Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-23] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Devotionalism- Ziyarat and Qawwali; Lord Warren Hastings; Impact of British rule on tribal chiefs and Shifting cultivators; Changes that were introduced by the British after 1857 revolt; Suspension; Colloidal Solution; Carbon Cycle; Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources; Primitive subsistence farming; Non-Food Crops; Religious Ferment in North India; Chishti.
By IASToppers
March 29, 2020



Which practice is an occasion for seeking the Sufi’s spiritual grace (Barakat)?

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Pilgrimage, called ziyarat, to tombs of sufi saints is prevalent all over the Muslim world. This practice is an occasion for seeking the sufi’s spiritual grace (barakat).

Enrich Your Learning:

Chishti devotionalism- Ziyarat and Qawwali:

  • People expressed their devotion at the dargahs of the five great Chishti saints for more than seven centuries.
  • The most revered shrine of these is that of Khwaja Muinuddin, of fourteenth century, popularly known as “Gharib Nawaz” (comforter of the poor).
  • It was evidently popular because of the austerity and piety of its Shaikh, the greatness of his spiritual successors, and the patronage of royal visitors.
  • By the sixteenth century the shrine had become very popular; in fact, it was the spirited singing of pilgrims bound for Ajmer that inspired Akbarto visit the tomb. He went there fourteen time.
  • Also, part of ziyarat is the use of music and dance including mystical chants performed by specially trained musicians or qawwals to evoke divine ecstasy.
  • The sufis remember God either by reciting the zikr (the Divine Names) or evoking his Presence through ‘sama‘ (literally, “audition”) or performance of mystical music. .
  • Sama‘ was integral to the Chishtis, and exemplified interaction with indigenous devotional traditions.



During the bhakti movement in north India which deities were worshipped in temples?

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During the bhakti movement, in north India deities such as Vishnu and Shiva were worshipped in temples, often built with the support of rulers.

Enrich Your Learning:

Religious Ferment in North India:

  • In most of north Indian states Brahmanas occupied positions of importance, performing a range of secular and ritual functions. There seems to have been little or no attempt to challenge their position directly.
  • At the same time other religious leaders, who did not function within the orthodox Brahmanical framework, were gaining ground. These included the Naths, Jogis and Siddhas.
  • Many of them came from artisanal groups, including weavers, who were becoming increasingly important with the development of organised craft production.
  • Demand for such production grew with the emergence of new urban centres, and long-distance trade with Central Asia and West Asia.
  • Many of these new religious leaders questioned the authority of the Vedas, and expressed themselves in languages spoken by ordinary people, which developed over centuries into the ones used today.
  • However, in spite of their popularity these religious leaders were not in a position to win the support of the ruling elites. A new element in this situation was the coming of the Turks which culminated in the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate (thirteenth century).
  • This undermined the power of many of the Rajput states and the Brahmanas who were associated with these kingdoms. This was accompanied by marked changes in the realm of culture and religion.



Mention the major cotton-producing states of India.

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Major cotton-producing states are– Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Non-Food Crops:


  • It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
  • It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temperature above 25°C.
  • Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
  • It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.

Fibre Crops:

  • Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
  • The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves specially mulberry.
  • Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.


  • India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant.
  • Cotton is one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry.
  • Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
  • It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sun-shine for its growth.
  • It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.


  • It is known as the golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
  • High temperature is required during the time of growth. West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states.
  • It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts. Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.



In which type of region, primitive subsistence farming is practised?

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Primitive subsistence farming is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions as well as thickly forested areas.

Enrich Your Learning:

Primitive subsistence farming:

  • It includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.
  • Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India.
  • These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation.
  • A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown.
  • After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
  • This method is also known as ‘slash and burn’
  • Nomadic herding is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes.
  • This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain. Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared.
  • They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.



Which state has the largest area under permanent forests in India?

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Answer: Madhya Pradesh

Enrich Your Learning:

Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources:

  • In India, much of its forest and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by the government through the Forest Department or other government departments.
  • These are classified under the following categories:
  • Reserved Forests: More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forests. Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned.
  • Protected Forests: Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department. This forest land is protected from any further depletion.
  • Unclassed Forests: These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
  • Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanent forest estates maintained for the purpose of producing timber and other forest produce, and for protective reasons. Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests, constituting 75 per cent of its total forest area.
  • Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests of its total forest area whereas Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha and Rajasthan have a bulk of it under protected forests.
  • All North-Eastern states and parts of Gujarat have a very high percentage of their forests as unclassed forests managed by local communities.



Carbon cycling occurs through atmosphere and ocean only. True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct Statement: Carbon cycling occurs through atmosphere, ocean and through living and dead organisms.

Enrich Your Learning:

Carbon Cycle:

  • A considerable amount of carbon returns to the atmosphere as CO2 through respiratory activities of the producers and consumers.
  • Decomposers also contribute substantially to CO2 pool by their processing of waste materials and dead organic matter of land or oceans.
  • Some amount of the fixed carbon is lost to sediments and removed from circulation.
  • Burning of wood, forest fire and combustion of organic matter, fossil fuel, volcanic activity are additional sources for releasing CO2 in the atmosphere.
  • Human activities have significantly influenced the carbon cycle. Rapid deforestation and massive burning of fossil fuel for energy and transport have significantly increased the rate of release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.




A colloidal solution is a ____________. a) heterogeneous mixture OR b) homogeneous mixture

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Heterogeneous mixture

Enrich Your Learning:

What is a suspension?

  • Non-homogeneous systems in which solids are dispersed in liquids, are called suspensions.
  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium.
  • Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked eye.

Properties of a Suspension:

  • Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a suspension can be seen by the naked eye.
  • The particles of a suspension scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
  • The solute particles settle down when a suspension is left undisturbed, that is, a suspension is unstable. They can be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. When the particles settle down, the suspension breaks and it does not scatter light any more.

What is a Colloidal Solution?

  • A colloidal solution, sometimes known as a colloidal suspension, is a solution in which a material is evenly suspended in a liquid.
  • The particles of a colloid are uniformly spread throughout the solution. Due to the relatively smaller size of particles, as compared to that of a suspension, the mixture appears to be homogeneous. But actually, a colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture, for example, milk.
  • Because of the small size of colloidal particles, one cannot see them with naked eyes. But these particles can easily scatter a beam of visible light. This scattering of a beam of light is called the Tyndall effect after the name of the scientist who discovered this effect.
  • Tyndall effect can also be observed when a fine beam of light enters a room through a small hole. This happens due to the scattering of light by the particles of dust and smoke in the air.
  • Tyndall effect can be observed when sunlight passes through the canopy of a dense forest. In the forest, mist contains tiny droplets of water, which act as particles of colloid dispersed in air.

Properties of a colloid:

  • A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The size of particles of a colloid is too small to be individually seen by naked eyes.
  • Colloids are big enough to scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
  • They do not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a colloid is quite stable.



Which was an act of the British parliament that transferred the government and territories of the East India Company to the British Crown?

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The Government of India Act 1858 

Enrich Your Learning:

Changes that were introduced by the British after 1857 revolt:

  • The British Parliament passed a new Act in 1858 and transferred the powers of the East India Company to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible management of Indian affairs.
  • A member of the British Cabinet was appointed Secretary of State for India and made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India.
  • He was given a council to advise him, called the India Council. The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy, that is, a personal representative of the Crown.
  • Through these measures the British government accepted direct responsibility for ruling India.
  • All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future.
  • They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs, including adopted sons. However, they were made to acknowledge the British Queen as their Sovereign Paramount.
  • Thus, the Indian rulers were to hold their kingdoms as subordinates of the British Crown.
  • It was decided that the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased.
  • It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, central India and south India, more soldiers would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.
  • The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scale and they were treated with suspicion and hostility.
  • The British believed that they were responsible for the rebellion in a big way.
  • The British decided to respect the customary religious and social practices of the people in India.
  • Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and give them security of rights over their lands.



How did the status of tribal chiefs change after the British established power in India?

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Under British rule, the functions and powers of the tribal chiefs changed considerably. They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent out lands, but they lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by British officials in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Impact of British rule on tribal chiefs and Shifting cultivators:

What happened to tribal chiefs?

  • Before the arrival of the British, in many areas the tribal chiefs were important people. They enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories.
  • In some places they had their own police and decided on the local rules of land and forest management.
  • They also had to pay tribute to the British, and discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British. They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people, and were unable to fulfil their traditional functions.

What happened to the shifting cultivators?

  • The British were uncomfortable with groups who moved about and did not have a fixed home. They wanted tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators.
  • Settled peasants were easier to control and administer than people who were always on the move. The British also wanted a regular revenue source for the state.
  • So, they introduced land settlements – that is, they measured the land, defined the rights of each individual to that land, and fixed the revenue demand for the state.
  • Some peasants were declared landowners, others tenants. The tenants were to pay rent to the landowner who in turn paid revenue to the state.
  • Settled plough cultivation is not easy in areas where water is scarce and the soil is dry. In fact, jhum cultivators who took to plough cultivation often suffered, since their fields did not produce good yields.
  • So, the jhum cultivators in north-east India insisted on continuing with their traditional practice. Facing widespread protests, the British had to ultimately allow them the right to carry on shifting cultivation in some parts of the forest.



The policy of paramountcy was initiated under __________during the rule of East India Company. a) Lord Cornwallis OR b) Lord Warren Hastings.

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Enrich Your Learning:

The claim to paramountcy:

  • Under Lord Hastings (Governor General from 1813 to 1823) a new policy of “paramountcy” was initiated.
  • Under this, the Company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, hence its power was greater than that of Indian states.
  • In order to protect its interests, it was justified in annexing or threatening to annex any Indian kingdom. This view continued to guide later British policies as well.
  • This process, however, did not go unchallenged. For example, when the British tried to annex the small state of Kitoor (in Karnataka today), Rani Channamma took to arms and led an anti-British resistance movement.
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

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