Eddying: The swirling movement of the water falling into the plunge pool is called eddying.
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Landforms by the Erosional Work of River:
The erosional work of rivers results in various types of landforms like a gorge, canyon, V-Shaped Valley, waterfall, pothole, structural bench, river terrace, river meander, ox-bow lake, peneplain.
- A gorge is a narrow and deep river valley which has steep slopes.
- Gorges are formed due to active down cutting of the valleys.
- Canyons are an extended form of gorges. Canyons represent very deep, narrow but long valleys.
- The steepness of the valley sides depends on the nature of the rocks.
- The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the USA is the largest canyon in the world.
- The Canyon of Gandikota is situated on the Pennar River in Andhra Pradesh is known as the Grand Canyon of India.
- V-shaped Valleys are formed in the youthful stage of the river erosion.
- Due to the steep slope and large volume of water, the river cuts its bed vertically forming a narrow and deep river valley.
Rapids, waterfalls and Cascade:
- Rapids are stream sections with extremely strong currents, numerous obstacles, and steps in their streambeds.
- A waterfall is a vertical drop in a streambed. Both waterfall and rapids are formed by vigorous erosion.
- Series of a waterfall in a river is called as
- A plunge pool is a deep depression in a stream bed at the base of a waterfall. It is created by the erosional forces of falling water at the base of a waterfall.
- Grooves are long and narrow depression at the base of a waterfall made by river runoff.
- The grooves are created by water eroding soil from a hill or mountain in a short period of time.
- An interlocking spur, also known as an overlapping spur, is a projecting ridge that extends alternately from the opposite sides of a V-shaped valley. A river with a winding course flows down the interlocking spur.
- Potholes are the kettle-like small depressions in the rocky beds of the river valleys.
- They are always cylindrical in shape.
- Potholes are generally formed in coarse-grained rocks such as sandstones and granites.
- River Terraces are narrow step like flat surfaces on either side of the valley floor.
- They represent the level of former valley floors.