Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-19] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Great Indian Bustard; Rhi-Tiddim Road Project; Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFTAM); Cotton Technical Assistance Programme (Cotton TAP); Indian Rhinoceros; Operation Peace Spring; Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD); elastocaloric effect; National Investigation Agency (NIA); FASTtag
By IASToppers
March 25, 2020

 

 

FASTags stickers uses which technology to enable digital, contactless payment of tolls?

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Solution:

FASTags stickers uses RFID (Radio-frequency identification) technology to enable digital, contactless payment of tolls?

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One Nation One FASTag’ scheme will be implemented from December 1. FASTags will be mandatory for all four-wheeler passenger vehicles and all commercial vehicles including buses, trucks, tractors and construction machinery at all national highways.

What is One Nation One FASTag Scheme?

  • The One Nation One FASTag scheme aims to integrate the collection of toll digitally and ensure seamless mobility of vehicles across India. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways in implementing this scheme.

What is a FASTtag?

  • FASTags are stickers that are affixed to the windscreen of vehicles and use RFID technology to enable digital, contactless payment of tolls without having to stop at toll gates. The tags are linked to bank accounts and other payment methods. A FASTag is valid for five years
  • As a car crosses a toll plaza, the amount is automatically deducted, and a notification is sent to the registered mobile phone number. Sensors are placed on toll barriers, and the barriers open for vehicles having valid FASTags.
  • The digital system was developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) and is based on the National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) programme.
  • A FASTag is vehicle specific and is linked to the car’s registration. Once assigned to a vehicle, it cannot be transferred to another vehicle.

How will it benefit?

Other Initiatives:

A unified electronic tolling solution aims to integrate the collection of toll digitally so that seamless services can be provided to consumers all over India. Recently, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana signed MoUs with the Indian Highways Management Company Limited, an arm of NHAI, to accept FASTags on their state highway tolls.

 

 

National Investigation Agency cannot deal with terror-related crimes across states without special permission from the states. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Correct Statement:

  • National Investigation Agency can deal with terror-related crimes across states without special permission from the states.

Enrich your learning:

About National Investigation Agency (NIA):

  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India.
  • It acts as the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency. The agency is empowered to deal with terror-related crimes across states without special permission from the states.
  • The Agency came into existence with the enactment of the National Investigation Agency Act 2008 by the Parliament of India on 31 December 2008.

The Union Home Ministry is the governing body of the NIA and headquartered in New Delhi.

Why was it constituted?

  • India has been the victim of large scale terrorism sponsored from across the borders. Numerous attacks in various parts of the hinterland and major cities etc occurred. A large number of such incidents are found to have complex inter-State and international linkages, and possible connection with other activities like the smuggling of arms and drugs, pushing in and circulation of fake Indian currency, infiltration from across the borders, etc.
  • It was felt that there was a need for setting up an Agency at the Central level for investigation of offences related to terrorism and certain other acts, which have national ramifications. Also, several experts and Committees, including the Administrative Reforms Commission in its Report, had made recommendations for establishing such an Agency.
  • Accordingly, the NIA Act was enacted on 31-12-08 and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) was born.

 

 

Currently, the Great Indian Bustard are found in which states of India?

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Solution:

Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

Enrich your learning:

Great Indian Bustard

  • Bustards are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of Africa, Europe and Asia (collectively called the Old World).
  • The Great Indian bustard is a bustard found on the Indian subcontinent. The bird is one of the heaviest flying birds which can weigh up to 15 kg and grow up to one metre in height.
  • The habitat of the bird consists of dry grassland and scrub vegetation. It is considered the flagship grassland species, represents the health of the grassland ecology.
  • Once common on the dry plains of the Indian subcontinent, the population now has declined drastically. Less than 200 birds are left now, of which about 100 are in Rajasthan.

Why did the population decline?

  • Till the 1980s, about 1,500-2,000 Great Indian Bustards were spread throughout the western half of India. The major threats include occasional poaching outside Protected Areas, collisions with high tension electric wires, fast-moving vehicles and free-ranging dogs in villages. Other threats include habitat loss and alteration as a result of widespread agricultural expansion and mechanized farming, infrastructural development such as irrigation, roads, electric poles, as well as mining and industrialization are the main reasons for the population decline.
  • The bird is listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972, in the CMS Convention and Appendix I of CITES, as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and the National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016). It has also been identified as one of the species for the recovery programme under the Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

The bird was historically found in

Now the bird is found in

Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

 

Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

 

There were fears that the bird might be the first mega species to disappear from India after Cheetah in recent times.

What is Project Great Indian Bustard?

  • A 12 crore project announced by the state of Rajasthan to recover the population of the critically endangered Great Indian Bustard bird. The bird also happens to be the state bird of Rajasthan.
  • The bird is a slow breeder and the success rate of breeding is very less.
  • The project will spend Rs 4.5 crore on constituting enclosures and securing inviolate areas to ensure successful breeding of birds in the Desert National Park. And spend Rs 8 crore developing breeding sites of bustards outside the protected area.

Additional Information:

  • In India total of four bustard species are found. The Great Indian Bustard, the Lesser Florican, the Bengal Florican and Houbara. The first three species are endemic to the grasslands of India and are on the brink of extinction while the fourth i.e. Houbara is a migratory species.
  • Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change prepared a species recovery programme for the first three of the four bustard species found in India.

 

 

What is Elastocaloric effect?

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Solution & Enrich your learning:

Why in news?

  • Researchers from multiple universities have found that the elastocaloric effect, if harnessed, may be able to do away with the need of fluid refrigerants used in fridges and air-conditioners.

What is elastocaloric effect?

  • The elastocaloric effect occurs when stress is applied or removed on an object and a phase transformation is induced. This results in heating/cooling of the material. This effect is called elastocaloric effect.
  • Elastocaloric material includes Ceramics, Salts, Polymers etc.

Advantages of Elastocaloric Refrigeration:

  • More efficient than vapour-compression refrigeration
  • No gases or volatile liquids involved
  • Non-hazardous
  • Re-usable and recyclable parts and components

Need for discovery:

  • There are refrigerant fluids (such as Hydro-Fluorocarbon- HFCs) susceptible to leakages, and can contribute to global warming including deletion ozone layer.
  • For development of greener, higher-efficiency and low-cost cooling technology.

 

 

Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious virus disease of animals. True OR False.

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Solution:

True

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD):

  • Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious virus disease of animals. It is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovid.
  • It is found in many parts of the world, and has been reported in countries in Africa, the Middles East, Asia and South America.
  • Foot-and-mouth disease has severe implications for animal farming and can be spread by infected animals through aerosols, through contact with contaminated farming equipment and wild predators.
  • Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions, and quarantines, and occasionally the killing of animals.

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) control programme:

  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) control programme (under the National Animal Disease Control Programme) of central government that aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.
  • It envisages 100% vaccination coverage of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs at six-month interval.
  • The programme also includes de-worming of targeted population of livestock twice a year.

 

 

Operation Peace Spring was executed by which country?

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Solution:

The Operation Peace Spring was a cross-border military operation conducted by the Turkish military and the Syrian National Army against the Syrian Democratic Forces and the Syrian Arab Army in northeastern Syria.

Enrich your learning:

Operation Peace Spring:

  • Operation Peace Spring was cross-border military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) and the Syrian National Army (SNA) against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) in north eastern Syria.
  • This move came after US troops, who relied on the Kurds to defeat the Islamic State(IS) group on the ground in Syria withdrew from the border area.
  • Entering the Syrian side of the Turkish-Syrian border outside the area of Operation Peace Spring in order to help facilitate the withdrawal terrorists and their weapons in Syria within the border.
  • The US agreed to pull its troops out of northern Syria in advance of the Turkish incursion despite having armed militants.

Why has Turkey launched an assault?

  • Turkey considers the biggest militia in the Kurdish-led alliance a terrorist group. It says it is an extension of a Kurdish rebel group fighting in Turkey.
  • Turkey also wants 32km (20-mile) deep safe zone along the Syrian side of the border clear of Kurdish fighters. It hopes to resettle up to 2 million Syrian refugees currently living in Turkey at that safe zone.

Who are Kurds?

  • The Kurds are one of the indigenous peoples of the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands in what are now south-eastern Turkey, north-eastern Syria, northern Iraq, north-western Iran and south-western Armenia.
  • Today, they form a distinctive community, united through race, culture and language even though they have no standard dialect.
  • They also adhere to a number of different religions and creeds, although the majority are Sunni Muslims.
  • In the early 20th Century, many Kurds demanded the creation of a homeland generally referred to as Kurdistan.
  • However, the boundaries of modern map of middle east made no provision for a Kurdish state and left Kurds with minority status in their respective countries.

 

 

Indian Rhinoceros are extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains. True OR False.

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Answer:

False

Correct Statement:

  • Formerly, Indian Rhinoceros were extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains. Today, they are restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.

Enrich your learning:

Why in news?

  • The Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has begun a project to create DNA profiles of all rhinos in the country for conservation.
  • It is a collaborative effort between various organisations including:
  • The International Rhino Foundation,
  • Assam’s Forest Department, Bodoland Territorial Council,
  • World Wide Fund – India and
  • The US Fish and Wildlife Service.
  • The programme aims at increasing the number and range of rhinos in Assam through wild-to-wild translocations from Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to potential Protected Areas.
  • It is an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in Assam by 2020.
  • Seven protected areas are Kaziranga, Pobitora, Orang National Park, Manas National Park, Laokhowa wildlife sanctuary, Burachapori wildlife sanctuary and Dibru Saikhowa wildlife sanctuary.

About Indian Rhinoceros:

  • Indian Rhinoceros are also known as the greater one-horned rhinos.
  • Formerly, Indian Rhinoceros were extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains. Today, they are restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
  • It is the largest of all the Asian rhinos and the fourth largest land animal in the world.
  • It is listed as Vulnerable in IUCN Red list due to huge demand from Asia, especially China, for rhino horns.
  • Assam accounts to almost 95 % of the total population of the Indian rhino in the world.
  • The preferred habitat of an Indian rhinoceros is alluvial flood plains and areas containing tall grasslands along the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • 22 September is celebrated as World Rhino Day by The World Wildlife Fund.

 

 

What do you know about Cotton Technical Assistance Programme?

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Solution & Enrich your learning:

About Cotton Technical Assistance Programme (Cotton TAP)

  • It is implemented by the Department of Commerce in selected 11 African countries.

11 Target countries

  • Cotton TAP phase I (2012-2018): Burkina Faso, Benin, Chad, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda.
  • Cotton TAP phase II (2019- 2023): Cotton TAP phase I countries + Mali, Ghana, Togo, Zambia and Tanzania.

Objectives

  • Increasing cotton production
  • Enhancing R&D/ Quality Control
  • Strengthening of cotton residue based value addition industry
  • Strengthening Downstream Industry in Textiles

Implementing agencies

  • Directorate of Cotton Development
  • Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology

 

 

India was the first implementing country to host a replenishment milestone of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFTAM). True OR False.

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Solution:

True

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Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFTAM)

  • India has announced a contribution of $22 million to the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFTAM) for the 6th replenishment cycle (2020-22).
  • The Global Fund is a partnership designed to accelerate the end of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
  • As an international organization, the Global Fund mobilizes and invests more than $4 billion a year to support programs run by local experts in more than 100 countries.
  • India has had a sustained partnership with the Global Fund since 2002 both as a recipient and as a donor.
  • So far, India has received $2.0 billion from the Global Fund for attaining targets related to HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria reduction.
  • In the current funding cycle (2018-21), the Global Fund has allocated $500 million to India. As a donor, India has contributed $46.5 million so far till 2019 including $20 million for the 5th Replenishment.
  • India was the first implementing country to host a replenishment milestone of the Global Fund and now has become first among G20, BRICS and implementer countries to announce the pledge for the 6th Replenishment Conference, setting precedent for other donors to contribute generously for the cause.

 

 

Rhi-Tiddim Road Project is a road project between India and ?

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Solution:

Rhi-Tiddim Road Project is a road project between India and Myanmar.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rhi-Tiddim Road Project

  • A project between India and Myanmar.
  • To enhance road connectivity, especially through the State of Mizoram, the two countires announced the construction and revamping of the Rhi-Tiddim road at a cost of more than US$ 60 million to be financed through grant assistance from India.
  • The project involves development of an estimated 80 km road connecting Tiddim in Chin State to Rihkhawdar (Rih) which is on the Myanmar India border (Chin State-Mizoram State).
  • The Road would not only facilitate development in a very remote part of Chin State but also facilitate border trade and commerce between Myanmar and India.
  • The MoU for construction of Rhi-Tiddim was signed in December 2012 during the visit of the External Affairs Minister to Myanmar.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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