Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-37] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Black carbon (BC); Global Tiger Forum (GTF); IUCN Protected Area Categories System; International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD); India’s top 5 Export partners; India’s top 5 Import partners; Satkosia tiger reserve; BASIC countries; District Mineral Foundation; Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS); Co-operative banks;
By IASToppers
April 14, 2020

Who oversees co-operative banks in India?

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  • In India, co-operative banks are registered under the states Cooperative Societies Act.
  • They also come under the regulatory ambit of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under two laws, namely, the Banking Regulations Act, 1949, and the Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.
  • They were brought under the RBI’s watch in 1966, a move which brought the problem of dual regulation along with it.

Enrich Your Learning:

What are co-operative banks?

  • Co-operative banks are financial entities established on a co-operative basis and belonging to their members. This means that the customers of a co-operative bank are also its owners.
  • These banks provide a wide range of regular banking and financial services. However, there are some points where they differ from other banks.

Structure of co-operative banks in India:

Broadly, co-operative banks in India are divided into two categories – urban and rural.

  • Rural cooperative credit institutions could either be short-term or long-term in nature. Further, short-term cooperative credit institutions are further sub-divided into State Co-operative Banks, District Central Co-operative Banks, Primary Agricultural Credit Societies.
  • The long-term institutions are either State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs) or Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (PCARDBs).
  • Urban Co-operative Banks (UBBs) are either scheduled or non-scheduled. Scheduled and non-scheduled UCBs are again of two kinds- multi-state and those operating in single state.

The initiative named ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems’ (GIAHS) has started by____________. a) Indian Council of Agricultural Research OR b) Food and Agriculture Organization

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Food and Agriculture Organization

Enrich Your Learning:

Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS):

  • This is an initiative started by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2002.
  • The purpose of the initiative is to identify and dynamically conserve globally important agriculture heritage systems.
  • A GIAHS is a living, evolving system of human communities in an intricate relationship with their territory, cultural or agricultural landscape or biophysical and wider social environment.
  • These traditional agricultural systems represent models of sustainable agricultural production.
  • The GIAHS are outstanding landscapes of aesthetic beauty that combine agricultural biodiversity, resilient ecosystems and a valuable cultural heritage.
  • Located in specific sites around the world, they sustainably provide multiple goods and services, food and livelihood security for millions of small-scale farmers.
  • There are 52 GIAHS sites in 21 countries
  • Six GIAHS sites located in China, Philippines, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates,
    Iran and Republic of Korea are also UNESCO World Heritage sites
  • Since its inception in 2002, the GIAHS programme has built a strong local and
    international reputation in the fields of agricultural heritage and agricultural development.

What are the benefits of District Mineral Foundation (DMF)?

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  • DMF funds are treated as extra-budgetary resources for the State Plan. And thus, helps to implement the State and the District Plans.
  • The DMFs also help implement the Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY), for the welfare of mining areas and the affected population.

Enrich Your Learning:

District Mineral Foundation:

  • District Mineral Foundation (DMF) is a trust set up as a non-profit body, in those districts affected by the mining works, to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations.
  • It is funded through the contributions from miners. Mandated by the Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Amendment Act, (MMDRA) 2015
  • The Central Government retains the power to prescribe the rates of contribution but its manner of operation comes under the jurisdiction of the relevant State Government.
  • The composition and functions of the DMF are prescribed by the State government.
  • The contributions made to DMFs are collected by the State Governments. DMF contribution would not be exceeding one-third of royalty.
  • In case of all mining leases executed before 12th January 2015 miners will have to contribute an amount equal to 30% of the royalty payable by them to the DMFs.  Where mining leases are granted after 12.01.2015, the rate of contribution would be 10% of the royalty payable
  • If the mining area is spread across several districts, the fund is shared on a pro-rata basis by these districts.

What is the objective of DMF?

  • Mining related operations largely affect less developed and very remote areas of the country, and vulnerable sections of the population, especially Scheduled Tribes.
  • It is especially necessary that special care and attention is devoted, in an organized and structured manner so as to ensure that these areas and affected persons are benefitted by the mineral wealth in their regions and are empowered to improve their standard of living.

What is the importance of BASIC countries?

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  • BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) countries put together has one-third of world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population.
  • China, India, and Brazil are the world’s second, fifth, and ninth-largest economies.
  • BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.

Enrich Your Learning:

BASIC countries:

  • The BASIC is a grouping of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
  • The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries in 2009.
  • The four countries committed to act jointly at the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, known as Copenhagen climate summit. This alliance then brokered the final Copenhagen Accord with the United States.
  • Subsequently, these nations work towards reducing greenhouse gas emissionsraising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
  • In 2010, the grouping described the Accord as merely a political agreement and not legally binding.

Satkosia tiger reserve is located in which Indian State? a) Odisha OR b) Karnataka

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Answer: Odisha

Enrich Your Learning:

Satkosia tiger reserve:

  • It is located in the Angul district of Odishawhere the Mahanadi River passes through gorge in the Eastern Ghats mountains.
  • The area is also a part of the Mahanadi elephant reserve.
  • Satkosia Tiger Reserve comprises of two adjoining Sanctuaries of central Odisha named as Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary and Baisipalli Sanctuary.
  • Satkosia is themeeting point of two bio-geographic regions of India; the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats, contributing to immense biodiversity.
  • The major plant communities are mixed deciduous forests including Sal and riverine forest.
  • Tiger (Mahavir) and tigress (Sundri) were translocated from Madhya Pradesh to Satkosia Tiger Reserve (STR), Odisha.

Which are the India’s top five trading partner countries in terms of balance of payment as per the economic survey of 2019-20?

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India’s top five trading partners are USA, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Hong Kong.

Enrich Your Learning:

As per Economic Survey 2019-20,

India’s top 5 Export partners:

  1. United States
  2. United Arab Emirates
  3. China
  4. Hong Kong, China
  5. Singapore

Top export items: Petroleum products, precious stones, drug formulations & biologicals, gold and other precious metals.

India’s top 5 Import partners:

  1. China
  2. United States
  3. Saudi Arabia
  4. United Arab Emirates
  5. Iraq

Top import items: Crude petroleum, gold, petroleum products, coal, coke & briquittes.

What is the objective of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development?

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Objective: to improve the lives and livelihoods of men, women, and children of the HKH and protect mountain environments and cultures.

Enrich Your Learning:

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development:

  • The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental knowledge and learning centre working on behalf of the people of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH).
  • It is founded in 1983, ICIMOD is based in Lalitpur (Kathmandu), Nepal.
  • It works in and for our eight regional member countries – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.
  • The knowledge it creates and shares help the people of the HKH become more resilient, make the most of new opportunities, and prepare for change.

What are the categories of IUCN protected area management?

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IUCN Protected Area Management Categories:

  • Category Ia – Strict Nature Reserve.
  • Category Ib – Wilderness Area.
  • Category II – National Park.
  • Category III – Natural Monument or Feature.
  • Category IV – Habitat/Species Management Area.
  • Category V – Protected Landscape/Seascape.
  • Category VI Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources.

Enrich Your Learning:

IUCN Protected Area Categories System:

IUCN protected area management categories classify protected areas according to their management objectives:

Category Ia Strict Nature Reserve: Category Ia are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphical features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values.

Category Ib Wilderness Area: Category Ib protected areas are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

Category II National Park: Category II protected areas are large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible, spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational, and visitor opportunities.

Category III Natural Monument or Feature: Category III protected areas are set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value. 

Category IV Habitat/Species Management Area: Category IV protected areas aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many Category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement of the category. 

Category V Protected Landscape/ Seascape: A protected area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant, ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values.

Category VI Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources: Category VI protected areas conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible.

Name the tiger range countries’ members of the Global Tiger Forum.

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Seven tiger range countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal and Vietnam) are members of the GTF as well as the UK along with some non-governmental organizations, including WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) and TRAFFIC. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Tiger Forum (GTF):

  • It is the only inter- governmental international body established with members from willing countries to embark on a global campaign to protect the Tiger.
  • The GTF is focused on saving the remaining 5 sub-species of Tigers distributed over 13 Tiger Range countries of the world.
  • There are currently 13 tiger range countries; Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Viet Nam.
  • The GTF was formed in 1993 on recommendations from an international symposium on Tiger Conservation at New Delhi, India.
  • A Chairperson, usually a Minister from one of the Tiger Range countries heads GTF for a fixed tenure of 3 Years.

Black carbon is one of the largest contributors to global warming after CO2.True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Black carbon (BC):

  • Black carbon is the sooty black material emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. It comprises a significant portion of particulate matter or PM, which is an air pollutant.
  • Black carbon also contributes to climate change causing changes in patterns of rain and clouds.
  • It strongly absorbs sunlight and give soot its black colour.
  • Primary sources include emissions from diesel engines, cook stoves, wood burning and forest fires.

Effects on Health:

  • Black carbon is a global environmental problem that has negative implications for both human health and our climate.
  • Inhalation of black carbon is associated with health problems including respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even birth defects.
  • Black carbon is a major contributor to the fine particle (PM2.5) burden in the air. It is small enough to be easily inhaled into the lungs and has been associated with adverse health effects.
  • Peat-burning wildfires release enormous amounts of PM, including black carbon, which has been linked to increased risk of heart failure and respiratory hospital visits.

Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

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