Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-28] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Chapchar Kut; Indian Martial Arts; Krishnattam; Kuttiyaattam; Kundhei Nata; UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural Heritage; India’s Intangible Cultural Heritages list; Maotsu Mong; Dadasaheb Phalke award; Dadasaheb Phalke; Marco Polo; Ibn Batuta; Abdur Razzaq; Policy of sulh-i-kul; Bani festival;
By IASToppers
April 04, 2020

In which Indian state, the Bani festival is celebrated?

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Answer:

  • Bani is held by Devargutta temple in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh during the Dusshera festival.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bani festival:

  • Bani festival celebrated by Hindu devotees every year that include various activities and traditions which are trivial and ghastly.
  • During the ritual people from villages fight with a long bamboo stick (Lathi). Men, most farmers do not stir even if they get soaked in blood. 
  • It solemnizes the killing of the demon by Lord Shiva’s reincarnation in the form of Mala-Malloshwara.
  • The ritual in the region once under the Vijayanagar empire.

Which Mughal Ruler developed the Sulh-i-kul doctrine: (a) Aurangzeb OR (b) Akbar?

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Answer:

Akbar

Enrich Your Learning:

Akbar’s policy of sulh-i-kul:

  • Sulh-i kul is an Arabic term literally meaning “peace with all,” “universal peace,” or “absolute peace,” drawn from a Sufi mystic principle.
  • New religion developed by Akbar known as Din-i-Ilahi has its genesis in Sulh-i-kul doctrine.
  • Akbar took the Sufi mystic notion of sulh-i-kul and transformed it to become a principle denoting amity- within a culturally pluralistic India.
  • Sulh- i-kul was to become his method of judging what was legally right or wrong within his empire and was created because Akbar understood that he was trying to build political institutions for predominately non-Muslim society.
  • Thus, in his empire, the beliefs and opinions of orthodox mullahs were not to be the critical test for his rule because he wanted all of his subjects to be judged equally before the law.
  • Akbar established separation of state and religion and opened government positions to members of all religions. He abolished the jizya on non-Muslims and the forced conversion of prisoners of war to Islam.
  • He converted the meetings of Muslim clerics into open discussions between Islam, Hindu, Parsi and Christian scholars and in 1579 issued an edict that made him the highest authority in religious matters.
  • In the civil courts Akbar abolished laws that discriminated against non-Muslims. He raised the Hindu court system to official status side by side with Muslim law and reformed the legislation with the aim to maximize common laws for Muslim and Hindu citizens.

Mention about the contemporary rulers during whose times, these travellers visited India: Marco Polo, Ibn Batuta and Abdur Razzaq.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Marco Polo:

  • He was an Italian (1292-1294 A.D.)
  • He visited Southern India during the reign of Rudramma Devi of the Kakatiyas.
  • He wrote about the prosperity and power of the kingdom under Rudramadevi.
  • He wrote his experiences in his book ‘The Book of Sir Marco Polo’.

Ibn Batuta:

  • Ibn Batuta was aMoroccan traveler, he wrote the book ‘Rehla’ (The Travelogue).
  • In his book he explained the dynasty of Muhammad-bin-Thuglak and also the economic, social and geographical status of his time. (1333-1347 AD)

Abdur Razzaq:

  • He was a Persian scholar.
  • He was also an ambassador of Persia.
  • He visited India during the rule of Deva Raya II of Vijayanagar. (1443-1444 A.D.)

The first recipient of the Dadasaheb Phalke award was Birendranath Sircar. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong.

  • It was awarded for the first time to Devika Rani who is known as the ‘first lady of Indian cinema’.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Dadasaheb Phalke award:

  • It is India’s highest film honourconferred for outstanding contribution for the growth and development of Indian cinema and presented annually by the President.
  • It was introduced by the government in 1969 to commemorate the Dadasaheb Phalke who is known as ‘father of Indian cinema’and directed India’s first feature film Raja Harischandra.
  • It is given on basis of recommendations of a committee of eminent personalities set up by the government.

Dadasaheb Phalke:

  • He pursued a variety of interests including photography, lithography, architecture, and amateur dramatics.
  • Phalke was significantly influenced by a series of painter Ravi Varma’s paintingsof the Hindu gods that was evident in Phalke’s own portrayal of various gods and goddesses in the mythological films he made.
  • Phalke, with the help of several partners, established the Hindustan Film Company in 1917.
  • Lanka dahan, Shri Krishna janma, Sairandari, and Shakuntala were his successful films.

 

 

The festivals named Chapchar Kut and Maotsu Mong are celebrated in which Indian states?

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Answer: Mizoram and Nagaland respectively

Enrich Your Learning:

Chapchar Kut:

  • Chapchar Kut is a traditional festival of Mizoramand is held when the trees have been already felled and are being awaited to dry to be burnt for jhumming.
  • This spring festival takes place in the month of March.
  • It is mainly celebrated with the Cheraw dance.(one of the oldest dances of Mizoram & known as bamboo dance)
  • The other dances performed during this festival are Khuallam, Chheihlam, Chai and Sarlamkai.

Maotsu Mong:

  • Popularly celebrated among the Ao tribe of Nagaland.
  • It is celebrated after sowing seeds in the fields.
  • Festival includes activities like the repairs and construction of houses by elders of the ‘Putu Mendon’ or village council, marriagesin spring, ploughing of old and new ‘jhum kheti’ and cleaning up the water wells or ‘tsubu’.
  • During this festival one of the symbolic celebrations is ‘Sangpangtu’, during this a great bonfire is lit and men and women sit around it.

Mention India’s Intangible Cultural Heritages list.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural Heritage:

  • The UNESCO’s coveted list of Intangible Cultural Heritage is made up of those intangible heritage elements that help demonstrate diversity of cultural heritage and raise awareness about its importance.
  • It was established in 2008 after Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003 came into effect.
  • It compiles two lists
  1. Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity and
  2. List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding.

India’s Intangible Cultural Heritages list include:

  • Tradition of Vedic chanting
  • Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana
  • Kutiyattam, Sanskrit theatre
  • Ramman, religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas.
  • Mudiyettu, ritual theatre and dance drama of Kerala
  • Kalbelia folk songs and dances of Rajasthan
  • Chhau dance
  • Buddhist chanting of Ladakh: recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Sankirtana, ritual singing, drumming and dancing of Manipur
  • Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab
  • Yoga
  • Nawrouz
  • Kumbh Mela

Kundhei puppetry art belongs to which Indian state?

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Answer:

Odisha

Enrich Your Learning:

Kundhei Nata:

  • Kundhei Nata (literal meaning is doll dance) is a traditional hand puppetry in Odisha.
  • It is one of the ancient folk artforms in India.
  • It is also called Gopa Lila.
  • Kundhei Nata exhibits love story of Lord Krishna and Radha.
  • Made of wood and paper, the puppets are usually attired in long skirts, as is the tradition in Indian puppetry.

 

 

 

 

 

Key fact:

  • In the twelfth century, when the poet Jayadeva wrote the Gita Govinda, the Krishna-Radha theme grew extremely popular in Odisha for dramatic presentation.

Kuttiyaattam theatre art form is performed in both the Sanskrit and Dravidian languages in Hindu temples. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right.

Enrich Your Learning:

Kuttiyaattam:

  • Koodiyattam is the traditional Sanskrit theatre art form performed in the state of Kerala.
  • Koodiyattam/ Kuttiyaattamis the oldest existing classical theatre form of the world.
  • It has been recognised by UNESCO as a Human Heritage Art.
  • Koodiyattam was performed were specially designed temples called ‘Koothambalams’.
  • This dance-drama form finds its mention along with dramatised dance form Chakyar Koothu, in the ancient Sangam literature.
  • It is believed that Kulasekhara Varman Cheraman Perumal, an ancient king of the Tamil Chera dynasty, reformed Koodiyattam by introducing the local language for Vidhushaka.
  • Koodiyattam has been performed traditionally by the Chakyars, a sub-caste of Kerala Hindus and by the Nangyaramma, women of the Ambalavasi Nambiar caste.
  • Late Natyacharya Vidushakaratnam Guru Mani Madhava Chakyaris the most notable and recognised artist of Koodiyattam.

Krishnattam is a traditional form of Sanskrit theatre mainly practiced in which state of India?

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Answer:

Kerala

Enrich Your Learning:

Krishnattam:

  • It is a kind of dance drama which depicts the story of Krishna in a series of eight plays and was created by Manaveda, the then Zamorin Raja of Calicut in northern Kerala.
  • Kathakaliart is more sophisticated and differentiated compared to Kutiyattam.

Evolution of Krishnattam:

  • Krishnattam’s forerunner was the Ashtapadiyattam dance-drama that based on the Krishna lore and ashtapadis i.e. ‘eight-verse’ songs of Jayadeva’s Sanskrit Gitagovinda and transfiguring its legacy into the new Krishnattam.

Do our Vedas have mention about the Indian Martial Arts?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Indian Martial Arts:

Origin of Indian Martial Arts:

  • The Sanskrit language term for martial arts is ‘Dhanur Veda’, derived from the terms dhanus meaning ‘bow’ and veda meaning ‘knowledge’.
  • The Agni Puranais arguably the earliest extant manual of Dhanurveda which talks about the art of war.
  • It was duly mentioned in Vedic literature like the Rig VedaYajur Vedaand Atharva Veda
  • Indian Martial Arts in Mahabharata: The vivid descriptions of martial artistry are found in the contest between Arjuna and Karna.
  • Indian Martial Arts in Ramayana: Among the various Indian martial arts, Malla-yuddha was regarded as prominent as the fighting style of warriors such as Bhima.
  • Earliest written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literatureof Tamil Nadu in about the 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD.

Styles of Indian Martial Arts:

  • In northern India, there are martial art forms practices like Pehlwani, Gatka (a Sikh martial art) and the Thang Ta and Sarit.
  • In the south, the most popular martial art forms are Kalairpayattu, Silambam, Varma Ati and Mallakhamb.

Key fact:

  • References to fighting are found in ancient Buddhist texts such as the Lotus Sutra and the Hongyo-kyo.

Topics
Daily Current Quiz 2020 Prelims 2020
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