Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-21] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

National Health Profile; Man Portable Antitank Guided Missile; National Mineral Policy 2019; Overseas Indian Citizen; Salmonella; WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC); National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC); Three Judges case; Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS); Maternal Mortality in India.
By IASToppers
March 27, 2020

 

 

Recently, India registers 26.9 per cent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate since 2013. What is the Definition of Maternal Mortality Rate?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

  • Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births due to causes related to pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, regardless of the site or duration of pregnancy.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • Recently, India registers 26.9 per cent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate since 2013, according to the Sample Registration System Bulletin.

Maternal Mortality in India:

  • Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births due to causes related to pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, regardless of the site or duration of pregnancy.

Highlights of Bulletin:

  • Decline in MMR has been from 77 to 72 per 100,000 live births among southern states and in the other states, from 93 to 90.
  • The ratio has declined from 167 in 2011-2013 to 130 in 2014-2016 and to 122 in 2015-17, registering a 6.15 per cent reduction since the last survey figures of 2014-2016.
  • Government has categorised states into three groups – EAG (empowered action group), Southern states and Other states.
  • EAG states comprise Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and Assam. The southern states are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • The decline has been most significant in empowered action group (EAG) states and Assam from 188 to 175.
  • Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have already met the sustainable development goals target of 70 per 100,000 MMR, while Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are within striking distance.

Sample Registration System Bulletin:

  • The Sample Registration System (SRS) is a large-scale demographic survey of the Office of the Registrar General of India for providing reliable annual estimates of Infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility & mortality indicators at the national and sub- national levels.

The WHO lauded India’s progress in reducing the MMR saying the progress puts the country on track towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of an MMR below 70 by 2030.

 

 

The Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS) is a proposed Military Logistics Support Agreement between India and which other country?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

The Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS) is a proposed Military Logistics Support Agreement between India and Russia.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • Recently, India signed an agreement with Russia to “operationalize a mechanism for collaboration on joint manufacturing of spare parts, components, aggregates and other products.

Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS):

  • The Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS) is a proposed Military Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA) between India and Russia.
  • The agreement aims to simplify interoperability and enable military platforms to receive support and supplies across bases in both nations. 
  • The logistics agreement will be beneficial to the Indian Navy as warships will get access to mutual ports and exclusive economic zones to refuel and pick up supplies.
  • On the other hand, Russia can also use ports like Mumbai and Visakhapatnam. Besides ports, Russia would also be able to access airbases.

About Logistics agreement:

  • Logistics agreements are administrative arrangements facilitating access to each other’s military facilities for fuels and services between countries.
  • Since 2016, India has signed militarily logistics sharing agreements with the US, France, Oman, and Singapore.
  • India is looking to conclude three Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA) by the year-end with Japan, Russia and Australia.

Importance:

  • The objective of the ARLS is to explore ways to jointly manufacture spares and components with Russian original equipment manufacturers (OEM) under ‘Make in India’.
  • There is a major issue with this is the purchase of the S-400 air-defence missile systems, over which the U.S. is continuing a tough stance with India.
  • It is stand for the maintenance of Russian-origin arms and defence equipment in India under the ‘Make in India’ programme through the transfer of technology and setting up of joint ventures.”

 

 

Amon the famous three judges cases, in which case the Collegium system of Supreme Court was introduced?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

  • Second Judges Case (1993) introduced the Collegium system.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • The recent transfer of the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court to the Meghalaya High Court has once again brought to the fore a long-standing debate on the functioning of the ‘Collegium’ of judges that makes appointments and transfers in the higher judiciary.

Three Judges case:

  • The Collegium system was evolved through Supreme Court judgments in the Three Judges Cases.

First Judges Case (1981):

  • It ruled that the consultation with the CJI in the matter of appointments must be full and effective.
  • However, it rejected the idea that the CJI’s opinion should have primacy.

Second Judges Case (1993):

  • It introduced the Collegium system, holding that consultation really meant concurrence.
  • It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.

Third Judges Case (1998):

  • Supreme court expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.

Selection procedure of Chief Justice of India:

  • The Chief Justice of India (CJI) and the other judges of the highest judiciary are appointed by the President of India under the Article 124 (2)of the Constitution.
  • The senior-most judge of the Supreme court is generally considered for holding the office of the Chief Justice of India.
  • When the incumbent CJI is about to retire, the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company affairsuse to seek the recommendation of the CJI to appoint the next CJI.
  • After receiving the recommendation of the CJI, the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company affairs forward the issue to the Prime Minister who will further move the proposal to the President of Indiafor the final approval.

 

 

The proposed National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) will be the part of the Intelligence Bureau (IB) of India. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC)

  • It is as a single, unified counter-terrorism agency to be created in India.
  • It is modelled on the National Counterterrorism Center of USA.
  • The proposal for NCTC arose after the 2008 Mumbai Attack which can give real time intelligence inputs of actionable value to counter terrorist attacks in India.
  • While the clearance for the Rs 3,400 crore project from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) came in 2011, it is yet to be operationalised.

Structure and Functions

  • The NCTC will derive its powers from the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967.
  • It will be a part of the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and will be headed by a Director who will report to the Director IB and the Home Secretary.
  • The NCTC will execute counter-terror operations and collect, collate and disseminate data on terrorism besides maintaining a data base on terrorists and their associates including their families. 
  • It has also been granted powers to conduct searches and arrests in any part of India and will formulate responses to terror threats.
  • The NCTC was supposed to be aided by the National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), which is supposedly networked to the databases of 21 different agencies that contain vital information and intelligence. 

 

 

Which was the first global health treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) the first global health treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization.

Enrich Your Learning:

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC)

  • The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland in 2003.
  • It is the first global health treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization.
  • This convention is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health.
  • It represents a shift in developing a regulatory strategy to address addictive substances.
  • The WHO FCTC was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.
  • The core demand reduction provisions in the Convention are contained in Articles 6-14, which detail the price, tax, and non-price measures necessary to reduce the demand for tobacco.
  • Another novel feature of the Convention is the inclusion of a provision to address liability issues.
  • After coming into force, the States Party to the WHO FCTC will become legally bound by its provisions.
  • The Convention opened for signature on 16 June 2003 in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Although the Convention is no longer open for signature, states that did not sign the WHO FCTC may nevertheless become a party to the treaty through accession, which is a one-step process equivalent to ratification.
  • The global network of state and non-state actors developed over the period of the negotiations will be important in preparing for the implementation of the Convention at country level.

 

 

Salmonellosis, a diseases caused by group of bacteria, can cause a) gastrointestinal illness OR b) Muscle contraction OR c) Paralysis of one side of the body.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

Salmonellosis, a diseases caused by group of bacteria, can cause gastrointestinal illness.

Enrich Your Learning:

Salmonella

  • Salmonella are a group of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness and fever called salmonellosis
  • Salmonella can be spread by food handlers who do not wash their hands and/or the surfaces and tools they use between food preparation steps, and when people eat raw or undercooked foods. 
  • Salmonella can also spread from animals to people. People who have direct contact with certain animals, including poultry and reptiles, can spread the bacteria from the animals to food if they do not practice proper hand washing hygiene before handling food.
  • Pets can also spread the bacteria within the home environment if they eat food contaminated with Salmonella.

Symptoms

  • People infected with Salmonella show symptoms 12 to 72 hours after infection.
  • People with salmonellosis develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. More severe cases of salmonellosis may include a high fever, aches, headaches, lethargy, a rash, blood in the urine or stool, and in some cases may become fatal.
  • The illness usually lasts four to seven days and most people recover without treatment.

 

 

As per the recently released National Health Profile of India 2019, what was the life expectancy in India in 2012-16? For the same period, what was the life expectancy for females and males?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

  • The life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.7 years in 2012-16. For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males.

 

Enrich Your Learning:

National Health Profile:

  • The National Health Profile (NHP) has been prepared by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).
  • It was first published in 2005. Ever since the profile has been released every year.
  • The profile provides information on demographic, socio-economic health status, health finance indicators, health infrastructure and health of human resources in the country.

Objective:

  • To create a versatile data base of health information of India and making it available to all stakeholders in the healthcare sector. 

The NHP major indicators:

  • Demographic indicators: population and vital statistics.
  • Socio-economic indicators: education, employment, housing and amenities, drinking water and sanitation.
  • Health status indicators: incidence and prevalence of common communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Health finance indicators: health insurance and expenditure on health.
  • Health of human resources: availability of manpower working in the health sector.
  • Health infrastructure: details of Medical and Dental Colleges, AYUSH Institutes, Nursing Courses and Paramedical Courses

Key Highlights of 2019 Health Profile:

  • The life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.7 years in 2012-16. For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males.
  • The Total Fertility Rate(TFR) for the country was 2.3 whereas in rural areas it has been 2.5 and 1.8 in urban areas during 2016.
  • The infant mortality rate has also declined considerably at 33 per 1,000 live births in 2016. However, difference between rural (37) & urban (23) are still high.
  • The highest population density of 11,320 people per square kilometer was reported by Delhi whereas Arunachal Pradesh has reported the lowest population density of 17.
  • India spends only 1.28% of its gross domestic product (according to 2017-18 budget estimates) as public expenditure on health.
  • Air pollution-linked acute respiratory infections contributed 68.47 per cent to the morbidity burden in the country and also to highest mortality rate after pneumonia.

About CBHI:

  • Central Bureau of Health Intelligence(CBHI) was established in 1961 by the Act of Parliament on the recommendation of Mudaliar
  • It is the Health Intelligence Wing under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW).

Infant mortality rate:

  • Infant mortality rate(IMR) is the number of deaths per 1,000 live births of children under one year of age.

Total fertility rate:

  • Total fertility rate(TFR) is defined as the number of children born to a woman until the end of her child-bearing age.

 

 

What are the difference between Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) and Non-Resident Indian (NRI)?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

OCI vs NRI:

  • An NRI, or Non-Resident Indian, is anyone who holds an Indian passport but lives and/or works overseas. NRIs enjoy all the benefits afforded to any citizen living in India. OCIs don’t have many of these rights.
  • NRIs have full voting rights for all Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly/Council elections. OCI holders cannot vote in any elections.
  • NRIs can stand for public office. OCI holders cannot.
  • NRIs can purchase agricultural land. OCI holders cannot.
  • NRIs can conduct research work without any prior permission. OCI holders must get prior permission from the local Foreigners Regional Registration Officers (FRRO).

Enrich Your Learning:

Overseas Indian Citizen:

  • An Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) is a person who is technically a citizen of another country, but is granted several rights and freedoms enjoyed by Indians.
  • The Constitution of India does not allow holding Indian citizenship and Citizenship of a foreign country simultaneously.
  • Based on the recommendation of the High Level committee on Indian Diaspora, the Government of India decided to grant Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI). 

Eligible Criteria:

  • A foreign national who have following criteria is eligible for registration as an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI).
  • A foreign national who was eligible to become citizen of India on 26.01.1950 or
  • A foreign national was a citizen of India on or at any time after 26.01.1950 or
  • A foreign national who was belonged to a territory that became part of India after 15.08.1947 and his/her children and grand children is eligible for registration as an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI).
  • Minor children of such persons are also eligible for OCI.
  • However, if the applicant had ever been a citizen of Pakistan or Bangladesh, he/she will not be eligible for OCI.

Benefits to which OCI is not entitled to:

  • The OCI is not entitled to vote, be a member of Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council or Parliament, cannot hold constitutional posts such as President, Vice President, Judge of Supreme Court or High Court etc. and he/she cannot normally hold employment in the Government.

Important Benefits shall be entitled OCIs:

  • Parity with NRIs in financial, economic and educational fields except in the acquisition of agricultural or plantation properties.
  • Registered Overseas Citizen of India shall be treated at par with Non-Resident Indian in the matter of inter-country adoption of Indian children.
  • A person registered as OCI is eligible to apply for grant of Indian citizenship under the Citizenship Act, 1955 if he/she is registered as OCI for five years and has been residing in India for one year out of the five years before making the application.

OCI vs NRI: what’s the difference?

  • An NRI, or Non-Resident Indian, is anyone who holds an Indian passport but lives and/or works overseas. NRIs enjoy all the benefits afforded to any citizen living in India. OCIs don’t have many of these rights.
  • NRIs have full voting rights for all Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly/Council elections. OCI holders cannot vote in any elections.
  • NRIs can stand for public office. OCI holders cannot.
  • NRIs can purchase agricultural land. OCI holders cannot.
  • NRIs can conduct research work without any prior permission. OCI holders must get prior permission from the local Foreigners Regional Registration Officers (FRRO).

Is OCI the same as dual citizenship? 

  • India does not allow dual citizenship. So OCI is the closest it comes to it. OCI is only available to citizens of countries that allow dual citizenship.
  • Once you have had OCI status for five years, you can apply for Indian citizenship. But this would mean you would have to renounce any other citizenship you hold. 

 

 

Give the salient features of National Mineral Policy 2019.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

Salient Features of the National Mineral Policy 2019:

  • Introduction of Right of First Refusal for reconnaissance permit and prospecting license (RP/PL) holders.
  • Auctioning in virgin areas for composite RP cum PL cum ML on revenue share basis.
  • Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities and Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
  • It proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity to boost financing of mining for private sector.
  • It also mentions that Long term import export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
  • It mentions rationalize reserved areas given to PSUs which have not been used and to put these areas to auction, which will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
  • Moreover, it also mentions to make efforts to harmonize taxes, levies & royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Mineral Policy 2019:

  • The first National Mineral Policy was enunciated by the Government in 1993 for liberalization of the mining sector.
  • The Government replaced the National Mineral Policy, 1993 with a new National Mineral Policy in 2008 based on Anwarul Hoda committee recommendation.
  • Recently, the Indian government has come up with a new National Mineral Policy (NMP) that replaced the earlier 2008 Policy.

Objective:

  • To have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation.
  • To attract private investment through incentives while the efforts would be made to maintain a database of mineral resources and tenements under mining tenement systems.

Benefits:

  • The New National Mineral Policy will ensure more effective regulation.
  • It will lead to sustainable mining sector development in future while addressing the issues of project affected persons especially those residing in tribal areas

Salient Features:

  • Introduction of Right of First Refusal for reconnaissance permit and prospecting license (RP/PL) holders.
  • Auctioning in virgin areas for composite RP cum PL cum ML on revenue share basis.
  • Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities and Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
  • It proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity to boost financing of mining for private sector.
  • It also mentions that Long term import export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
  • It mentions rationalize reserved areas given to PSUs which have not been used and to put these areas to auction, which will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
  • Moreover, it also mentions to make efforts to harmonize taxes, levies & royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.

Changes in the National Mineral Policy:

  • More focus on Make in India initiative and Gender sensitivity.
  • E-Governance, IT enabled systems, awareness and Information campaigns have been incorporated.
  • Regarding the role of state in mineral development, online public portal with provision for generating triggers at higher level in the event of delay of clearances has been put in place.
  • The new policy focusses on use coastal waterways and inland shippingfor evacuation and transportation of minerals.
  • The utilization of the district mineral fund for equitable developmentof project affected persons and areas.
  • It proposes a long term export import policyfor the mineral sector to provide stability and as an incentive for investing in large scale commercial mining activity.
  • The 2019 Policy also introduces the concept of Inter-Generational Equitythat proposes to constitute an inter-ministerial body to institutionalize the mechanism for ensuring sustainable development in mining.

 

 

Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (MP-ATGM) is an Anti-tank guided missile. True OR False.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution:

True

Enrich Your Learning:

Man Portable Antitank Guided Missile (MPATGM):

Why in news?

  • Recently, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight tested indigenously developed low weight, fire and forget Man Portable Antitank Guided Missile (MPATGM) in the ranges of Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.

About MPATGM:

  • The Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (MP-ATGM) is an Indian third-generation Anti-tank guided missile derived from the Nag missile.
  • MPATGM is incorporated with state-of-the-art Infrared Imaging Seeker along with advanced avionics.
  • It is manufactured by the Bharat Dynamics Limited.
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
Tags

IT on Facebook

Facebook Pagelike Widget

Comments

My Favourite Articles

  • Your favorites will be here.

Calendar Archive

May 2020
M T W T F S S
« Apr    
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031