Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-39] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) report; 1st India-China joint training programme for Afghan diplomats; India Innovation Index (III) 2019; Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS); IUCN Protected Area Management Categories; International Labour organization (ILO); Global Hunger Index 2019; Co-operative banks in India; AMLD-5 norms; Land Development Banks in India;
By IASToppers
April 16, 2020

How did the land development banks came into existence in India?

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  • In India, farmers have to borrow also for the long-term (for a period of 5 years to 20 years) for buying equipment like pump sets, tractors, etc.
  • Other development purposes, such as reclamation of land, fencing, digging of new wells, construction of a tank or tube-well, or buying additional land.
  • A need for a special kind of institution to provide long-term finance to the Indian agriculturists was earnestly felt. Consequently, land development banks came into existence.

Enrich Your Learning:

Land Development Banks in India:

  • Initially, the land development banks were instituted in the form of co-operative land mortgage banks. The first co-operative land mortgage bank was established at Jhind, in Punjab in 1920.
  • A real beginning was made by the establishment of the Central Land Mortgage Bank in Madras in 1929. Later on, the movement spread too many other states.
  • The land mortgage banks grant long-term loans to the farmers against the conveyance of land as security. Since, 1966-67, the land mortgage banks are renamed as land development banks.
  • The Land Development Banks (LDBs) are essentially co-operative institutions. All the LDBs are registered under the Co-operative Societies Act.
  • They are semi co-operatives and limited liability associations of agricultural borrowers, as their members have limited liability. Unlike other co-operatives, LDBs do not have personal involvement in their functioning.
  • The working capitals of LDBs are raised from share capital, deposits and debentures, and borrowings from the State Bank of India, commercial banks and the State Co-operative Banks.
  • A large part of their funds are raised through long-term debentures. The debentures can be issued only by the Central Land Development Banks and not by the Primary Land Development Banks.
  • Under its federal structure, the LDB consists of two-tier institutions: (i) the Central Land Development Bank at the State level, and (ii) the Primary Land Development Bank at the district or Taluka level.
  • In States like Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal, however, there is a mixed type of LDBs combining the features of both the unitary and federal structure.
  • Under the federal structure, the Primary Land Development Banks deal with the farmers directly and the Central Land Development Bank deals with the primary land development banks.
  • Under unitary structure, however, the state may have more than one Central Land Development Bank and they make direct deals with the farmers.
  • In some cases, the Central Land Development Bank has its branches spread over the State and they do direct business with the agriculturists. In some cases, the Central Land Development Bank serves as a department of the State Co-operative Bank.

The AMLD-5 norms to tackle money laundering, are published by__________. a) European Union OR b) World Economic Forum

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European Union

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In 2018, the fifth European Union Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMLD 5) was published in the official journal of the European Union.

The AMLD-5,

  • extends the scope to virtual currency platforms and wallet providers, tax related services and traders of art.
  • grants access to the general public to beneficial ownership information of EU based companies.
  • makes it an obligation to consult the beneficial ownership register when performing AML due diligence.
  • obliges member states to create a list of national public offices and functions that qualify as politically exposed (PEP).
  • introduces strict enhanced due diligence measures for financial flows from high-risk third countries.
  • ends the anonymity of bank and savings accounts, as well as safe deposit boxes and creates central access mechanisms to bank account and safe deposit boxes holder information throughout the EU.
  • makes information on real estate holders centrally available to public authorities.
  • lowers thresholds for identifying purchasers of prepaid cards and for the use of e-money.
  • further enhances the powers of the FIUs and facilitates cooperation and information exchange among authorities.

Who oversees the co-operative banks in India?

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  • In India, co-operative banks are registered under the states Cooperative Societies Act. They also come under the regulatory ambit of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under two laws, namely, the Banking Regulations Act, 1949, and the Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.
  • They were brought under the RBI’s watch in 1966, a move which brought the problem of dual regulation along with it.

Enrich Your Learning:

What are co-operative banks?

  • Co-operative banks are financial entities established on a co-operative basis and belonging to their members. This means that the customers of a co-operative bank are also its owners.
  • These banks provide a wide range of regular banking and financial services. However, there are some points where they differ from other banks.

Structure of co-operative banks in India:

Broadly, co-operative banks in India are divided into two categories – urban and rural.

  • Rural cooperative credit institutions could either be short-term or long-term in nature. Further, short-term cooperative credit institutions are further sub-divided into State Co-operative Banks, District Central Co-operative Banks, Primary Agricultural Credit Societies.
  • The long-term institutions are either State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs) or Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (PCARDBs).
  • Urban Co-operative Banks (UBBs) are either scheduled or non-scheduled. Scheduled and non-scheduled UCBs are again of two kinds- multi-state and those operating in single state.

What are the indicators used for the the Global Hunger Index?

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The Global Hunger Index score is calculated on four indicators:

  1. Undernourishment
  2. Child wasting (the share of children under five years who have a low weight for their age)
  3. Child stunting (the share of children under five years who have a low height for their age)
  4. Child mortality

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Hunger Index:

  • The report is prepared jointly by Irish aid agency ‘Concern Worldwide’and German organisation ‘Welt Hunger Hilfe’.
  • The indicators included in the GHI reflect caloric deficiencies as well as poor nutrition.

Highlights of Global Hunger Index 2019:

First Rank: 17 countries including Belarus, Ukraine, Turkey, Cuba and Kuwait.

Last rank: Central African Republic

  • Neighbouring countries like Nepal (73), Sri Lanka (66), Bangladesh (88), Myanmar (69) and Pakistan (94) are also in the ‘serious’ hunger category, but are ahead than India.
  • China (25) has moved to a ‘low’ severity category and Sri Lanka (66) is in the ‘moderate’ severity category.
  • Wasting is most prevalentin Yemen, Djibouti, and India, ranging from 17 to 20%.
  • Among the 117 countries, 43 have serious levels of hunger. The Central African Republic is in the extremely alarming level in the hunger indexwhile Chad, Madagascar, Yemen, and Zambia were in the alarming level.

India specific highlights:

  • India has been ranked at the 102ndplace. In 2000, India was ranked 83rd.
  • The share of wasting among children in India rosefrom 16.5 % in the 2008-2012 to 20.8 per cent in 2014-2018. This child wasting rate of India is the highest for any country in the Global Hunger Report.
  • Only 9.6 % of all children between 6 and 23 months of age are fed a minimum acceptable diet.
  • However, India has shown improvement in other indicators such as the under-5 mortality rate, prevalence of stunting among children (from 42% in 2010 to 38% in 2019) and prevalence of undernourishment owing to inadequate food.

Which agency became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946?

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Answer: International Labour organization

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International Labour organization (ILO):

The ILO is the only tripartite U.N. agency, since 1919, that brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.

Brief History of ILO:

  • The ILO was founded in 1919, in the wake of a destructive war, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice. The ILO became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946.

What is the Mission of ILO?

  • The main aims of the ILO are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.

How does the ILO serve?

The ILO serves in the following ways:

  • Formulation of international policies and programmes to promote basic human rights, improve working and living conditions, and enhance employment opportunities
  • Creation of international labour standards backed by a unique system to supervise their application.
  • An extensive programme of international technical cooperation formulated and implemented in an active partnership with constituents, to help countries put these policies into practice in an effective manner.

What are the categories of IUCN protected area management?

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IUCN Protected Area Management Categories:

  • Category Ia – Strict Nature Reserve.
  • Category Ib – Wilderness Area.
  • Category II – National Park.
  • Category III – Natural Monument or Feature.
  • Category IV – Habitat/Species Management Area.
  • Category V – Protected Landscape/Seascape.
  • Category VI Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources.

Enrich Your Learning:

IUCN Protected Area Categories System:

IUCN protected area management categories classify protected areas according to their management objectives:

Category Ia Strict Nature Reserve: Category Ia are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphical features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values.

Category Ib Wilderness Area: Category Ib protected areas are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

Category II National Park: Category II protected areas are large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible, spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational, and visitor opportunities.

Category III Natural Monument or Feature: Category III protected areas are set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value. 

Category IV Habitat/Species Management Area: Category IV protected areas aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many Category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement of the category. 

Category V Protected Landscape/ Seascape: A protected area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant, ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values.

Category VI Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources: Category VI protected areas conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible.

The initiative named ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems’ (GIAHS) has been started by____________. a) Indian Council of Agricultural Research OR b) Food and Agriculture Organization

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Food and Agriculture Organization

Enrich Your Learning:

Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS):

  • This is an initiative started by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2002.
  • The purpose of the initiative is to identify and dynamically conserve globally important agriculture heritage systems.
  • A GIAHS is a living, evolving system of human communities in an intricate relationship with their territory, cultural or agricultural landscape or biophysical and wider social environment.
  • These traditional agricultural systems represent models of sustainable agricultural production.
  • The GIAHS are outstanding landscapes of aesthetic beauty that combine agricultural biodiversity, resilient ecosystems and a valuable cultural heritage.
  • Located in specific sites around the world, they sustainably provide multiple goods and services, food and livelihood security for millions of small-scale farmers.
  • There are 52 GIAHS sites in 21 countries
  • Six GIAHS sites located in China, Philippines, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates,
    Iran and Republic of Korea are also UNESCO World Heritage sites
  • Since its inception in 2002, the GIAHS programme has built a strong local and
    international reputation in the fields of agricultural heritage and agricultural development.

Which state is the most innovative major state in the India Innovation Index (III) 2019?

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Answer: Karnataka is the most innovative major state in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

India Innovation Index (III):

NITI Aayog with Institute for Competitiveness as the knowledge partner released the India Innovation Index (III) 2019.

Highlights of India innovation index (iii) 2019:










  • Top state among north- eastern & hill states: Sikkim
  • Top UT: Delhi
  • Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Telangana, Haryana, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh form the remaining top ten major states respectively.
  • Among the category of major states, Maharashtra performs the best in the dimension of Enablers. This implies that it has the best enabling environment for innovation, even though the state comes in at the third position in the overall innovation index.
  • The index shows that the innovation ecosystem of the country is strong in south and western parts of India. In fact, three of the top five major states are from southern India. Delhi and Haryana seem to be an exception to this rule and seem to be doing well on the Index. Thus, there seems to be a west-south and north-east divideacross the country.

About the India innovation index (iii) 2019:

  • It was released by the NITI Aayog with Institute for Competitivenessas the knowledge partner.
  • The index creates a framework for the continual evaluation of the innovation environment of 29 states and seven union territories in India.
  • It is calculated as the average of the scores of its two dimensions – Enablers and Performance.

Enablers (5 pillars)

  • Human Capital
  • Investment
  • Knowledge Workers
  • Business Environment
  • Safety and Legal Environment

Performance (2 pillars)

  • Knowledge Output
  • Knowledge Diffusion

Which two countries have recently launched their first joint programme for Afghanistan to train its diplomats?

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Answer: India and China

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1st India-China joint training programme for Afghan diplomats:

  • India and China have launched their first joint programme for Afghanistan to train its diplomats.
  • Training the Afghanistan’s diplomats has been agreed as the first joint project agreed by both the countries.
  • Indian Ambassador to Afghanistan hosted 10 Afghan Diplomats who will be travelling to India for the 1st India-China joint training programme for Afghan diplomats under the aegis of the Trilateral Cooperation between India, China and Afghanistan.
  • This will be a first such project in the war-torn country where China while trying to expand its influence has tacitly backed Pakistan, which has been accused by Afghanistan and the US of backing the Taliban and its most violent attacks in the country destabilising any attempts to restore peace.

According to Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Tiger Reserves, which sanctuaries are emerged as the best managed tiger reserves in India?

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Pench sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) and Periyar sanctuary of Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) report:

  • It is the evaluation of the management and effectiveness of conservation efforts of protected areas like national parks, tiger reserves etc.
  • The Management Effectives Evaluation (MEE) process is a global framework to evaluate the performance of protected areas.
  • India is among the select countries in the world that has institutionalized the MEE process for its network of protected areas.
  • It is the assessment of how well protected areas such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, conservation reserves, community reserves and tiger reserves are being managed and their effectiveness in conserving target flora and fauna.
  • From January, 2014 to December, 2014 the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) under took an independent Management Effectiveness Evaluation of 43 tiger reserves in the country.
  • Recently, Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Tiger Reserves were released. It rated:
  • Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh: Highest scoring Tiger reserve
  • Satyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu: Highest increment in management for a Tiger reserve

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