Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-38] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Mahabalipuram; Press Council of India; Golan Heights; Compact2025; Black carbon (BC); Typbar TCV; BASIC countries; BepiColombo; Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019; Tea Board of India;
By IASToppers
April 15, 2020

Which Pallava dynasty king changed the name of the city from Mamallapuram to Mahabalipuram?

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Answer: Narasimha Varman I

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Mahabalipuram (or Mamallapuram) is an ancient port cityin the Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu.
  • The kingNarasimha Varman I changed the name from Mamallapuram to Mahabalipuram.
  • It is located on theCoromandel Coast along the Bay of Bengal.
  • It is known for its great monuments, cave sanctuaries and sculptures.
  • A monument complex at Mahabalipuram, known as the Group of Monuments including Shore Temple and the Five Rathas, is a UNESCO world site.
  • It was once ruled by the Pallava dynasty.

What is the objective behind the establishment of Tea Board of India in 1953?

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The Tea Board of India is established to promote the cultivation, processing, and domestic trade as well as export of tea from India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tea Board of India:

  • It is a state agency of the Government of India.
  • It was established by the enactment of the Tea Act in 1953 with its headquarters in Kolkata.
  • It is separated into Standing Committees referred to as the Executive Committee, the Development Committee, the Labour Welfare Committee and the Export Promotion Committee.
  • It is responsible for the assignment of certification numbers to exports of certain tea merchants.
  • Its tasks include:
  • endorsement of the diverse production and productivity of tea,
  • financial support of research organisations
  • the monitoring of advances in tea packaging as it relates to health beneficial aspects.
  • It coordinates research institutes, the tea trade and government bodies, ensuring the technical support of the tea trade in the global industry.

What are the grounds for cancelling OCI (Overseas Citizenship of India) registration with reference to Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019?

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Grounds for cancelling OCI (Overseas Citizenship of India) registration: 

  • The Act provides that the central government may cancel registration of OCIs on five grounds registration through fraud,
  1. Showing disaffection to the Constitution,
  2. Engaging with the enemy during war,
  3. Necessity in the interest of sovereignty of India,
  4. Security of state or public interest, or
  5. If within five years of registration the OCI has been sentenced to imprisonment for two years or more.
  • The Bill added one more ground for cancelling registration, that is, if the OCI has violated any law that is in force in the country. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019:


  • In 2016, a Bill was introduced to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955. The bill sought to provide citizenship to six minorities — Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians and Buddhists from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh who came to India before 2014.
  • It was lapsed due to dissolution of Lok Sabha. Subsequently, the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha in December 2019.

Highlights of the bill:

Eligibility for citizenship for certain illegal migrants:

  • The bill amended the Act to provide that illegal migrants from religious minorities – Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians – from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who entered India on or before December 31, 2014, eligible for Indian citizenship.
  • In order to get this benefit, they must have also been exempted from the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 by the central government.


  • Provisions on citizenship for illegal migrants will not apply to the tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, or Tripura, as included in the Sixth Scheduleto the Constitution.
  • These tribal areas include Karbi Anglong (in Assam), Garo Hills (in Meghalaya), Chakma District (in Mizoram), and Tripura Tribal Areas District.  I
  • t will also not apply to the areas under the ‘Inner Line’ under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873.  The Inner Line Permit regulates visit of Indians to Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland.  

Citizenship by naturalization:

  • The Act allows a person to apply for citizenship by naturalisation, if the person meets certain qualifications.
  • One of the qualifications is that the person must have resided in India or been in central government service for the last 12 months and at least 11 years of the preceding 14 years.
  • The Bill further reduces the period of naturalization to 5 years.

A term ‘BepiColombo’ was sometimes appeared in news. What do you know about it?

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BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • The mission comprises two satellites launched together: The Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and Mio (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO)


  • The mission involves three components, which will separate into independent spacecraft upon arrival at Mercury.
  1. Mercury Transfer Module (MTM) for propulsion, built by ESA
  2. Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) built by ESA
  3. Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) or Miobuilt by JAXA


  • Study the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star
  • Study Mercury’s form, interior, structure, geology, composition and craters
  • Investigate Mercury’s exosphere, composition and dynamics, including generation and escape
  • Study Mercury’s magnetised envelope (magnetosphere) – structure and dynamics
  • Investigate the origin of Mercury’s magnetic field

What is the significance of BASIC countries?

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  • BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) countries put together has one-third of world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population.
  • China, India, and Brazil are the world’s second, fifth, and ninth-largest economies.
  • BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.

Enrich Your Learning:

BASIC countries:

  • The BASIC is a grouping of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
  • The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries in 2009.
  • The four countries committed to act jointly at the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, known as Copenhagen climate summit. This alliance then brokered the final Copenhagen Accord with the United States.
  • Subsequently, these nations work towards reducing greenhouse gas emissionsraising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
  • In 2010, the grouping described the Accord as merely a political agreement and not legally binding.


Typbar-TCV is the only approved vaccine of typhoid for children and infants less than 2 years of age. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Typbar TCV:

  • Typbar-TCV is a typhoid conjugate vaccinemanufactured by Bharat Biotech International Limited.
  • It is the world’s first clinically proven Typhoid vaccineand is the only approved vaccine for children and infants less than 2 years of age.
  • The Typbar TCV vaccine was recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE) in December 2017.
  • Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid outbreaks have been found in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.


  • JENVAC is a single dose inactivated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine and manufactured by Bharat BiotechInternational Limited. 
  • This Vero cell derived vaccine is prepared from an Indian strain (Kolar- 821564XY) of the JE virus.
  • JENVAC has been developed in collaboration with the National Institute of Virology, India.

Black carbon is one of the largest contributors to global warming after CO2. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

Enrich Your Learning:

Black carbon (BC):

  • Black carbon is the sooty black material emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. It comprises a significant portion of particulate matter or PM, which is an air pollutant.
  • Black carbon also contributes to climate change causing changes in patterns of rain and clouds.
  • It strongly absorbs sunlight and give soot its black colour.
  • Primary sources include emissions from diesel engines, cook stoves, wood burning and forest fires.

Effects on Health:

  • Black carbon is a global environmental problem that has negative implications for both human health and our climate.
  • Inhalation of black carbon is associated with health problems including respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even birth defects.
  • Black carbon is a major contributor to the fine particle (PM2.5) burden in the air. It is small enough to be easily inhaled into the lungs and has been associated with adverse health effects.
  • Peat-burning wildfires release enormous amounts of PM, including black carbon, which has been linked to increased risk of heart failure and respiratory hospital visits.

Compact2025 is an initiative of which international organisation?

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Answer: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Compact2025 is an initiative for ending hunger and undernutrition by 2025.
  • It brings stakeholders together to set priorities, innovate and learn, fine-tune actions, build on successes, and synthesize sharable lessons in order to accelerate progress.
  • Compact2025 employs the following approaches and activities:
  • Engaging countries, beginning with an initial focus on four countries—Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda.
  • Stimulating knowledge and innovationthrough a global Knowledge and Innovation (K&I) Hub.
  • Supporting existing initiatives and partnerships.
  • By building a knowledge base and promoting innovation, Compact2025 helps countries develop, scale up, and communicate policies and programs to accelerate progress toward ending hunger and undernutrition.

A plateau named Golan Heights is located in which western Asian country?

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Answer: Syria.

Enrich Your Learning:

Golan Heights:

  • The Golan Heights is a rocky plateau in south-western Syria.
  • It borders Israel, Lebanon and Jordan.
  • It is overlooking the Jordan Rift Valley which contains the Sea of Galilee & the Jordan River.
  • It is itself dominated by the Mount Hermon.


History of the Golan Heights:

  • The Six-Day War of June 1967 ended in decisive victories for Israel, which seized the Golan Heights from Syria.
  • Syrian forces began a failed attempt to reclaim the territory in 1973. That war ended with an armistice that left most of the Golan Heights in Israeli hands. In 1981, Israel passed a law that effectively annexed it.
  • But that move was never recognized internationally, and a United Nations Security Council resolution that year said that “the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect.”

The Press Council of India is chaired by whom?

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The Press Council is headed by a Chairman, a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Press Council of India:

  • The Press Council of India was first set up in the year 1966by the Parliament on the recommendations of the First Press Commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of press in India.
  • It is an autonomous, statutory, quasi-judicial body, functioning as a watchdog of the press, for the press and by the press.
  • The present Council functions under the Press Council Act, 1978.
  • It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
  • The Press Council is headed by a Chairman, a retired judge of the Supreme Courtof India.
  • The Council consists of 28 other membersof whom 20 represent the press and are nominated by the press organisations/news agencies recognised and notified by the Council as all India bodies of categories.
  • Five membersare nominated from the two Houses of Parliament and three represent cultural, literary and legal fields.
  • The members serve on the Council for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be eligible for re-nomination for not more than one term.
  • The Council is funded by the revenue collected by it as fee levied on the registered newspapers in the country. No fee is levied on newspapers with circulation less than 5000 copies.

Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

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