Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-30] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG); National Policy for Farmers of 2007; Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO); Governance Knowledge Centre; Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities; ‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality’ report 2018; Dev Ni Mori; Galápagos Islands; Rojgaar Sangi; National Informatics Centre (NIC); Bharati Script; Optical Character Recognition (OCR);
By IASToppers
April 07, 2020

Bharati is a unified script for which nine languages of India?

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Answer:

  • Bharati Script includedare Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • A team at IIT Madras has developed a method for reading documents in Bharati script using a multi-lingual optical character recognition (OCR) scheme. The team has created a finger-spelling methodthat can be used to generate a sign language for hearing-impaired persons.

Bharati Script:

  • Bharati is a unified script for nine Indian languages, being proposed as a common script for India.
  • It has been developed by team of researchers from IIT-Madras headed by Professor V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy.
  • English and Urdu have not been integrated so far.
  • Likewise, a common script for the entire country is hoped to bring down many communication barriers in India.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR):

  • OCR involve first separating (or segmenting) the document into text and non-text.
  • The text is then segmented into paragraphs, sentences words and letters.Each letter has to be recognised as a character in some recognisable format such as ASCII or Unicode.
  • The letter has various components such as the basic consonant, consonant modifiers, vowels etc.
  • The scripts of Indian languages pose a problem for such a character recognition because the vowel and consonant-modifier components are attached to the main consonant part.
  • This difficulty is removed in the Bharati script which can be easily read.

‘Rojgaar Sangi’ mobile app was recently launched with an aim to connect skilled and trained candidates (not all unemployed) with jobs and register online for unemployment index. It was launched by which state government?

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Answer:

It was launched by Chhattisgarh government.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rojgaar Sangi

  • Chhattisgarh State Skill Development Authority(CSSDA) has introduced a mobile phone application ‘Rojgaar Sangi’ to connect skilled and trained candidates with jobs.
  • The app was developed with the help of National Informatics Centre(NIC).
  • It will help start-up companies to hire an office staffand increase job opportunities for trained youth.
  • The app can also be used to register online for the unemployment index.

National Informatics Centre (NIC):

  • NIC is an attached office under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India.
  • NIC is the backbone of delivery of Government IT services and initiatives of Digital India.

The Galápagos Islands, recently in news are located in which ocean?

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Answer:

Pacific Ocean

Enrich Your Learning:

Recently, Diego- a giant male tortoise was retired from the captive breeding programme at Galapagos National Park and will be returned to his home in Española Island, Ecuador.

Galápagos Islands:

  • The Galápagos Islands is a volcanic archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
  • It is a province of Ecuador, lies about 1,000 km off its coast and is a biodiversity hotspot.

Galápagos National park:

  • The park was established in 1959 and is Ecuador’s first national park.
  • It is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Which state government had proposed to develop Dev Ni Mori with “the second tallest statue of Buddha (108 metre) in the world.”?

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Answer:

  • The Gujarat government had proposed to develop Dev Ni Moriwith “the second tallest statue of Buddha (108 metre) in the world.”

Enrich Your Learning:

World’s second tallest statue of Gautama Buddha:

  • The Gujarat government had proposed to develop Dev Ni Moriin Sabarkantha district into an “international Buddhist destination” with “the second tallest statue of Buddha (108 metre) in the world.”
  • The highest Buddha statue is the Spring Temple statue in China (153 metre).

Significance of the site:

  • Dev Ni Mori, is a Buddhist archaeological site near Shamlaji village, Northern Gujarat, India.
  • The state archaeological department had carried out excavation at Dev Ni Mori during 1960-1963.
  • During excavation, remains of a Buddhist monastery dated 3rd-4th century ADwere found.
  • A casket was found, which as per its inscription, contained relics of Gautama Buddha.
  • The 1700-year-old casket is currently kept at the MS University of Baroda in Vadodara.

Current status of the project:

  • The project has not even started as no fund has been sanctioned by the state government.

‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality’ report 2018 was released by which international organization?

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Answer:

‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality report’ is an annual report of United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) depicting global child and young adolescent mortality status.

Enrich Your Learning:

The United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) produces estimates of child and young adolescent mortality annually in its ‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality report.’

According to the report, India is among the few countries in the world where, in 2018, the mortality under-5 years of girls, exceeded that of boys.

Major Highlights of the report:

  • According to the report, half of all under-5 deaths in 2018 occurred in five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia.
  • India and Nigeria alone account for about a third of under-5 deaths in 2018.
  • The global report states that in 2018 fewer countries showed gender disparities in child mortality, and across the world, on average, boys are expected to have a higher probability of dying before reaching age-5 than girls. But this trend was not reflected in India.
  • India’s neonatal mortality rate is 23 per 1,000 live births.
  • The States with the highest burden of neonatal mortality are Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The burden of child mortality isdetermined both by the mortality rate (the proportion of children who die) and by the estimated population of any given State(total number of annual births).
  • In this sense, Uttar Pradesh is the State with the highest number of estimated new-born deaths in India, both because of the high neonatal mortality rate and because of the large number of births that occur every year in the State.
  • Estimates indicate that the majority of child mortality cases in India are attributable to deaths during the neonatal period.
  • The major causes of neonatal mortality are pre-term birth, intrapartum related events, and neonatal infection. In the post-neonatal period, the major direct causes of death are diarrhoea and pneumonia.

Was the office of the Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities originally created by the Constitution?

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Answer:

  • The office of Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities was created after the Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 inserted a new Article 350-B in Part XVII of the Constitution.

Enrich Your Learning:

What are the provisions related to the Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities?

  • The Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956inserted a new Article 350-B in Part XVII of the Constitution containing the provisions related to the Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities. The office was created in 1957.
  • The officer is designated as Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities and assisted by Deputy Commissioner and an Assistant Commissioner.
  • The office falls under theMinistry of Minority Affairs. He submits the annual reports or other reports to the President via the Union Minority Affairs Minister.

What are the functions of Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities?

  • To investigate all matters related to safeguards provided to the linguistic minorities.
  • To submit to the President of India, the reports on the status of implementation of the Constitutional and the nationally agreed safeguards for the linguistic minorities.
  • To monitor the implementation of safeguards through questionnaires, visits, conferences, seminars, meetings, review mechanism.

What are the objectives of Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities?

  • To provide equal opportunities to the linguistic minorities for inclusivedevelopment and national integration.
  • To spread awareness amongst the linguistic minorities about thesafeguards available to them.
  • To ensure effective implementation of the safeguards provided for thelinguistic minorities in the Constitution and other safeguards, which areagreed to by the states / UTs.
  • To handle the representations for redress of grievances related to thesafeguards for linguistic minorities.

Governance Knowledge Centre is an initiative of which national body/department?

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Answer:

  • Governance Knowledge Centre is an initiative of the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is Governance Knowledge Centre?

  • Developed by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances under the World Bank Project ‘Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction’. The Governance Knowledge Centre is a web based repository of good governance initiatives and best practices.
  • The portal is primarily targeted at civil servants and those interested in the practice of and research on governance and public management.
  • The portal contains researched documents, working papers, government reports, case studies etc.; reviews of books in the area of public policy of the Government; news items; events and announcements.

The likely benefits are:

  • A knowledge repository as well as a platform forKnowledge sharing.
  • A better comprehension of nuances of administrative and management practices.
  • Taking up appropriate interventions to aimed at improving governance standards
  • Better delivery of services to citizens.

Upon construction, Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO) will be the first neutrino detector in Asia. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Wrong

  • Kamioka in Japan is one of the neutrino detectors already in existence.

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the Indian Neutrino Observatory Project?

  • The INO project, in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, is a multi-institutional effort aimed at building an underground laboratory for Non-accelerator based high energy and nuclear physics researchin India.
  • It is a mega-science project jointly funded by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • The initial goal of INO is to study neutrinos.
  • The observatory is placed at the end of a carven in Bodi West Hillson the Tamil Nadu-Kerala boundary to reduce the noise from cosmic rays which would outnumber the rare neutrino interactions. The observatory is located close to the Madhikettan Shola National Park.
  • A key feature of this project is the INO-Industry interface that has developed because of the large scale of activity involved.
  • INO has no strategic or defence applications. Its operation involves no radioactivity release or toxic emissions.

Components of INO

  • Construction of an underground laboratory and associated surface facilities.
  • Construction of an Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to observe naturally occurring atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos.
  • Setting up of National Centre for High Energy Physics at Madurai, for the operation and maintenance of the underground laboratory.

Gajah is the journal released by which organization?

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Answer:

  • Gajah is the journalreleased bi-annually by the Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG).

Enrich Your Learning:

What is the Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • The Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG) is a global network of specialistsconcerned with the study, monitoring, management, and conservation of Asian Elephants in 13 Range States across Asia.
  • The group aims for long term conservation of Asia`s elephantsand if feasible, cause for the recovery of their elephant population to viable levels.
  • There are currently over 110 volunteer members from 18 countries.  Wildlife Trust of India, Elephant Family and among others are partners involved with the organisation.

Activities and contributions of AsESG are:

  • AsESG helps carry out Red List assessments for inclusion in the IUCN Red List.
  • Contributions of AsESG range from helping in development of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) system for Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) and The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS),facilitated and provided assistance to First Asian Elephant Range States’ Meeting in January 2006 and the Second Asian Elephant Range States Meeting in April 2017.
  • Additionally, the organisation was involved in preparing various guidelines and resource materialsincluding a review of human-elephant conflict mitigation practices in Asia and other related documents.

According to the National Policy for Farmers of 2007, are beekeepers considered as farmers?

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Answer:

  • According to the National Policy for Farmers, 2007, beekeepers are considered as farmers.

Enrich Your Learning:

Who is a Farmer?

According to the National Policy for Farmers,2007 drafted by the National Commission of Farmers headed by M.S. Swaminathan.

  • The term ‘FARMER’ is referred to a person actively engaged in the economic and/or livelihood activity of growing crops and producing other primary agricultural commodities.
  • It will include all agricultural operational holders, cultivators, agricultural labourers, sharecroppers tenants, poultry and livestock rearers, fishers, beekeepers, gardeners, pastoralists, non-corporate planters and planting labourers.
  • It will also include persons engaged in various farming-related occupations such as sericulture, vermiculture and agro-forestry.

The term will also include tribal families/persons engaged in shifting cultivation and in the collection, use and sale of minor and non-timber forest produce.


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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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