Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-29] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

White Island; Tropical Cyclone Sarai; Fiji; Tonga; Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale; NEFT (National Electronic Funds Transfer); Fugitive Economic Offender (FEO); FrogPhone; Future Skills initiative; Big Data; Cloud computing; Blockchain technology; Artificial intelligence (AI); Virtual Reality (VR)/ Augmented Reality; StrandHogg; EChO Network; Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative; Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs);
By IASToppers
April 06, 2020

Which is responsible for the most Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) deaths in world: (a) Cardiovascular diseases OR (b) Cancers diseases OR (c) Respiratory diseases?

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  • Cardiovascular diseases account for most NCD deaths, followed by cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs):

  • NCDs are also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
  • The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.
  • NCDs disproportionately affect people in low- and middle-income countries where more than three quarters of global NCD deaths occur.

Reason behind NCDs:

  • These diseases are driven by forces that include rapid unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles and population ageing.
  • Unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity may show up in people as raised blood pressure, increased blood glucose, elevated blood lipids and obesity.
  • These are called metabolic risk factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease, the leading NCD in terms of premature deaths.
  • Tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets all increase the risk of dying from a NCD.

Key fact:

  • NCDs kill 41 million people each year, equivalent to 71% of all deaths globally.
  • Some 80% of all NCD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

Which Indian body co-lead the Super-Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative with USA?

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  • Bureau of Energy Efficiency

Solution & Enrich Your Learning:

SEAD Initiative:

  • The Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative is a voluntary collaboration about governments (Including India) working together to save energy, turning knowledge into action to advance global market transformation for energy efficient products.

The SEAD Initiative supports this effort by:

  • Providing knowledge and toolsthat help impact policy change.
  • Raising awarenessabout the importance of increasing the efficiency of common appliances and equipment.
  • Identifying and highlighting technologiesthat will save energy.
  • Providing technical expertiseand best practices to stakeholders.


  • If all SEAD governments were to adopt current policy best practices for product energy efficiency standards, 2,000 TWh of annual electricity could be savedin 2030, equal to the energy generated by 650 mid-sized power plants.
  • Collectively, these measures would decrease CO2emissions over the next two decades by 11 billion tonnes, seven times more than the annual emissions of all road vehicles in the United States.

Key fact:

  • The U.S. Department of Energy and India’s Bureau of Energy Efficiency co-lead the Initiative.
  • SEAD was first announced in 2009 at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change conference of the parties in Copenhagen, Denmark.

What is the main objective of the EChO Network programme?

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EChO Network is a national program started by central government. It aims to provide a template for cross-disciplinary leadership related to ecology and environment.

Enrich Your Learning:

EChO Network:

  • It has specific focus of increasing research, knowledge, and awareness of Indian ecology and the environment.

  • First of its kind in world, EChO Network would help in synthesizing interdisciplinary concepts and tackle real-world problems in medicine, agriculture, ecology, and technology.


  • India faces unprecedented threats to its human environmental and ecosystems, solving which requires a confluence of India’s strong technological expertise and knowledge of the natural world itself.

StrandHogg is a term recently seen in news. What is it?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

About StrandHogg:

  • It is a malwarethat can then listen to the conversations of user, read/send messages, make calls and get login credentials to various accounts.
  • It is a word in Old Norse language for the Viking (Scandinavian people) tactic of raiding coastal areas to plunder and hold people for ransom.
  • It basically exploits Android control settings called taskAffinity and taskReparentingto allow apps including malicious ones to freely assume identity of another task in the multitasking system.
  • It allows the malicious activity to hijack the target’s task, so the next time user opens the target app, the hijacked tasks will open up instead of the original tasks.

Why in news?

  • The Union Home Ministry has sent an alert to all States warning them about the vulnerability of the Android operating system to a bug called ‘StrandHogg’ that allows real-time malware applications to pose as genuine applications and access user data of all kind.

What is Future Skills initiative all about?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Future Skills initiative:

  • Future Skill, launched in February 2018, is an initiative of NASSCOM.









  • The programme aims to reskill 2 million professionals and potential employees & students in the industry over a period of 5 years.
  • FutureSkills portal is designed for 10 emerging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Big Data Analytics, Cloud Computing, Virtual Reality, 3D Printing etc.

Why in news?

  • Bengaluru-based Wipro Ltd has partnered with the National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom) to train 10,000 students from over 20 engineering colleges in India as part of the ‘Future Skills’ platform.

What is Big Data?

  • Big data is a term that describes a massive volume of both structured and unstructured data that is so large it is difficult to process using traditional database and software techniques.
  • The term big data, especially when used by vendors, may refer to the technology (which includes tools and processes) that an organization requires handling the large amounts of data and storage facilities.

Cloud computing:

  • It is the delivery of computing services, including servers, storage, databases, networking, software etc, over the Internet (the cloud).

What is Blockchain technology?

  • Blockchain is a sort of distributed ledger or decentralized database that keeps records of digital transactions.

Artificial intelligence (AI):

  • It is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.

Virtual Reality (VR)/ Augmented Reality:

  • It is the use of computer technology to create a simulated environment. Unlike traditional user interfaces, VRplaces the user inside an experience. Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersed and able to interact with 3D worlds.

The ‘FrogPhone’ was recently seen in news. What is it?

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  • FrogPhone is a solar powered remote survey deviceto monitor frogs in the wild.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • It is a device that will allow scientists to monitor frogs in the wild.
  • It is world’s first solar-powered remote survey devicethat can be installed at any frog pond and which receives a 3G or 4G cellular network.
  • It has been developed by a team from various Australian institutions.

How does it work?

  • With FrogPhone, researchers can simply call a frog habitat. Then. device’s temperature sensors will get activated, and environmental data such as air temperature, water temperature and battery voltage will be sent to the caller’s phone via a text message.
  • Because frogs are most active during night, researchers are usually required to make nightly observations in order to monitor them on site.

Which criteria is set by the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018 to declare a person as fugitive economic offender?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Fugitive Economic Offender (FEO)

  • The Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018, allows for a person to be declared as a fugitive economic offender (FEO) if:

(i) An arrest warrant has been issued against him for any specified offences where the value involved is over Rs 100 crore, and

(ii) He has left the country and refuses to return to face prosecution.   

  • To declare a person an FEO, an application will be filed in a Special Court(designated under the Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002) containing details of the properties to be confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts. The Special Court will require the person to appear at a specified place at least six weeks from issue of notice.
  • The Act allows authorities to provisionally attach properties of an accused, while the application is pending before the Special Court.

‘National Electronic Funds Transfer’ or NEFT does not support any cross-border transfer of funds from India. True OR False?

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  • The NEFT system also facilitates one-way cross-border transfer of funds from India to Nepal. This is known as the Indo-Nepal Remittance Facility Scheme.

Enrich Your Learning:

NEFT (National Electronic Funds Transfer)

  • NEFT is an electronic Funds Transfer Systemmaintained by Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • It was established by Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology(IDRBT) which was established by RBI in 1996.
  • Through this system the money can be transferred to any account in one bank from any other bank account.
  • It was started in 2005.
  • NEFT enables bank customers in India to transfer funds between any two NEFT-enabled bank accounts on a one-to-one basis. It is done via electronic messages.
  • There is no limit – either minimum or maximum– on the amount of funds that could be transferred using NEFT.
  • Fund transfers through the NEFT system do not occur in real-time basis. NEFT settles fund transfers in half-hourly batches with 23 settlements occurring between 00:30 hrs. to 00>00 hrs.
  • From December 16, 2019, there would be 48 half-hourly batches occurring between 00.30 am to 00:00 am everday regardless of a Holiday or otherwise.Now, the fund can be transferred any time of the day throughout the year.
  • Earlier, NEFT transactions could only be carried out between 8 am to 7 pm on weekdays plus first and third Saturday plus Sundays excluded.

It was first introduced in the late 1990s as the Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) System.

Recently, the ‘White Island’ was is news. It is located in?

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  • It is the name of a volcanothat erupted in New Zealand’s Bay of Plenty.

Enrich Your Learning:

White Island

  • It is the name of a volcanothat erupted in New Zealand.
  • The volcano is located in the Bay of Plenty.
  • It is New Zealand’s most active volcano.
  • The island is also known by the indigenous Maori name
  • It is the tip of an undersea volcano.

The cyclone ‘Sarai’ originated in which ocean?

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  • Cyclone ‘Sarai’ originated over the southwestern Pacific Ocean severely impacting FIJI and TONGA.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tropical Cyclone Sarai

  • It is the tropical cyclone over the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
  • Cyclone Sarai has hit the nation FIJI.
  • Sarai remains a Category 2 tropical cyclone on the Fiji Intensity Scale.
  • Sarai is equivalent to a strong tropical storm or Category 1 hurricane in the Atlantic or East Pacific basins.

Location of Fiji and Tonga


  • Fiji is the group of volcanic islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
  • It is located north of New Zealand.


  • It is an archipelago comprising 169 islands.
  • It is located in Oceania, in South Pacific Ocean.
  • It is situated in south of Samoa and about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand.

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale:

  • The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based on a hurricane’s sustained wind speed.
  • This scale estimates potential property damage.
  • Hurricanes reaching Category 3 and higher are considered major hurricanesbecause of their potential for significant loss of life and damage.
  • The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is based on the highest average wind over a one-minute time span.
  • It is officially used only to describe hurricanes that form in the Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean east of the International date line.
  • Category 1 and 2 storms are still dangerous, however, and require preventative measures.
  • In the western North Pacific, the term “super typhoon” is used for tropical cyclones with sustained winds exceeding 150 mph.
  • To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have one –minute maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph.

Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020 LAKSHYA-75

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