Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-18] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Growth of Population; Functional Classification of Towns; Consequences of Migration; Types of Rural Settlement; Work participation rate; Land-use categories; Jowar and Bajra in India; Tea and Coffee in India; Ferrous Mineral; Hill Area Development Programme & Drought Prone Area Programme;
By IASToppers
March 24, 2020



The programme named Hill Area Development Programme & Drought Prone Area Programme were initiated in which Five Year Plan?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question


The programme named Hill Area Development Programme & Drought Prone Area Programme were initiated in Fifth and Fourth Five Year Plan respectively.

Enrich Your Learning:

Hill Area Development Programme & Drought Prone Area Programme:

Hill Area Development Programme:

  • Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
  • These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.

Drought Prone Area Programme:

  • This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets.
  • Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.



Minerals such as iron ore, manganese, chromite are the example of which type mineral? a) Ferrous OR b) Non-Ferrous

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: Ferrous Mineral.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ferrous Mineral:

Ferrous minerals such as iron ore, manganese, chromite, etc., provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. India is well-placed in respect of ferrous minerals both in reserves and production.

Iron Ore:

  • India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve of iron ore in Asia. The two main types of ore found in India are haematite and magnetite.
  • It has great demand in international market due to its superior quality. The iron ore mines occur in close proximity to the coal fields in the north-eastern plateau region of the country which adds to their advantage.
  • The total reserves of iron ore in the country were about 20 billion tonnes in the year 2004- 05. About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  • In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar. The important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu (Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh).
  • Similar hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them.
  • Most of the important mines such as Noamundi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. Dalli, and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron ore in the country.
  • In Karnataka, iron ore deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and parts of Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumakuru districts.
  • The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore.


  • Manganese is an important raw material for smelting of iron ore and also used for manufacturing ferro alloys. Manganese deposits are found in almost all geological formations; however, it is mainly associated with Dharwar system.
  • Odisha is the leading producer of Manganese. Major mines in Odisha are located in the central part of the iron ore belt of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.
  • Karnataka is another major producer and here the mines are located in Dharwar, Ballari, Belagavi, North Canara, Chikkmagaluru, Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumkur.
  • Maharashtra is also an important producer of manganese which is mined in Nagpur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri districts. The disadvantage to these mines is that they are located far from steel plants.
  • The manganese belt of Madhya Pradesh extends in a belt in Balaghat-Chhindwara-Nimar-Mandla and Jhabua districts. Telangana, Goa, and Jharkhand are other minor producers of manganese.



­­­­­­______________ is grown over undulating topography of hilly areas and well drained soils in humid and sub-humid tropics and sub-tropics. a) Tea OR b) Coffee.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: Tea

Enrich Your Learning:

Tea and Coffee in India:


  • Tea is a plantation crop used as beverage. Black tea leaves are fermented whereas green tea leaves are unfermented.
  • Tea leaves have rich content of caffeine and tannin. It is an indigenous crop of hills in northern China.
  • In India, tea plantation started in 1840s in Brahmaputra valley of Assam which still is a major tea growing area in the country. Later on, its plantation was introduced in the sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal (Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Bihar districts).
  • Tea is also cultivated on the lower slopes of Nilgiri and Cardamom hills in Western Ghats.
  • India is a leading producer of tea and accounts for about 28 per cent of total production in the world.
  • At present, India ranks third among tea exporting countries in the world after Sri Lanka and China.
  • Assam accounts for about 53.2 per cent of the total cropped area and contributes more than half of total production of tea in the country. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the other leading producers of tea.


  • Coffee is a tropical plantation crop. Its seeds are roasted, ground and are used for preparing a beverage.
  • There are three varieties of coffee i.e. arabica, robusta and liberica.
  • India mostly grows superior quality coffee, arabica, which is in great demand in International market. But India produces only about 3.2 per cent coffee of the world and ranks seventh after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, Ethopia and Mexico in 2008-09.
  • Coffee is cultivated in the highlands of Western Ghats in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • Karnataka alone accounts for more than two-third of total production of coffee in the country.



Which Indian state alone produces more than half of the total jowar production of the country? And mention the states of India which are leading producers of bajra.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question


Maharashtra. Leading producers of bajra are the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana.

Enrich Your Learning:

Jowar and Bajra in India:


  • The coarse cereals together occupy about 16.50 per cent of total cropped area in India. Among these, jowar or sorghum alone accounts for about 5.3 per cent of total cropped area.
  • It is main food crop in semi-arid areas of central and southern India.
  • Other leading producer states of jowar are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
  • It is sown in both kharif and rabi seasons in southern states. But it is a kharif crop in northern India where it is mostly grown as a fodder crop.
  • South of Vindhyachal, it is a rainfed crop and its yield level is very low in this region.


  • Bajra is sown in hot and dry climatic conditions in northwestern and western parts of the country.
  • It is a hardy crop which resists frequent dry spells and drought in this region. It is cultivated alone as well as part of mixed cropping.
  • This coarse cereal occupies about 5.2 per cent of total cropped area in the country.
  • Being a rainfed crop, the yield level of this crop is low in Rajasthan and fluctuates a lot from year to year.
  • Yield of this crop has increased during recent years in Haryana and Gujarat due to introduction of drought resistant varieties and expansion of irrigation under it.



Define the Barren and Wastelands in terms of Land-use category.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question


Barren and Wastelands:

The land which may be classified as a wasteland such as barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. normally cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology.


Enrich Your Learning:

Land-use categories:

The land-use categories as maintained in the Land Revenue Records are as follows:

(i) Forests:

  • It is important to note that area under actual forest cover is different from area classified as forest. The latter is the area which the Government has identified and demarcated for forest growth.
  • The land revenue records are consistent with the latter definition. Thus, there may be an increase in this category without any increase in the actual forest cover.

(ii) Land put to Non-agricultural Uses:

  • Land under settlements (rural and urban), infrastructure (roads, canals, etc.), industries, shops, etc. are included in this category.
  • An expansion in the secondary and tertiary activities would lead to an increase in this category of land-use.

(iii) Barren and Wastelands:

  • The land which may be classified as a wasteland such as barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. normally cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology.

(iv) Area under Permanent Pastures and Grazing Lands:

  • Most of this type land is owned by the village ‘Panchayat’ or the Government. Only a small proportion of this land is privately owned. The land owned by the village panchayat comes under ‘Common Property Resources’.

(v) Area under Miscellaneous Tree Crops and Groves (Not included in Net sown Area):

  • The land under orchards and fruit trees are included in this category. Much of this land is privately owned.

(vi) Culturable Waste-Land:

  • Any land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is included in this category. It can be brought under cultivation after improving it through reclamation practices.

(vii) Current Fallow:

  • This is the land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year.
  • Fallowing is a cultural practice adopted for giving the land rest. The land recoups the lost fertility through natural processes.

(viii) Fallow other than Current Fallow:

  • This is also a cultivable land which is left uncultivated for more than a year but less than five years.
  • If the land is left uncultivated for more than five years, it would be categorised as culturable wasteland.

(ix) Net Area Sown:

  • The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area



In India, the work participation rate tends to be higher in the areas of lower levels of economic development since number of manual workers are needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Work participation rate:

  • The population of India according to their economic status is divided into three groups, namely; main workers, marginal workers and non-workers.
  • It is observed that in India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only 39.8 per cent (2011) leaving a vast majority of about 60 per cent as non-workers. This indicates an economic status in which there is a larger proportion of dependent population, further indicating possible existence of large number of unemployed or under employed people
  • The states with larger percentages of workers are Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya. Among the Union Territories, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu have higher participation rate.
  • The occupational composition of India’s population (which actually means engagement of an individual in farming, manufacturing trade, services or any kind of professional activities) shows a large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • About 54.6 per cent of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas only 3.8% of workers are engaged in household industries and 41.6 % are other workers including nonhousehold industries, trade, commerce, construction and repair and other services.
  • As far as the occupation of country’s male and female population is concerned, male workers out-number female workers in all the three sectors.



Mention the various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question


There are various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India. These include:

  1. physical features – nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
  2. cultural and ethenic factors – social structure, caste and religion
  • security factors – defence against thefts and robberies.

Enrich Your Learning:

Types of Rural Settlement:

Rural settlements in India can broadly be put into four types:

  1. Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated
  2. Semi-clustered or fragmented
  3. Hamleted,
  4. Dispersed or isolated.

Clustered Settlements:

  • The clustered rural settlement is a compact or closely built up area of houses. In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures.
  • The closely built-up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern or geometric shape, such as rectangular, radial, linear, etc.
  • Such settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. Sometimes, people live in compact village for security or defence reasons, such as in the Bundelkhand region of central India and in Nagaland.
  • In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources.

Semi-Clustered Settlements:

  • Semi-clustered or fragmented settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
  • More often such a pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village.
  • In such cases, the land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village, whereas people of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer flanks of the village. Such settlements are widespread in the Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan.

Hamleted Settlements:

  • Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. These units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country.
  • This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors. Such villages are more frequently found in the middle and lower Ganga plain, Chhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas.

Dispersed Settlements:

  • Dispersed or isolated settlement pattern in India appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes.
  • Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas. Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have this type of settlement.



What are the Environmental Consequences of Migration?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question


Environmental Consequences:

  • Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas. This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies.
  • Due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Consequences of Migration:

  • Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety.
  • This creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

Economic Consequences:

  • A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
  • Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants. The amount of remittances sent by the internal migrants is very meagre as compared to international migrants, but it plays an important role in the growth of economy of the source area.
  • Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.
  • Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development.
  • Besides this, unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding. Development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country.

Demographic Consequences:

  • Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities.
  • Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
  • However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipients states.

Social Consequences:

  • Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
  • Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.
  • But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.

Others Consequences:

  • Migration (even excluding the marriage migration) affects the status of women directly or indirectly. In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women.
  • Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability.
  • If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost.
  • The market for advanced skills has become truly a global market and the most dynamic industrial economies are admitting and recruiting significant proportions of the highly trained professionals from poor regions.



Areas such as Raniganj, Jharia, Digboi are considered under the___________. a) Commercial towns OR b) Mining towns

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: Mining towns

Enrich Your Learning:

Functional Classification of Towns:

On the basis of dominant or specialised functions, Indian cities and towns can be broadly classified as follows:

Administrative towns and cities:

  • Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order are administrative towns, such as Chandigarh, New Delhi, Bhopal, Shillong, Guwahati, Imphal, Srinagar, Gandhinagar, Jaipur Chennai, etc.

Industrial towns:

  • Industries constitute prime motive force of these cities such as Mumbai, Salem, Coimbatore, Modinagar, Jamshedpur, Hugli, Bhilai, etc.

Transport Cities:

  • They may be ports primarily engaged in export and import activities such as Kandla, Kochchi, Kozhikode, Vishakhapatnam, etc. or hubs of inland transport such as Agra, Dhulia, Mughal Sarai, Itarsi, Katni, etc.

Commercial towns:

  • Towns and cities specialising in trade and commerce are kept in this class. Kolkata, Saharanpur, Satna, etc. are some examples.

Mining towns:

  • These towns have developed in mineral rich areas such as Raniganj, Jharia, Digboi, Ankaleshwar, Singrauli, etc.

Garrisson Cantonment towns:

  • These towns emerged as garrisson towns such as Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Udhampur, etc.

Educational towns:

  • Starting as centres of education, some of the towns have grown into major campus towns such as Roorki, Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani, Allahabad etc.

Religious and cultural towns:

  • Varanasi, Mathura, Amritsar, Madurai, Puri, Ajmer, Pushkar, Tirupati, Kurukshetra, Haridwar, Ujjain came to prominence due to their religious/cultural significance.

Tourist towns:

  • Nainital, Mussoorie, Shimla, Pachmarhi, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Udagamandalam (Ooty), Mount Abu are some of the tourist destinations.



The induced components of the growth of population are explained by the volume of both the inward and outward movement of people in any given area. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Growth of Population:

  • Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. Its rate is expressed in percentage. Population growth has two components namely; natural and induced.
  • The natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates.
  • The annual growth rate of India’s population is 1.64 per cent (2011).
  • The growth rate of population in India over the last one century has four distinct phases of growth:

Phase I:

  • The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population, since in this period growth rate was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921.
  • Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low. Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large and inefficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for a high birth and death rates in this period.

Phase II:

  • The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth. An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate.
  • At the same time better transport and communication system improved distribution system. The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate than the previous phase. This is impressive at the backdrop of Great Economic Depression, 1920s and World War II.

Phase III:

  • The decades 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India, which was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country. The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 per cent.
  • It is in this period, after the Independence, that developmental activities were introduced through a centralised planning process and economy started showing up ensuring the improvement of living condition of people at large.
  • Consequently, there was a high natural increase and higher growth rate. Besides, increased international migration bringing in Tibetans, Bangladeshis, Nepalies and even people from Pakistan contributed to the high growth rate.

Phase IV:

  • In the post 1981 till present, the growth rate of country’s population though remained high, has started slowing down gradually.
  • A downward trend of crude birth rate is held responsible for such a population growth. This was, in turn, affected by an increase in the mean age at marriage, improved quality of life particularly education of females in the country.
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

IT on Facebook

Facebook Pagelike Widget


Calendar Archive

October 2020
« Sep