Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-40] Static Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG); Schedule VI of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972; Bannerghatta National Park; Difference between Biosphere reserves and National parks; Namdapha National Park; Nokrek Bio-sphere Reserve; Peatlands; Basel Convention; Basel Ban Amendment; Important Global Initiatives of IUCN; Recovery Programmes for Critically Endangered Species; Ecotone;
By IASToppers
April 17, 2020


What is ecotone?

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Ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. It is where two communities meet and integrate. It may be narrow or wide, and it may be local or regional.

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  • Ecotone may be narrow or wide, and it may be local (the zone between a field and forest) or regional (the transition between forest and grassland ecosystems).
  • An ecotone may appear on the ground as a gradual blending of the two communities across a broad area, or it may manifest itself as a sharp boundary line.
  • Ecotones are particularly significant for mobile animals, as they can exploit more than one set of habitats within a short distance.
  • The ecotone contains not only species common to the communities on both sides; it may also include a number of highly adaptable species that tend to colonize such transitional areas.
  • The phenomenon of increased variety of plants as well as animals at the community junction is called the edge effect and is essentially due to a locally broader range of suitable environmental conditions or ecological niches.

What is the objective of the Recovery Programmes for Critically Endangered Species’?

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Objective: to ensure critically endangered species/ecosystems protection outside Protected Areas, across the wider landscape/seascape.

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Recovery Programmes for Critically Endangered Species:

  • Started in 2008-09, the progamme is one of the three components of centrally funded scheme, Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH).
  • IDWH is meant for providing support to:
  • protected areas (national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, conservation reserves and community reserves except tiger reserves),
  • protection of wildlife outside protected areas and
  • recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.

Species included in the recovery programme so far:

  • So far, 17 species were identified under this recovery programme. These are Snow Leopard, Bustard (including Floricans), Dolphin, Nilgiri Tahr, Hangul, Marine Turtles, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Dugongs, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet, Indian Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdon’s Courser.

_______________ builds on a history of coastal management interventions before and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. a) Global Island Partnership OR b) Mangroves for the Future

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Answer: Mangroves for the Future

Enrich Your Learning:

Important Global Initiatives of IUCN:

The Global Drylands Initiative (GDI):

The Initiative strengthens:

  • natural resource governance in drylands through strengthening of resource rights,
  • establishment of institutional mechanisms for ecosystem management, and
  • development of enabling conditions for policy implementation and revision.

Global Island Partnership (GLISPA):

The scope of IUCN’s Islands Initiative is those islands, whether large or small, whose conservation and ecosystem management challenges are substantially shaped by “island” characteristics, including:

  • high levels of species diversity and endemism,
  • openness of coastal ecosystems to land-based impacts,
  • competition by people for limited resources including land and
  • fresh water, and vulnerability to external forces, both natural and human-induced.

Global Mountain Initiative:

  • This is an evolving young initiative, which has been in existance for about a year now.
  • Mountain areas cover 24% of the Earth’s land surface,
  • are home to 12% of the global population,
  • provide vital goods and services – particularly freshwater – to at least half of humanity,
  • are key centres of biological and cultural diversity, and influence climates at many scales.

Global Mangrove Management Initiative:

  • This is an evolving young initiative, which has been in existance for about a year now.
  • Mangroves are continuously under threat from overharvesting, degradation and land reclamation.

Mangroves for the Future (MFF):

  • This is a unique partner-led initiative to promote investment in coastal ecosystem conservation for sustainable development.
  • The goal is to promote an integrated ocean-wide approach to coastal management and to building the resilience of ecosystem-dependent coastal communities.
  • It initially focused on the countries that were worst affected by the tsunami — India, Indonesia, Maldives, Seychelles, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
  • More recently it has expanded to include Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Viet Nam.

The global Basel Convention is designed to address which issue? a) Migration OR b) Hazardous wastes

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Answer: Hazardous wastes

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Basel Convention:

  • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal(Basel Convention) is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). 
  • It does not address the movement of radioactive waste.
  • It was opened for signature on 22 March 1989 and entered into force on 5 May 1992
  • It has 187members including India.

About Basel Ban Amendment:

  • Basel Action Network (BAN) is a Unites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment.
  • The Basel Ban amendment banned all forms of hazardous waste exports from the 29 wealthiest most industrialized countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to all non-OECD countries.
  • With the ratification of Croatia, the Basel Ban Amendment will enter into force on December 5, 2019.

Peatlands are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under dehydrated conditions. True OR False.

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Answer: False.

Correct statement:

Peatlands are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under conditions of water-logging.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • Peatlands are wetlands that contain mixture of decomposed organic material, partially submerged in layer of water, lacking oxygen.
  • The complex biodiversity of peatlands means they are home to variety of species. Their high carbon content makes them uniquely vulnerable to incineration if they are drained.
  • They are globally important carbon store. The unregulated exploitation of peatlands can potentially be detrimental to environment and to climate, as it could release carbon emissions that have been locked in for millennia.
  • The Cuvette Centrale region in Congo Basin is world’s largest natural tropical peatlands, which are about size of England. It stores three years equivalent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) was established in the year 2011 as a registered society under which act?

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Answer: Societies Registration Act, 1860.

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National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG):

  • It is the implementation wing of National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga (referred as National Ganga Council).
  • It was established in the year 2011as a registered society under Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • It has a two tier management structureand comprises of Governing Council and Executive Committee. Both of the tiers are headed by the Director General (DG), NMCG.
  • Executive Committee is authorized to approve projects under mission up to Rs 1000 crore.
  • Similar to structure at national level, State Programme Management Groups(SPMGs) acts as implementing arm of State Ganga Committees.
  • This structure attempts to bring all stakeholders on one platformto take a holistic approach towards the task of Ganga cleaning and rejuvenation.
  • In October 2016, National Ganga Council has replaced National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)which was constituted under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act (EPA), 1986.

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve and Namdapha National Park are located at which places?

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Answer: Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh respectively.

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Namdapha National Park:

  • It is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalayan sub-region and theeasternmost tiger reserve of India.
  • It is abiodiversity hotspot located in Arunachal Pradeshin Northeast India.
  • It is also the fourth largest national park in India.
  • The park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforestsin the world.
  • The national park is located in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, near the international border with Myanmar.

Nokrek Bio-sphere Reserve:

  • It is located in the northeast of India on the Tura Range, which forms part of the Meghalaya Plateau. The entire area is mountainous and Nokrek is the highest peak of the Garo hills.
  • The biosphere reserve contains major rivers and streams that form a perennial catchment system. Examples include the Ganol, Dareng and Simsang rivers, of which the latter is the longest and largest.
  • The Simsang originates in the north of the Biosphere Reserve, the Dareng from the southern peaks, and the Ganol flows westward into the Brahamputra River, which supplies water to numerous towns.

Most of the national parks were initially wildlife sanctuaries, which are then upgraded to national parks. True OR False.

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Answer: True.

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Difference between Biosphere reserves and National parks:


_______________ is contiguous with Talli reserve forest in the southeast and Bilikal forest in the south. (a) Bannerghatta National Park OR (b) Betla National Park

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Answer: Bannerghatta National Park

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Bannerghatta National Park:

  • Bannerghatta National Park, near Bangalore, Karnataka, was founded in 1970. It was declared as a national park in 1974.
  • In 2002 a portion of the park, became a biological reserve known as the Bannerghatta Biological Park.
  • It is a popular tourist destination with a zoo, a pet corner, an animal rescue centre, a butterfly enclosure, an aquarium, a snake house and a safari park.
  • There are ancient temples in the park for worship and it is a destination for trekking and hiking. Within the national park area are six rural villages enclosed within three large enclosures for sheep and cattle farming.
  • This park offers a wide range of diverse wildlife to the exploradoras. Dry deciduous forests and thorny scrub, with patches of moist deciduous forests are found along the streams.
  • Elephant, lion, Bengal tiger, white tiger, panther, bear, bison, spotted deer, birds and butterflies are also found here.

Schedule VI of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 concerns with which subject?

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Schedule VI concerns cultivation and plant life and gives teeth to setting up more protected animal parks.

Enrich Your Learning:

Schedule VI of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

  • The act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and matters connected with them, with a view to ensure the ecological and environmental security of India.
  • Schedule VI contains the plants, which are prohibited from cultivation and planting. These plants are as follows:
  • Beddomes’ cycad (Cycas beddomei).
  • Blue Vanda (Vanda eoerulea).
  • Kuth (Saussurea costus).
  • Ladies slipper orchids (Paphiopedilium spp.).
  • Pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana).
  • Red Vanda (Rananthera imschootiana).

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