Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-18] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar; Black Carbon; Interpol; India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD); School Education Quality Index (SEQI); Operation Greens; Angikaar Campaign; Rural Sanitation Strategy; UMMID (Unique Methods of Management and treatment of Inherited Disorders) initiative; India’s Export and Import Trends 2018-19
By IASToppers
March 24, 2020

 

 

In 2018-19, India exported more organic chemicals than Electrical machinery or equipment. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

In 2018-19,

Organic chemical export: $22.6 billion

Electrical machinery export: $52.4 billion

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India’s Export and Import Trends 2018-19:

Highlights:

  • The exports to North American and European countries have increased.
  • Although the majority of India’s exports continue to go to Asian countries, it has declined in the last five years.
  • Asia’s share in India’s overall exports fell from 48.52 percent in 2014-15 to 47.62 percent in FY2018-19. While North America’s and Europe’s share increased.
  • The rising demand for electrical and electronic equipment – as well as that of mineral fuels, and mineral oils and products in India’s domestic manufacturing market.
  • It has increased the share of India’s overall imports from Asia, particularly from China, Hong Kong, and ASEAN economies.

  • Within Asia, India exported less to West Asia. However, the share of exports to ASEAN, South Asia, and North East Asia increased.
  • India’s key exports in FY2018-19 were petroleum products, followed by pearls, precious, semiprecious stones, drug formulations and biologicals, gold and other precious metal jewellery, iron and steel, as well as organic chemicals.
  • Together, these top ten commodities accounted for about 46 percent of India’s total export.

  • The tables below show India’s top trading partners, including their share of exports and imports in India’s overall trade:

 

 

UMMID, an initiative of government of India, aims to create Special Nutrition Programmes for malnutrition children in rural areas. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Correct Statement:

UMMID (Unique Methods of Management and treatment of Inherited Disorders) aims to create awareness about genetic disorders amongst clinicians and establish molecular diagnostics in hospitals for the benefit of patients in India.

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UMMID (Unique Methods of Management and treatment of Inherited Disorders) initiative

Congenital and hereditary genetic diseases are becoming a significant health burden in India, In India’s urban areas, congenital malformations and genetic disorders are the third most common cause of mortality in new-borns.

Factors:

  • A large population and high birth rate, consanguineous marriage favoured in many communities, prevalence of genetic disorders is high in India.

Ministry?

Ministry of Science & Technology.  NIDAN stands for National Inherited Diseases Administration Kendras.

Features of the Initiative:

  • To establish NIDAN Kendras to provide counselling, prenatal testing and diagnosis, management, and multidisciplinary care in Government Hospitals wherein the influx of patients is more.
  • To produce skilled clinicians in Human Genetics.
  • To undertake screening of pregnant women and new born babies for inherited genetic diseases in hospitals at aspirational districts.

Screening of 10,000 pregnant women and 5000 new born babies per year for inherited genetic diseases will be taken up at the following seven aspirational districts.

UMMID plans to work at three levels of medical care which will work in close collaboration with a close link between training and establishment of diagnostic services. The three components of UMMID are given below.

In the next phase:

  • The program and establish more Nidan Kendras in other parts of the country,
  • train more clinicians in clinical genetics and cover more aspirational districts for screening of pregnant women and new born babies for inherited genetic diseases to provide comprehensive clinical care.

Benefits:

  • Meet the hopes of large number of persons with inherited diseases.
  • People who cannot afford expensive care for genetic disorders will be benefited
  • Create awareness about genetic disorders amongst clinicians and laypersons.
  • Increase spread of diagnostic facilities for rare genetic disorders etc.

 

 

Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar was recently constituted by a) Ministry of Home Affairs OR b) National Disaster Management Authority OR c) Kerala Government

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Solution:

Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar was recently constituted by Ministry of Home Affairs.

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Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar

  • Ministry of Home Affairs institutes Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar.

When will it be announced?

  • Every year on 23rd January on the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

Purpose of the award?

  • Recognise individuals and organisations who work to the alleviate suffering of affected population, post any disaster.

Who is eligible?

  • All Indian Citizens and organizations who have excelled in areas of Disaster Management; like Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Rescue, Response, Relief, Rehabilitation, Research/ Innovations or Early Warning.

Recent Winners:

  • 8th Battalion of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

 

 

 What are the objectives of Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029?

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Solution:

Objectives of Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029)

  • Sustaining the sanitation behaviour change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) and ensuring sustained access to safely managed sanitation for all rural Indians
  • Achieve a clean living environment through solid and liquid waste management.

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Rural Sanitation Strategy

The Government of India has launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029), its objectives are:

1) Sustaining the sanitation behaviour change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) and ensuring sustained access to safely managed sanitation for all rural Indians

2) Achieve a clean living environment through solid and liquid waste management.

Key Data:

Since the launch of the SBM-G in 2014, over 10 crore toilets have been built in rural areas; over 5.9 lakh villages, 699 districts, and 35 States/UTs have declared themselves Open Defecation Free (ODF)

Ministry:

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti.

Focus Areas:

The strategy aims to achieve ODF Plus status across the country. It would take measures like:

  • Framework to guide local governments, policy makers, implementers and other relevant stakeholders in their planning for ODF Plus, where everyone uses a toilet, and every village has access to solid and liquid waste management.
  • Proper implementation of solid and liquid waste management, plastic waste, organic waste, grey water and faecal sludge in rural areas.
  • Highlight steps to be taken by the government like retrofitting of single pit toilets to twin pits or making provisions to empty pits every five years, repair of defunct ones, and construction of soak pits for septic tanks wherever not already present.
  • A district-level training management unit (TMU) will be set up to provide oversight and support to gram panchayats (GPs) so that they ensure the operation and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure. The GPs are also supposed to conduct rapid assessment of water and sanitation gaps.
  • Alternative self-financing by gradual leveraging of community resources in the form of tariffs for ODF plus activities. It also highlights innovative models for sanitation financing.
  • State-specific strategies on menstrual hygiene management, including menstrual waste.
  • Potential collaborations with development partners, civil society and inter-government partnerships.

Additional Information:

What is Greywater?

Greywater is the wastewater generated from water use in kitchens, bathing and washing clothes

 

 

Angikaar Campaign was launched by which Indian Ministry? What was its aim?

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Solution:

Initiative of:  Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.

Objective: Aimed for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene for beneficiaries of completed houses under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(Urban) (PMAY(U)).

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About Angikaar Campaign:

Initiative of:  Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.

Objective: Aimed for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene for beneficiaries of completed houses under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(Urban) (PMAY(U)).

  • It will converge with schemes and Missions of other Ministries dealing with these subjects. It would especially focus on Ujjwala for gas connection and Ayushman Bharat for health insurance to the beneficiaries

Medium:

Through community mobilisation and Information-Education-Communication activities. The campaign will include door to door activities, ward and city level events.

Possible Benefits:

Bring PMAY(U) beneficiaries to the fold of several other central government schemes.

 

 

Recently launched Operation Greens aims for?

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Solution:

Recently launched Operation Greens aims to stabilise the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) crops and ensure availability of TOP crops round the year without price volatility.

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Context:

Tomato-Onion-Potato(TOP) crops face extreme price volatility.  The government has two objectives ensuring remunerative prices for farmers and affordable prices to consumers.

Factors:

  • India has total of 8000 plus cold storages and 90% are used for storing potatoes.
  • Heavy rains affecting production of vegetables like tomatoes in major producing states like Maharashtra and Karnataka.
  • TOP crops are traded in APMC markets. Intermediaries affecting farmers’ remuneration.
  • Problem of collusion by traders.

Operation Greens:

A scheme launched on the line of Operation Flood. Aimed to stabilise the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) crops and ensure availability of TOP crops round the year without price volatility.

Ministry:

Launched by Ministry of Food Processing Industries(MoFPI). NAFED will be the Nodal Agency to implement price stabilisation measures.

Objectives:

Strategy:

  1. Short term Price Stabilisation Measures: MoFPI will provide 50% of the subsidy on the following two components:
    • Transportation of Tomato Onion Potato(TOP) Crops from production to storage;
    • Hiring of appropriate storage facilities for TOP Crops;
  2. Long Term Integrated value chain development projects
    • Capacity Building of FPOs & their consortium
    • Quality production
    • Post-harvest processing facilities
    • Agri-Logistics
    • Marketing / Consumption Points
    • Creation and Management of e-platform for demand and supply management of TOP Crops.

Assistance:

Eligible Organisation would include State Agriculture and other Marketing Federations, Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO), cooperatives, companies, Self-help groups, food processors, logistic operators, service providers, supply chain operators, retail and wholesale chains and central and state governments and their entities/organizations will be eligible to participate in the programme and to avail financial assistance.

The pattern of assistance will comprise of grants-in-aid at the rate of 50% of the eligible project cost in all areas, subject to maximum Rs. 50 crores per project

 

 

In India, School Education Quality Index (SEQI) was developed by which entity?  Which state topped in SEQI 2019 among large states category?

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Solution:

  • SEQI was developed by NITI Aayog.
  • Kerala topped this index among large states category.

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School Education Quality Index (SEQI):

  • SEQI was developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
  • The index aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions.
  • SEQI used 2016-17 as the reference year and 2015-16 as the base year.

Key Indicators:

  • The index consists of 30 critical indicators that assess the delivery of quality education.

The index was divided into two broad categories:

Category 1: Outcomes

  • Learning outcomes
  • Access outcomes
  • Infrastructure and facilities for outcomes
  • Equity outcomes

Category 2: Governance processes aiding outcomes

Highlights of the SEQI Report:

  • Kerala has emerged on top among 20 large states in terms of quality of school education, followed by Rajasthan and Karnataka, while the most-populous Uttar Pradesh was ranked at the bottom position during 2016-17, according to SEQI report.
  • Of the 20 Large States, 10 perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Karnataka, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. The 3 Large States with the most noticeable performance differences in the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes are Odisha, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Of the eight Small States, seven perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Manipur, Tripura and Goa. Sikkim is the only Small State that performs better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.
  • All seven UTs have shown an improvement in their overall performance scores. Of the seven UTs, four perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Delhi, Daman & Diu and Lakshadweep perform better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.

Factors affecting the SEQI:

  • States’ and UTs’ performance on Learning Outcomes is driven by their results on the National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2017.
  • Their performance on Access Outcomes is primarily driven by enrolment ratios at the secondary level and transition rates from upper-primary to secondary level.
  • In terms of Infrastructure & Facilities for Outcomes, States’ and UTs’ performance is strongly linked to the presence of Computer Aided-Learning (CAL) at the elementary level and vocational education at the secondary and senior-secondary level.

 

 

Recently, India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD) was established by India in which African country?

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Solution:

Recently, India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD) was established by India in Malawai.

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India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD):

Why in news?

  • Recently, Ministry of External Affairs signed an MoU with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Consultancy Service (NABCONS) for setting up India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD) in Malawi.

About IAIARD:

  • IAIARD will be a Pan-African Institute wherein trainees not only from Malawi but also from other African countries, will receive training to develop their human resources and build their capacity.
  • IAIARD aims to complement the efforts of the Government of India to enhance capacity in the areas of agro-financing and entrepreneurship development for African countries.
  • IAIARD will develop training programmes in the areas of micro-financing and agro-financing, among others.
  • The entire expenditure on faculty from India, the travel, logistics and training course expenses for students from other African countries will be borne by the Government of India for an initial period of three years.
  • IAIARD is the first of its kind developed in an African country by India. This will further strengthen the bilateral relations with Malawi and India’s relations with African Union.

 

 

What are the seven types of notices published by International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)?

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Solution:

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Interpol:

  • The International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) is an inter-governmental organization.
  • It has 194 member countries, and aims to help police in all of them to work together to make the world a safer place.
  • To do this, Interpol enable to share and access data on crimes and criminals, and offer a range of technical and operational support.
  • It is staffed by both police and civilians and comprises a headquarters in Lyon, a global complex for innovation in Singapore and several satellite offices in different regions.
  • In each country, an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB) provides the central point to contact Interpol and other NCBs. An NCB is run by national police officials and usually sits in the government ministry responsible for policing.
  • It connects all our countries via a communications system called I-24/7. It also allows countries to access databases and services in real-time, from both central and remote locations.

What Interpol do:

  • It supports national efforts in combating crimes across three global areas that consider the most pressing today; terrorism, cybercrime and organized crime.

  • It can provide platform for cooperation like enable police to work directly with their counterparts, even between countries which do not have diplomatic relations.

Types of notices:

  • There are seven types of notices — Red Notice, Yellow Notice, Blue Notice, Black Notice, Green Notice, Orange Notice, and Purple Notice.

Key Fact:

  • India is one of the oldest members of Interpol, having joined the organization in 1949.
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation, which is a Federal/Central investigating agency functioning under the Central Government, is designated as the National Central Bureau of India.

 

 

What are the sources of Black Carbon?

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Solution:

  • Black carbon is the sooty black material emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel.

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Why in news?

Researchers have now determined that while the shape of particles containing black carbon does have some effect on atmospheric warming, it’s important to account for the structural differences in soot particles, as well as how the particles interact with other organic and inorganic materials that coat black carbon.

Black Carbon:

  • Black carbon is the sooty black material emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. It comprises a significant portion of particulate matter or PM, which is an air pollutant.
  • Black carbon also contributes to climate change causing changes in patterns of rain and clouds.
  • It strongly absorbs sunlight and give soot its black colour.
  • Primary sources include emissions from diesel engines, cook stoves, wood burning and forest fires.

Effects on Health:

  • Black carbon is a global environmental problem that has negative implications for both human health and our climate.
  • Inhalation of black carbon is associated with health problems including respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even birth defects.
  • Black carbon is a major contributor to the fine particle (PM2.5) burden in the air. It is small enough to be easily inhaled into the lungs and has been associated with adverse health effects.
  • Peat-burning wildfires release enormous amounts of PM, including black carbon, which has been linked to increased risk of heart failure and respiratory hospital visits.

Key Facts:

  • Almost 4 million deaths in a year are caused by the use of indoor cook stoves worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Burning wood, dung or coal in cook stoves emits substantial amounts of black carbon.
  • As black carbon deposits in the Arctic, the particles cover the snow and ice, decreasing the Earth’s ability to reflect the warming rays of the sun, while absorbing heat and hastening melt.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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