‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality report’ is an annual report of United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) depicting global child and young adolescent mortality status.
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The United Nations Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) produces estimates of child and young adolescent mortality annually in its ‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality report.’
According to the report, India is among the few countries in the world where, in 2018, the mortality under-5 years of girls, exceeded that of boys.
Major Highlights of the report:
- According to the report, half of all under-5 deaths in 2018 occurred in five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia.
- India and Nigeria alone account for about a third of under-5 deaths in 2018.
- The global report states that in 2018 fewer countries showed gender disparities in child mortality, and across the world, on average, boys are expected to have a higher probability of dying before reaching age-5 than girls. But this trend was not reflected in India.
- India’s neonatal mortality rate is 23 per 1,000 live births.
- The States with the highest burden of neonatal mortality are Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
- The burden of child mortality isdetermined both by the mortality rate (the proportion of children who die) and by the estimated population of any given State(total number of annual births).
- In this sense, Uttar Pradesh is the State with the highest number of estimated new-born deaths in India, both because of the high neonatal mortality rate and because of the large number of births that occur every year in the State.
- Estimates indicate that the majority of child mortality cases in India are attributable to deaths during the neonatal period.
- The major causes of neonatal mortality are pre-term birth, intrapartum related events, and neonatal infection. In the post-neonatal period, the major direct causes of death are diarrhoea and pneumonia.