Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-17] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Lithium Triangle; Group of Seven (G7) Countries; Forest Management Certification; J&K Public Safety Act (PSA); Major ports in India; International Energy Agency; National Digital Library of India; Asia-Pacific Disaster Report (APDR) 2019; Development banks; National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) Scheme
By IASToppers
March 23, 2020

 

 

 

National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) Scheme is implemented by which organization?

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Answer:

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the implementing agency for NEAT programme.

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National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) Scheme

  • The scheme was launched by Ministry of Human Resource Development in partnership with companies. 
  • It aims to provide wider access to adaptive learning technologies using artificial intelligence (AI) to make learning more personalised and customised as per the learner’s requirements.
  • It will be a one-stop platform.
  • The technology will be used for better learning outcomes in Higher Education.
  • This will be a public-private partnership (PPP).

Salient Features

  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) would be the implementing agency for NEAT programme.
  • EdTech companies would be responsible for developing solutions and manage registration of learners through the NEAT portal. They would be free to charge fees as per their policy.
  • Start-ups which join the government platform must offer 25% free coupons for students from disadvantaged communities.
  • MHRD would distribute free coupons for learning to the most socially/economically backward students.
  • NEAT will be administered by an apex committee constituted by the Ministry, with independent expert panels being set up to evaluate and select the best EdTech solutions.

 

 

 

Development banks often lend at stable rates of interest to promote long-term investments. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

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Development banks

  • It is new idea given by India’s Finance Minister in 2019.
  • It will be an organization to provide credit enhancement for infrastructure and housing projects, particularly in the context of India, now not having a development bank and also for the need for us to have an institutional mechanism. 

What are developmental banks?

  • Development banks are financial institutions that provide long-term credit for capital-intensive investments spread over a long period and yielding low rates of return, such as urban infrastructure, mining and heavy industry, and irrigation systems.
  • Such banks often lend at low and stable rates of interest to promote long-term investments with considerable social benefits.
  • Development banks are also known as term-lending institutions or development finance institutions.
  • To lend for long term, development banks require correspondingly long-term sources of finance, usually obtained by issuing long-dated securities in capital market, subscribed by long-term savings institutions such as pension and life insurance funds and post office deposits.
  • Considering the social benefits of such investments, and uncertainties associated with them, development banks are often supported by governments or international institutions. Such support can be in the form of tax incentives and administrative mandates for private sector banks and financial institutions to invest in securities issued by development banks.

In short development bank features are:

  • Provide long term credit to capital intensive investments
  • Long term loan period
  • Lend at low and stable rate of interest + yields low rate of returns
  • Issues long-dated securities in capital market
  • The bonds are subscribed by long-term saving institutions. For ex, pension and life insurance funds.
  • These are often supported by governments and international institutions

 

 

 

Lithium triangle is formed by which countries?

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Answer:

  • The lithium mines in countries such as Bolivia, Argentina and Chile forms the so-called ‘Lithium triangle’.

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Lithium Triangle

  • The lithium mines in countries such as Bolivia, Argentina and Chile forms the so-called ‘Lithium triangle’.
  • The landlocked country Bolivia is seeking Indian investments to develop its Lithium deposits, which account for 60% of the world’s reserves.

Lithium importance to India

  • It is a key raw material for making batteries.
  • The requirement of this strategic mineral is important for India as it is in the midst of setting-up large lithium-ion battery plants, to achieve all-electric vehicles by 2030.
  • India has set up a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage.
  • The country also needs these Lithium batteries for solar panels as well as to meeting the growing need in the Space sector. And to meet India’s ambitions of achieving energy security.
  • Presently, 100% of Li-ion batteries or cells are imported in India.
  • Khanij Bidesh India Ltd., which has been set up as part of the government’s 100 day agenda, is looking for acquiring strategic mineral assets in Australia and South America.

 

 

 

Asia-Pacific Disaster Report (APDR) 2019 was published by?

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Answer:

The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report (APDR) is a biennial publication of the Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP).

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Asia-Pacific Disaster Report (APDR) 2019

  • The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report (APDR) is a biennial publication of the Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP).
  • The reports aim to deepen understanding of disaster risks and their implications on sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region.

Highlights of 2019 report

  • Presents a new analysis of the regional “riskscape” and pathways for managing the risk for “Empowering people and ensuring inclusiveness and equality” – the theme of the 2019 High Level Political Forum on sustainable development.
  • Annualized economic losses more than quadruple to USD $675 billion when slowonset disasters are added to the region’s riskscape.
  • The region has experienced unprecedented flooding in Iran, in March 2019, and in the state of Kerala in India, in August 2018.
  • Almost 40 % of disaster impacts are on the social sectors of health, education, and livelihoods, resulting in deeper inequalities of opportunity that are transmitted over generations.
  • Report identifies distinct hotspots where fragile environments are converging with critical socioeconomic vulnerabilities.
  1. Within the transboundary river basins of South and South-East Asia.
  2. surrounds the Pacific Ring of Fire
  3. the Pacific Small Islands Developing States (SIDS)

 

 

 

National Digital Library (NDL) project has been initiated by Ministry of Human Resource Development under which National Mission?

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Answer:

Ministry of Human Resource Development, under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology, has initiated the National Digital Library (NDL) project.

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National Digital Library of India (NDLI)

  • Ministry of Human Resource Development, under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology, has initiated the National Digital Library (NDL) project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility.
  • It is being developed at IIT Kharagpur.

Salient features

  • Educational materials are available for users ranging from primary to post-graduate levels.
  • NDL has been designed to benefit all kinds of users like students (of all levels), teachers, researchers, librarians, library users, professionals, differently abled users and all other lifelong learners.
  • Information can be personalized based on the education level, choice of language, difficulty level, media of content and such other factors. This is thus like a ‘customised service’ provided in a 24×7 integrated environment where learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time.
  • Repository hosts contents from multiple subject domains like Technology, Science, Humanities, Agriculture and others.
  • More than 60 types of learning resources are available – books, articles, manuscripts, video lectures, thesis, etc.
  • Items are available in more than 70 languages.
  • Repository integrates contents from different Indian Institutional Repositories.

 

 

 

International Energy Agency (IEA) member countries are required to maintain total oil stock levels equivalent to at least 90 days of the previous year’s net imports. True OR False.

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Answer:

True

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International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • IEA is an autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organization for Economic –Cooperation and Development (OECD).
  • It was established in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  • Its secretariat is in Paris, France.
  • The total members are 30 countries.
  • The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil and for serving as an information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors.
  • It publishes flagship World Energy Outlookand the IEA Market Reports; data and statistics, such as Key World Energy Statistics and the Monthly Oil Data Service; and a series of training and capacity building workshops, presentations, and resources.
  • The IEA examines the full spectrum of energy issues including oil, gas and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies etc.
  • The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states but also works with non-member countries, especially with China, India and Russia.
  • The IEA’s focus on 3E’s of effectual energy policy i.e. energy security, economic development and environment protection.
  • IEA member countries are required to maintain total oil stock levels equivalent to at least 90 days of the previous year’s net imports.
  • The Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) is part of the IEA energy technology network.

1973 Oil Crisis

  • The 1973 oil crisisbegan in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
  • The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur war.
  • The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the UK and the US which later on expanded to Portugal, Rhodesia and S. Africa.
  • At the end of the embargo (March 1974), the price of the oil rose to nearly 400% from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally.
  • The embargo caused an oil crisis, or “shock”, with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. It was later called the “first oil shock”.

 

 

 

Which Indian port is first came under the public sector? A) Cochin Port OR b) Visakhapatnam Port OR c) Ennore Port?

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Answer:

Ennore Port

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Major ports in India

India being surrounded mostly by water in its southern regions has one of the largest peninsulas in the world. It spans about 7516.6 kilometres of coastline. As per the reports of Ministry of Shipping, 70% of India’s trading by value and 95% by volume is carried out through maritime transport. We have 12 major ports in India, besides 200 other ports.

Below are 12 major ports, dotting the lower parts of the country.

  1. Kandla Port: Also known as Deendayal Port and Kandla Port, it is located in Kutch District, Gujarat. It was Constructed in the 1950s as the chief port for western India. It is the busiest major port of India. This port mainly handles crude oil imports. It is situated on the Gulf of Kutch.
  2. Paradip Port: Paradip port is a deep-water and natural port located in Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha. This port is administered by the government-owned Paradip Port Trust (PPT).
  3. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT): Located in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, this is country’s largest container port. Most of its cargo traffic comes from states like Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. It carries out the export of carpets, boneless meat, sporting goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, textile machinery, and textiles. Major imports include vegetable oils, electrical machinery, plastics, machinery, chemicals, a few non-ferrous metals, like aluminium and more.
  4. Mumbai Port Trust: This port lies on the country’s west coast in Maharashtra. It is administered by the government-owned Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT). It primarily handles petroleum products and Crude, in addition to, liquid chemicals. The Mumbai harbour is also known as ‘Front Bay’, meaning gateway of India.
  5. Visakhapatnam: This is the only major port located in Andhra Pradesh. Opened in December 1933, it is owned by Ministry of Shipping, Government of India. It mainly handles commodities such as crude oil, coal, general cargo, steel products, manganese ore, and iron ore. The port is located on a creek where the Narava Gedda joins the sea, a beautiful sight.
  6. Port of Kolkata: Established in 1870, this port is the oldest in India. British East India Company constructed it to have it as a premier port in British India. It deals with petroleum products, fertilisers, coal, granite, and iron ore. The Kolkata port is the only port having two dock systems called Kolkata docks and Haldia docks.
  7. Chennai Port: Opened in 1881, this port is also one of the oldest ones in India. It mainly handles commodities like petroleum products, fertilisers, coal, granite, and iron ore. Its major exports are cotton textiles, leather, and iron ore. The major imports include iron & steel, machinery, raw cotton, and wheat.
  8. New Mangalore Port: This port is an all-weather, deep-water port located in Mangaluru, Karnataka. It is operated by New Mangaluru Port Trust (NMPT). The major exports of this port are cashew, coffee, granite stones, manganese, iron ore fines, iron ore concentrates, and pellets. Major imports include finished fertilisers, timber logs, wood pulp, LPG, crude, petroleum products and liquid chemicals like phosphoric acid, liquid ammonia, etc.
  9. Tuticorin Port Trust: This weather port is also known as V.O.Chidambaranar Port. It is located in Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu. It mainly deals with commodities like iron ore, timber logs, fertiliser, copper concentrate, and industrial coal.
  10. Ennore Port: Also known as Kamarajar Port, this is located on the Coromandel Coast, Chennai. Opened in 2001, it is the first Indian port which comes under the public sector. It handles rock mineral products, chemical, POL, LPG, project cargo, automobiles, and thermal coal.
  11. Cochin Port: Also known as Kochi Port, it has completed 91 years being in operation. It is located in Kochi city on the sea-route of Arabian Sea – Laccadive Sea – Indian Ocean. This is also one of the largest ports in India. It is operated by government-established Cochin Port Trust (CPT). The port of Cochin lies on two islands of Willingdon and Vallarpadam.
  12. Mormugao Port Trust: Lying on the western coast of India, this port is located in Goa. Besides being a leading port for exporting iron ore, it is also a major exporter of pharmaceutical products, pig iron, iron casting, liquor, and frozen fish. Its main imports are steel turning, potassium carbonate, shredded scrap, and heavy melting scrap.

 

 

 

Public Safety Act (PSA), 1978, of Jammu & Kashmir allows detention of any individual for up to how many months without a trial or charge?

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Answer:

Public Safety Act (PSA), 1978, of Jammu & Kashmir allows detention of any individual for up to 24 months months without a trial or charge.

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What is the J&K Public Safety Act (PSA)?

  • The Public Safety Act (PSA), 1978, of Jammu & Kashmir is an administrative detention law that allows detention of any individual for up to two years without a trial or charge.
  • It was introduced to prevent the smuggling of timber.
  • However, in some cases, the Act makes provisions for the detained person to be informed about the reason of custody, and also gives them an opportunity to make a case against their detention to the government. However, the detaining authority is not required to reveal any facts.

The Act allows for detention of any person:

  1. up to two years in case of persons acting prejudicial to the security of the State and
  2. up to one year where any person is acting prejudicial to the maintenance of public order.
  • Under the PSA, a person can be detained initially for 12 days. Any detention beyond three months is ratified by the PSA Advisory Board.
  • Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates.

Misuse of PSA

  • The law was being misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990.
  • After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to detain separatists.
  • In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.

What constitutional safeguards are guaranteed to a person so detained?

  • Article 22(a): No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.
  • Article 22(b): Every person arrested and detained shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours.

 

 

 

What is the objective of Forest Management Certification?

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Answer:

It aims to control depletion of tropical forests and prevention of its illegal logging

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What is Forest Management Certification?

  • Forest Management Certification is a voluntary tool that optimises and enhances Forest Management Practices via market incentives.
  • It aims to control depletion of tropical forests and prevention of its illegal logging.
  • At the global level there are two mainstream forest management certification schemes: i) FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) launched in 1993 and ii) PEFC (Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification) founded in 1999.

Issues:

The above certification schemes are generic in nature and follow a uniform approach, which is not applicable to India.

About Network for Certification and Conservation of Forests (NCCF):

  • A non-profit organisation registered as a society, formed in 2015.
  • The organisation has two aims (1) have a globally aligned certification program developed within India and addressing the concerns for sustainable management of forests and the plantations and (2) making the Indian wood and forest fibre based industry competent globally.

Focus Areas:

  • Forestry, trees outside forests, protected areas and wetlands, non-wood forest products, quality planting material, ecotourism, biofuels, sustainable mining and water quality etc.
  • Also engaged in Policy advocacy and diverse conservation activities.

 

 

China is a member of G7 countries. True OR False.

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Answer:

False

Correct Statement:

  • China is not a member because low net worth per individual and an economy that has not yet fully modernized.

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Group of Seven (G7) Countries:

  • An intergovernmental economic organisation consisting of seven largest IMF-described advanced economies in the world: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • The European Union is also an invitee to the G7 summit. Prior to March 2014, Russia too was a member. These seven countries represent 58% of the global net wealth.
  • The grouping consists of largest, most industrialised and most advanced economies in the world. They are also Leading export countries, have the Largest gold reserves, Largest nuclear energy producers and top contributors to the UN budget.
  • China is not a member because low net worth per individual and an economy that has not yet fully modernized.
  • First Summit was held in France in 1975.

Mandate:

  • Initially formed to discuss economic and political concerns prompted by the 1973 oil crisis. Gradually mandate expanded to include large number of international issues, including energy security, trade, climate change, global health issues, gender equality, poverty – and any other topic the country holding the G7 presidency chooses to put on the agenda.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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