Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-26] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Mahabalipuram; Press Council of India; Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs); Forest-PLUS 2.0; Sendai Framework; India TB Report 2019; Rafael jets; School Education Quality Index (SEQI); India’s first e-waste clinic; Livestock Census in India;
By IASToppers
April 02, 2020

Who conducts the Livestock Census in India?

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The Livestock Census has been conducted in India by the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.

Enrich Your Learning:

Highlights of 20th livestock census report:

Total cattle population in India is 192.5 million in 2019. It was 190.9 million in 2012 when the last such census was conducted.

Increase in numbers:

  • The total Livestock population (535.78 million) increase by 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
  • The total number of cattle (192.49 million) – increase by 0.8 %
  • Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak) – increase by 1%
  • The Female Cattle (Cows population) – increased by 18 %
  • The population of the total Exotic/Crossbred Cattle – increased by 27 %
  • The total milch animals (in-milk and dry) in cows and buffaloes – increase by 6%
  • The total buffalo’s population – increase by 1 %.
  • The total sheep population- increased by 14 %
  • The Goat population – increase of 10%
  • The total poultry – increase of 16 %

Decline in Numbers:

  • Total Indigenous/ Non-descript cattle population – decreased by 6 %.
  • However, the pace of decline of Indigenous/ Non-descript cattle population during 2012-2019 is much lesser than as compared to the 2007-12 which was about 9%.
  • The total Pigs population – declined by 12 %

The other livestock including mithun, yak, horses, ponies, mule, donkeys, camel together contribute around 0.23% of the total livestock.

About the livestock census:

  • The Livestock Census has been conducted in India by the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying periodically since 1919-20.
  • The Livestock Census covers all domesticated animals and its headcounts. So far 19 such censuses have been conducted. The last such census was carried out in 2012.

Uniqueness of 20th livestock census:

  • The major thrust given to 20th Livestock Census is the collection of data through tablets computers. 
  • The 20th livestock census is a unique attempt as for the first time such a major initiative has been take to digitise household level datathrough online transmission from the field.

India’s first e-waste clinic to be set up in__________. a) Bhopal OR b) Bangalore

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Answer: Bhopal

Enrich Your Learning:

India’s first e-waste clinic:

  • The Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) have joined hands to set up the country’s first e-waste clinic.
  • In this clinic, electronic waste will be collected (door-to-door/deposited directly) at the clinic in exchange for a fee.
  • The clinic is being conceived in compliance with the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • It would enable segregation, processing and disposal of waste from both household and commercial units.

Who developed the School Education Quality Index (SEQI) to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector?

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Answer: The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog)

Enrich Your Learning:

School Education Quality Index (SEQI):

  • SEQI was developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
  • Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), the World Bank and sector experts are the stakeholders in it.
  • The index aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions.
  • SEQI used 2016-17 as the reference year and 2015-16 as the base year.

Key Indicators:

  • The index consists of 30 critical indicators that assess the delivery of quality education.
  • The index was divided into two broad categories:
  • Category 1: Outcomes
  • Learning outcomes
  • Access outcomes
  • Infrastructure and facilities for outcomes
  • Equity outcomes
  • Category 2: Governance processes aiding outcomes

Highlights of the SEQI Report:

  • Kerala has emerged on top among 20 large states in terms of quality of school education, followed by Rajasthan and Karnataka, while the most-populous Uttar Pradesh was ranked at the bottom position during 2016-17, according to SEQI report.
  • Of the 20 Large States, 10 perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Karnataka, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. The 3 Large States with the most noticeable performance differences in the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes are Odisha, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Of the eight Small States, seven perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Manipur, Tripura and Goa. Sikkim is the only Small State that performs better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.
  • All seven UTshave shown an improvement in their overall performance scores. Of the seven UTs, four perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Delhi, Daman & Diu and Lakshadweep perform better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.

India is the only third country to have the Rafael jet after France and Egypt. True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct Statement: India is the fourth country to have the Rafael jet after France, Egypt and Qatar.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rafael jets:

  • The Rafael is a multirole fighter aircraft designed based on technology 4+ generation and built by the French aircraft manufacturer, Dassault Aviation.
  • India had signed an inter-governmental agreement with France in September 2016 for procurement of 36 Rafael fighter jets.
  • The aircraft can be used for numerous roles including Air dominance, interdiction, aerial recce, precision long-range strikes including in the maritime environment.


  • It can fly at speeds of 1.8 mach (2,222.6km per hour) and has a range of 3,700km.
  • France has promised to ensure that at least 75 per cent of the Rafale fleet is combat-worthyat any given point, failing which, heavy penalties will be invoked.
  • It can be equipped with air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground missiles, and air-to-surface missiles along with Nuclear weapons
  • Besides the missile systems, the Rafale jets come with various India-specific modifications, including Israeli helmet-mounted displays, radar warning receivers, low band jammers, 10-hour flight data recording, infra-red search and tracking systems etc.

Which Indian State have the highest patients who tested positive for Tuberculosis and were also infected with HIV?

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Answer: Nagaland.

The highest percentage of patients who tested positive for TB and were also infected with HIV came from Nagaland (15.6 per cent), followed by Karnataka (10 per cent), Chandigarh (9.1 per cent) and Manipur (8.9 per cent).

Enrich Your Learning:

Key highlights of India TB Report 2019:

  • It was released by the government. The number of HIV-infected people who go on to develop Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in India.
  • TB is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). This group is 21 times more likely to develop TB than persons without the virus.
  • TB-HIV co-infection results in higher mortality rates. Nearly 25 per cent of all deaths among PLHIV are estimated to be due to TB.
  • India is the third-highest HIV burden country in the world, with an adult prevalence of 0.22 per cent.
  • India ranks second in the world as far as TB-related mortality is concerned. About nine per cent of the global burden of HIV-associated TB is borne by India.
  • The co-morbities of TB don’t come in form of HIV only. Diabetes and tobacco-related ailments too play a role.
  • The TB burden in India is highest in Uttar Pradesh. India’s largest state, accounting for 17 per cent the country’s population, contributed 20 per cent of total TB notified patients.
  • Uttar Pradesh is followed by Maharashtra (10 per cent) and Rajasthan (7 per cent).
  • The 2019 report also points out that the reporting from private sector had improved as compared to the previous year.
  • The percentage of pediatric tuberculosis (TB among the population aged less than 15 years) cases have also slightly gone up.
  • According to the India TB Report 2019, the success rate of treatment of drug resistant TB patients has remained stagnant at 47 per cent.

The Sendai Framework is subjected to___________. a) Climate change OR b) Disaster Reduction

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Answer: Disaster Reduction

Enrich Your Learning:

Sendai Framework:

  • The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
  • It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR).

The Seven Global Targets of the Sendai:

  1. Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  2. Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  3. Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
  4. Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
  5. Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
  6. Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
  7. Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

The Four Priorities for Action:

  1. Understanding disaster risk
  2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
  3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
  4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

Who have recently launched Forest-PLUS 2.0 programme?

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US Agency for International Development (USAID) and India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) have officially launched Forest-PLUS 2.0.

Enrich Your Learning:

Forest-PLUS 2.0:

  • It is a five-year programmeinitiated in 2018 that focuses on developing tools to bolster ecosystem management and harnessing ecosystem services in forests.
  • Tetra Tech ARD, a US company, was given the contract to implement the programme. IORA Ecological Solutions, an Indian environmental advisory group, is its implementation partner.
  • Forest-PLUS 2.0 comprises pilot project in Gaya (Bihar), Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) and Medak (Telangana).


  • Developing tools for multiple servicesin forests management which includes innovative apps for automating forest planning processes, model forest management plans etc.
  • Developing incentive-based instrumentsfor leveraging finance. For example, a payment mechanism where a municipality/industry would pay upstream forest communities to use water flowing down because of improved forest management.
  • Modelling and setting up conservation enterprises and mobilising investmentfrom the private sector.

Who regulates the functioning of Urban Cooperative Banks?

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Unlike commercial banks, UCBs are only partly regulated by the RBI. The banking operations are regulated by RBI but management is regulated by Registrar of Co-operative Societies either under the State or Central government.

Enrich Your Learning:

Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs):

  • The concept of Co-operative banks was born out of the concept of co-operative credit societies where members from a community band together to extend loans to each other, at favourable terms.
  • The co-operative banks are broadly classified into urban or rural co-operative banks based on their region of operation.
  • Urban co-op banks are classified into scheduled and non-scheduled banks.
  • The commercial banks which are structured as joint stock companies, UCBs are structured as co-operatives, with their members carrying unlimited liability.
  • There is a clear distinction between a commercial bank’s shareholders and its borrowers, in a UCB borrowers can double up as shareholders.
  • In the event UCBs fail, deposits with them are covered by the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India up to a sum of ₹1 lakh per depositor, the same as for a commercial bank.
  • UCBs remain quite a hit with retail savers and small businesses because they offer attractive interest rates on deposits, far higher than commercial banks.

State co-operative bank:

  • The state cooperative bank is a federation of the central cooperative bank and acts as custodian of the cooperative banking structure in the State.
  • Its funds are obtained from the social capital, deposits, loans and overdrafts of the Reserve Bank of India.
  • State-owned cooperative banks lend money to cooperative central banks and to primary companies and not directly to farmers.

Which Pallava dynasty king changed the name of the city from Mamallapuram to Mahabalipuram?

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Answer: Narasimha Varman I

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Mahabalipuram (or Mamallapuram) is an ancient port cityin the Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu.
  • The kingNarasimha Varman I changed the name from Mamallapuram to Mahabalipuram.
  • It is located on theCoromandel Coast along the Bay of Bengal.
  • It is known for its great monuments, cave sanctuaries and sculptures.
  • A monument complex at Mahabalipuram, known as the Group of Monuments including Shore Temple and the Five Rathas, is a UNESCO world site.
  • It was once ruled by the Pallava dynasty.

The Press Council of India is chaired by whom?

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The Press Council is headed by a Chairman, a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Press Council of India:

  • The Press Council of India was first set up in the year 1966by the Parliament on the recommendations of the First Press Commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of press in India.
  • It is an autonomous, statutory, quasi-judicial body, functioning as a watchdog of the press, for the press and by the press.
  • The present Council functions under the Press Council Act, 1978.
  • It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
  • The Press Council is headed by a Chairman, a retired judge of the Supreme Courtof India.
  • The Council consists of 28 other membersof whom 20 represent the press and are nominated by the press organisations/news agencies recognised and notified by the Council as all India bodies of categories.
  • Five membersare nominated from the two Houses of Parliament and three represent cultural, literary and legal fields.
  • The members serve on the Council for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be eligible for re-nomination for not more than one term.
  • The Council is funded by the revenue collected by it as fee levied on the registered newspapers in the country. No fee is levied on newspapers with circulation less than 5000 copies.

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