Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-28] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

‘Avangard missile’; Drake Passage; Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF); Location of Somalia; Simpson Desert; Tyre Pyrolysis; Sukapaika river; International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV); Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA); ‘Torrefaction’;
By IASToppers
April 04, 2020

What do you understand by the term ‘Torrefaction’?

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Answer:

  • Torrefaction is a thermal process to convert biomass into a coal-like material, which has better fuel characteristics than the original biomass.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Torrefaction:

  • Torrefcation increases the calorific value of the processed product.
  • The energy loss in the process is lowerthan the weight loss.
  • Torrefaction involves the heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of typically 200 to 400°C.
  • The structure of the biomass changes in such a way, that the material becomes brittle, and more hydrophobic.
  • Although the weight loss is about 30%,the energy loss is only 10%. 
  • During the torrefaction process a combustible gas is released, which is utilised to provide heat to the process. 
  • During torrefaction hemicellulose and ligninpresent in the wood are decomposed to some extent.
  • It increases the calorific value of the biomass.

‘Extra Neutral Alcohol’ or ENA is derived from sugarcane molasses only. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong.

  • The ENA is derived from grains

Enrich Your Learning:

Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA)

  • Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA) is the primary raw material for making alcoholic beverages.
  • It is a colourless food-grade alcoholthat does not have any impurities.
  • It has a neutral smell and taste, and typically contains over 95 per cent alcohol by volume.
  • It is derived from different sources — sugarcane molassesand grains — and is used in the production of alcoholic beverages such as whisky, vodka, gin, cane, liqueurs, and alcoholic fruit beverages.
  • It is good solvent and for that ENA also finds industrial use and is utilised in the production of some lacquers, paintsand ink for the printing industry, as well as in pharmaceutical products such as antiseptics, drugs, syrups, medicated sprays.
  • ENA also serves as an essential ingredient in the manufacture of cosmetics and personal care products.

Is India a member of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention?

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Answer:

Yes. India is a member of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention since 2002.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)?

  • The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is an intergovernmental organization with headquarters in Geneva (Switzerland).
  • UPOV was established by the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. The Convention was adopted in Paris in 1961 and it was revised in 1972, 1978 and 1991.
  • UPOV’s mission is to provide and promote an effective system of plant variety protection, with the aim of encouraging the development of new varieties of plants, for the benefit of society.

 The main objectives of UPOV are:

  • Provide and develop the legal, administrative and technical basis for international cooperation in plant variety protection;
  • Assist States and organizations in the development of legislation and the implementation of an effective plant variety protection system; and
  • Enhance public awareness and understanding of the UPOV system of plant variety protection.

Key Facts:

  • In 2002, India joined the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention.
  • The UPOV led to the introduction of some form of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) over plant varieties.
  • Member countries had to introduce restrictions on the free use and exchange of seeds by farmers unless the “breeders” were remunerated.

Sukapaika river is a distributary of which river?

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Answer:

  • Sukapaika river is a distributary of Mahanadi River.

Enrich Your Learning:

Sukapaika river

  • Sukapaika is one of the several distributaries of the Mahanadi river in Odisha. It again re-joins the Mahanadi river after traversing for a certain distance.
  • Construction of Hirakud Dam and Naraj barrage at Cuttack and the construction of an embankment on the river has affected lives of 0.5 million people and their economy.
  • Erosion of riverbed and growth of hyacinth has reduced the quality of water too.

What do you understand by the term ‘Tyre Pyrolysis’?

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Answer:

  • Tyre pyrolysis refers to a technique of breaking down used tyres in the absence of oxygen. Shredded tyres, at temperatures between 250º C and 500º C, produce liquid oil and gases.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Tyre Pyrolysis?

  • It is considered to be the most ideal method to deal with waste tyres.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Pyrolysis leaves fine carbon matter, pyro-gas, oil as residue and the inadequate management of these by-products poses health risks.
  • The National Green Tribunal in 2014 prohibited used tyres from being burnt in the open or being used as fuel in brick kilns, because of the toxic emissions.

The Simpson Desert is located in the which country?

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Answer:

Australia

Enrich Your Learning:

Simpson Desert:

  • Simpson Desert is a Desert biome that is located in central Australia near the Tropic of Capricorn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • The Simpson Desert doesn’t get much of amount of rainfall that is only 15cm per year.
  • The majority of the desert is in the south eastern corner of the Northern Territory, with some encroaching into Queensland and South Australia.
  • It is boarded by the Finke River (west), the MacDonnell Ranges and Plenty River (north), the Mulligan and Diamantina rivers (east), and the large saline Lake Eyre (south).

Features:

  • A main feature of the Desert is sand dunes or ridges that align parallel from northwest to southeast.
  • Throughout the Southern regions, temporary salt lakes are frequent and several seasonal rivers that flow into the desert are the Todd, Plenty, Hale, and Hay.
  • The salt lakes are found in between the dunes and fill up when it rains.

Key fact:

  • Most hot and dry deserts are placed near the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Cold deserts are located near the poles.

Which countries share borders with the Somalia?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Location of Somalia:

  • Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa (The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in Africa).
  • It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest.
  • The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland.
  • Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa’s mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) functions under which ministry: (a) Ministry of Defence OR (b) Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)?

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Answer: A

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) functions under Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

Enrich Your Learning:

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):

  • CRPF is the largest central armed police force or paramilitary force in India with total 246 Battalions, established in 1939.
  • It was established under Crown Representative’s Police but after independence, it was made statutory police force after enactment of CRPF Act, 1949.
  • Its primary role is to assist States/Union Territories in police operations to maintain law and order and contain the insurgency.
  • Apart from anti-Naxal operations, CRPF personnel also carries out several operations in situations of crisis like terrorist attacks, counter-terrorism operations, rescuing citizens during terrorist attacks among others.

Mission:

  • To enable government to maintain rule of law, public order and internal security effectively and efficiently.
  • To preserve national integrity and promote social harmony and development by upholding supremacy of the Constitution.

The Drake Passage is located between which two continents?

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Answer:

South America and Antarctica

Enrich Your Learning:

Drake Passage:

  • The Drake Passage is the body of water between the southern tip of South America at Cape Horn, Chile and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
  • It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean.
  • The passage between Cape Horn and Livingston Island is the shortest crossing from Antarctica to any other landmass.
  • There is no significant land anywhere around the world at the latitudes of Drake Passage, which is important to the unimpeded flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which carries a huge volume of water through the Passage and around Antarctica.

Avangard missile is developed by: (a) China OR (b) India OR (c) Russia?

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Answer:

Russia

Enrich Your Learning:

Avangard missile’:

  • The Avangard is a nuclear-capable, hypersonic boost-glide vehicle developed by the Russia.
  • The Avangard has a range of over 6,000 km, weighs approximately 2,000 kg, and can carry a nuclear or conventional payload.
  • It was launched from the Southern Ural’s Dombarovskiy Missile Base and hit the target successfully on the Kamchatka peninsula’s Kura shooting range.

Why in News?

  • Recently, the Russian Defence Minister, Sergei Shoigu informed that Russia has deployed the first missile unit equipped with the Avangard Hypersonic Missile for combat duty.

Importance:

  • It has new hypersonic missile system that is invulnerable to the US defences.
  • The missile with a maneuverable gliding warhead can adjust both altitude and direction to avoid defenses and fly low enough to avoid most interceptors

Hypersonic glided missiles:

  • It includes features of both cruise and ballistic missiles.
  • It goes out of the Earth’s atmosphere into a parabolic path and enters the Earth’s atmosphere again. It flies low in the atmosphere and almost unable to intercept.
  • At present, Russia, USA and China have the capacity of hypersonic missiles.

Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020 LAKSHYA-75
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