation through solar pump apart from preventing harmful pollution from running diesel pump.
  • The scheme has direct employment potential. Besides increasing self-employment, the proposal is likely to generate employment opportunity equivalent to 6.31 lakh job years for skilled and unskilled workers.

 

 

India is one of the members of World Heritage Committee’s 21 States Parties. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

World Heritage Committee:

  • The World Heritage Committee is composed of representatives of 21 States Parties to the World Heritage Convention who meet annually.
  • The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger.
  • It examines reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties and asks States Parties to take action when properties are not being properly managed.
  • It also decides on the inscription or deletion of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
  • The Committee
  • is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention,
  • Defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and
  • allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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