Answer: Trans–Siberian Railway
Enrich Your Learning:
Trans–continental railways run across the continent and link its two ends. They were constructed for economic and political reasons to facilitate long runs in different directions. The following are the most important of these:
- This is a trans–siberian Railways major rail route of Russia runs from St. Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok on the Pacific Coast in the east passing through Moscow, Ufa, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Chita and Khabarovsk.
- It has helped in opening up its Asian region to West European markets. It runs across the Ural Mountains Ob and Yenisei rivers Chita is an important agrocentre and Irkutsk, a fur centre.
- There are connecting links to the south, namely, to Odessa (Ukraine), Baku on the Caspian Coast, Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Ulan Bator (Mongolia), and Shenyang (Mukden) and Beijing in China.
- This 7,050 km long rail-line in Canada runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific Coast passing through Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary.
- It was constructed in 1886, initially as part of an agreement to make British Columbia on the west coast join the Federation of States.
- It gained economic significance because it connected the Quebec-Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of the Prairie Region and the Coniferous Forest region in the north. Thus, each of these regions became complementary to the other.
- A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay (Lake Superior) connects this rail-line with one of the important waterways of the world.
- This line is the economic artery of Canada. Wheat and meat are the important exports on this route.
The Union and Pacific Railway:
- This rail-line connects New York on the Atlantic Coast to San Francisco on the Pacific Coast passing through Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha, Evans, Ogden and Sacramento.
- The most valuable exports on this route are ores, grain, paper, chemicals and machinery.
The Australian Trans–Continental Railway:
- This rail-line runs west-east across the southern part of the continent from Perth on the west coast, to Sydney on the east coast. passing through Kalgoorlie, Broken Hill and Port Augusta.
- Another major north-south line connects Adelaide and Alice Spring and to be joined further to the Darwin–Birdum line.
The Orient Express:
- This line runs from Paris to Istanbul passing through Strasbourg, Munich, Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade.
- The journey time from London to Istanbul by this Express is now reduced to 96 hours as against 10 days by the sea-route.
- The chief exports on this rail-route are cheese, bacon, oats, wine, fruits, and machinery.
- There is a proposal to build a Trans–Asiatic Railway linking Istanbul with Bangkok via Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.