Answer: & Enrich Your Learning:
Subsistence agriculture is one in which the farming areas consume all, or nearly so, of theproducts locally grown.
Primitive Subsistence Agriculture:
- Primitive subsistence agriculture or shifting cultivation is widely practised by many tribesin the tropics, especially in Africa, South and central America and South east Asia.
- The vegetation is usually cleared by fire, and the ashes add to the fertility of the soil.
- It is also called slash and burn agriculture.
- The cultivated patches are very small and cultivation is done with very primitive tools such as sticks and hoes. It is only done for local consumption.
- After sometime (3 to 5 years) the soil loses its fertilityand the farmer shifts to another parts and clears other patch of the forest for cultivation.
- The farmer may return to the earlier patch after sometime.
- One of the major problems of shifting cultivation is that the cycle of jhum becomes less and less due to loss of fertility in different parcels.
- It is prevalent in tropical region in different names, e.g. Jhumingin North eastern states of India, Milpa in central America and Mexico and Ladang in Indonesia and Malaysia.