Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-20] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

International Maritime Organization (IMO);District Mineral Foundation; Global Cool Coalition; Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav 2019; Green Crackers; International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture; Eurasian economic union; Eco-Sensitive Zones; TechSagar; Cape Town Agreement.
By IASToppers
March 26, 2020

 

 

Cape Town Agreement of 2012 bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Correct Statement:

  • The Cape Town Agreement was adopted by the International Maritime Organisation in 2012 to help combat illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing

Enrich your learning:

What is the Cape Town Agreement?

  • The Cape Town Agreement was adopted by the International Maritime Organisation in 2012 to help combat illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing.
  • It seeks to introduce mandatory safety measures for fishing vessels of 24 metres and over in length.
  • The Cape Town Agreement includes mandatory international requirements for stability and associated seaworthiness, machinery and electrical installations, life-saving appliances, communications equipment and fire protection, as well as fishing vessel construction.
  • It is aimed at facilitating better control of fishing vessel safety by flag, port and coastal states.
  • The treaty will enter into force 12 months after at least 22 nations, with an aggregate 3,600 fishing vessels of 24 metres and over in length operating on the high seas, have expressed their consent to be bound by it.

India and Cape Town Agreement:

India has over 2.4 lakh fishing crafts operating along the coast, seven major fishing harbours, 75 minor fishing harbours and 1,537 landing centres, catering to the needs of over 4 million fisher-folk. India is yet to ratify the Cape Town Agreement.

 

 

TechSagar, a recently launched online portal, aims at?

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Solution:

  • TechSagar is a comprehensive repository of India’s cyber tech capabilities which provides actionable insights about capabilities of the Indian Industry, academia and research across 25 technology areas like internet of things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), blockchain, cloud & virtualisation, robotics & automation, ar/VR, wireless & networking, and more

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The National Cyber Security Coordinator’s office in partnership with the Data Security Council of India (DSCI) launched TechSagar – a platform to discover India’s technological capability through a portal.

What is TechSagar?

  • TechSagar is a consolidated and comprehensive repository of India’s cyber tech capabilities which provides actionable insights about capabilities of the Indian Industry, academia and research across 25 technology areas like internet of things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), blockchain, cloud & virtualisation, robotics & automation, ar/VR, wireless & networking, and more.
  • A dynamic platform, TechSagar, will be frequently updated with new entities and information to maintain its relevancy and usefulness.
  • DSCI is a not-for-profit, industry body on data protection in India, set up by NASSCOM

What are the benefits of TechSagar?

  • TechSagar will allow targeted search, granular navigation and drill-down methods using more than 3000 niche capabilities. As of now, the repository features 4000+ entities from industry, academia and research including large enterprises and start-ups providing a country-level view of India’s cyber competencies.
  • Help India to become a trillion-dollar digital economy, the repository will facilitate new opportunities for businesses and academia to collaborate, connect and innovate in future.
  • Facilitate industry growth in a strategic domain.

 

 

SOLAS, MARPOL and the STCW are the international convention of which international body?

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Solution:

SOLAS, MARPOL and the STCW are the international convention of International Maritime Organization (IMO).

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International Maritime Organization (IMO)

  • The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
  • The IMO was established in Geneva in 1948 and met for the first time in 1959.
  • It is headquartered in London, UK.
  • The IMO’s primary purpose is to develop and maintain a regulatory framework for shipping, including safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping.
  • The IMO’s structure comprises the Assembly, the Council, the Maritime Safety Committee, the Marine Environment Protection Committee, the Legal Committee, the Technical Cooperation Committee, and the secretariat.

Member countries

  • IMO has 174 Member States and three Associate Members.
  • The IMO Council consists of 40 member countries. It has 3 categories.

Category (a): 10 States with the largest interest in providing international shipping services

Category (b):  10 States with the largest interest in international seaborne trade. India is in category b.
Category (c): 20 States not elected under (a) or (b), which have special interests in maritime transport or navigation.

Key IMO Conventions

  • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974,
  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto and by the Protocol of 1997 (MARPOL)
  • International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers (STCW) as amended, including the 1995 and 2010 Manila Amendments

 

 

Eco-Sensitive Zones are areas within 25 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. True OR False.

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Solution:

False

Correct Statement:

  • Eco-Sensitive Zones are areas within 10 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.

Enrich your learning:

What are Eco-Sensitive Zones?

  • These zones are the areas around protected areas to prevent ecological damagecaused due to developmental activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
  • The Ministry of Environment and Forests designate any area as Eco-sensitive zone.

The Environment Protection Act, 1986 does not mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”.

  1. The section 3(2) of the Act, says that Central Government can restrict areas in which any industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards
  2. Besides, the section 5 (1) of this act says that central government can prohibit or restrict the location of industries and carrying on certain operations or processes on the basis of considerations like the biological diversity of an area, maximum allowable limits of concentration of pollutants for an area, environmentally compatible land use, and proximity to protected areas.

The above two clauses have been effectively used by the government to declare Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFA). The same criteria have been used by the government to declare No Development Zones.

Criteria:

  • The Ministry of Environment has approved a comprehensive set of guidelines laying down parameters and criteria for declaring ESAs.
  • These include Species Based (Endemism, Rarity etc.), Ecosystem Based (sacred groves, frontier forests etc.) and Geomorphologic feature based (uninhabited islands, origins of rivers etc.).

 

 

Enlist the countries of Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).

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Solution:

Currently, EAEU has 5 members: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia.

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Eurasian economic union

  • The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is an international economic union that comprises countries located in northern Eurasia.
  • The founding member countries: Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russiaestablished the union by the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, which entered into force on January 1, 2015.

  • Currently, it has 5 members: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia.
  • Key objectives of the EAEU include increasing cooperation and economic competitiveness for the member states and the promotion of stable development.
  • The EAEU heads of state comprise a governing body known as The Supreme Eurasian Economic Council, and the executive body which oversees day-to-day operations is known as the Eurasian Economic Commission, an analog to the European Commission. The Court of the EAEU serves as the judicial body.

Background

  • Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, many Eurasian republics began to experience economic decline, prompting dialog between states in the region regarding economic cooperation.
  • In 1994, Kazakhstan first suggestedthe idea of establishing a trade alliance. As a result, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed The Treaty on the Customs Union in 1995, laying the groundwork for free economic cooperation.
  • In 2010, ‘The Declaration on Establishment of the Single Economic Space of the Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russia’was signed, establishing the foundation for the EAEU. This treaty, which entered into force in 2012, ensured the free movement of goods, services, labour and capital between the states.
  • In 2014, the EAEU was formally established when founding members signed the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union.

 

 

What is the objective of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture?

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Solution:

Aim of the treaty

  • Recognizing the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world;
  • Establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials;
  • Ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.

Enrich your learning:

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

  • It is a treaty adopted in 2001 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
  • It is also known as Seed Treaty as it is a comprehensive international agreement for ensuring food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA).

Aim of the treaty

  • Recognizing the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world;
  • Establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials;
  • Ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.

The reason behind its formation

  • It was developed to recognize the importance of accessing genetic resources for plant breedingto ensure long term agricultural sustainability and food security.
  • The human population has become very reliant on only a limited number of crops species, and in some instances a narrowing of genetic diversity is occurring within these crops species.

 

 

 SWAS, STAR and SAFAL, as recently seen in news, are?

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Solution:

SWAS, STAR and SAFAL, as recently seen in news, are Green Crackers developed by CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI).

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About Green Crackers

  • Green crackers were developed by CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI).
  • These green crackers are named as: Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR) and Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL) crackers.

Features

  • Small shell size compared to traditional crackers.
  • Produced using less harmful raw materials and have additives which reduce emissions by suppressing dust.
  • Release water vapour and don’t allow the dust particles to rise.
  • Designed to have 30% less Particulate Matter (PM) pollution.
  • Don’t contain banned chemicals such as lithium, arsenic, barium and lead.
  • QR codes on green cracker packages help consumers in identifying counterfeits.

 

 

Ministry of Culture organises Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav (RSM) under which initiative?

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Solution:

Ministry of Culture organises Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav (RSM) under the Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat initiative.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav 2019:

  • Ministry of Culture, Government of India organised the 10th edition of Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav (RSM) under the Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat initiative in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It showcase all the facets of Indian Culture in different areas and aspects including Artists and Artisan.

What is the aim of Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav?

  • RSM is the flagship and premier festival of Ministry of Culture conceived in the year 2015.
  • RSM aims to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Country in all its rich and varied dimensions, viz Handicrafts, Cuisine, Painting, Sculpture and Performing Arts-Folk, Tribal, Classical and Contemporary- all in one place.
  • The RSM will reconnect the people-especially the youth- with their indigenous culture, its multi-faceted nature, magnificence, opulence and historical importance in the context of India as a Nation over the millennia.
  • So far, 9 RSM’s i.e. 2 each in Delhi and 2 in Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, RSM North East, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttarakand were held.

What is Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programme?

  • The Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programme was launched by the Prime Minister in 2016 to promote engagement amongst the people of different States/UTs so as to enhance mutual understanding and bonding between people of diverse cultures, thereby securing stronger unity and integrity of India.

 

 

What is the aim of Global Cool Coalition?

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Solution:

The Global Cool Coalition aims to inspire ambition and accelerate action on the transition to clean and efficient cooling.

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What is Global Cool Coalition?

  • The Global Cool Coalition aims to inspire ambition and accelerate action on the transition to clean and efficient cooling. Launched at the First Global Conference on Synergies between the 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement. Launched in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • The Cool Coalition is a global effort led by the UN Environment, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program, and Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL).

What are the expected outcomes of the Cool Coalition?

  • The Cool Coalition offers a three-in-one opportunity to cut global warming, improve the lives of hundreds of millions of people and make huge financial savings.
  • Green cooling appliances and equipment can save up to $2.9 trillion in energy use by 2050, and help avoid 0.4° C warming of the planet

The Cool Coalition will complement and build upon ongoing successful programs to advance clean and efficient cooling, including, the Cooling for All Secretariat, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme, private sector action like the Global Cooling Prize, and other initiatives.

 

 

The composition and functions of the District Mineral Foundation (DMF) are prescribed by the a) State government OR ii) Central Government?

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Solution:

The composition and functions of the District Mineral Foundation (DMF) are prescribed by the State government.

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What is District Mineral Foundation?

  • District Mineral Foundation (DMF) is a trust set up as a non-profit body, in those districts affected by the mining works, to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations.
  • It is funded through the contributions from miners. Mandated by the Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Amendment Act, (MMDRA) 2015.
  • The Central Government retains the power to prescribe the rates of contribution but its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
  • The composition and functions of the DMF are prescribed by the State government. The contributions made to DMFs are collected by the State Governments. DMF contribution would not be exceeding one-third of royalty.
  • In case of all mining leases executed before January 2015 miners will have to contribute an amount equal to 30% of the royalty payable by them to the DMFs. Where mining leases are granted after January 2015, the rate of contribution would be 10% of the royalty payable
  • If the mining area is spread across several districts, the fund is shared on a pro-rata basis by these districts.

What is the objective of DMF?

  • Mining related operations largely affect less developed and very remote areas of the country, and vulnerable sections of the population, especially Scheduled Tribes. Therefore, it is especially necessary that special care and attention is devoted, in an organized and structured manner so as to ensure that these areas and affected persons are benefitted by the mineral wealth in their regions and are empowered to improve their standard of living.

What are the benefits of DMF?

  • DMF funds are treated as extra-budgetary resources for the State Plan. And thus helps to implement the State and the District Plans.
  • The DMFs also help implement the Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY), for the welfare of mining areas and the affected population.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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