Flash Card

LAKSHYA-75 [Day-41] Current Flash Cards for IAS Prelims 2020

Ashtamudi Lake; Amazon Fund; REDD+; India TB Report 2019; Kallada river; Rural Sanitation Strategy; INS Khanderi; Global Tiger Forum (GTF); School Education Quality Index (SEQI); International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development; India’s first e-waste clinic; India’s top 5 Export partners; India’s top 5 Import partners;
By IASToppers
April 18, 2020

Which are the India’s top five trading partner countries in terms of balance of payment as per the economic survey of 2019-20?

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Answer:

India’s top five trading partners are USA, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Hong Kong.

Enrich Your Learning:

As per Economic Survey 2019-20,

India’s top 5 Export partners:

  1. United States
  2. United Arab Emirates
  3. China
  4. Hong Kong, China
  5. Singapore

Top export items: Petroleum products, precious stones, drug formulations & biologicals, gold and other precious metals.

India’s top 5 Import partners:

  1. China
  2. United States
  3. Saudi Arabia
  4. United Arab Emirates
  5. Iraq

Top import items: Crude petroleum, gold, petroleum products, coal, coke & briquittes.

India’s first e-waste clinic to be set up in__________. a) Bhopal OR b) Bangalore

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Answer: Bhopal

Enrich Your Learning:

India’s first e-waste clinic:

  • The Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) have joined hands to set up the country’s first e-waste clinic.
  • In this clinic, electronic waste will be collected (door-to-door/deposited directly) at the clinic in exchange for a fee.
  • The clinic is being conceived in compliance with the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • It would enable segregation, processing and disposal of waste from both household and commercial units.

What is the objective of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development?

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Answer:

Objective: to improve the lives and livelihoods of men, women, and children of the HKH and protect mountain environments and cultures.

Enrich Your Learning:

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development:

  • The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental knowledge and learning centre working on behalf of the people of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH).
  • It is founded in 1983, ICIMOD is based in Lalitpur (Kathmandu), Nepal.
  • It works in and for our eight regional member countries – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.
  • The knowledge it creates and shares help the people of the HKH become more resilient, make the most of new opportunities, and prepare for change.

Who developed the School Education Quality Index (SEQI) to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector?

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Answer: The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog)

Enrich Your Learning:

School Education Quality Index (SEQI):

  • SEQI was developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
  • Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), the World Bank and sector experts are the stakeholders in it.
  • The index aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions.
  • SEQI used 2016-17 as the reference year and 2015-16 as the base year.

Key Indicators:

  • The index consists of 30 critical indicators that assess the delivery of quality education.
  • The index was divided into two broad categories:
  • Category 1: Outcomes
  • Learning outcomes
  • Access outcomes
  • Infrastructure and facilities for outcomes
  • Equity outcomes
  • Category 2: Governance processes aiding outcomes

Highlights of the SEQI Report:

  • Kerala has emerged on top among 20 large states in terms of quality of school education, followed by Rajasthan and Karnataka, while the most-populous Uttar Pradesh was ranked at the bottom position during 2016-17, according to SEQI report.
  • Of the 20 Large States, 10 perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Karnataka, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. The 3 Large States with the most noticeable performance differences in the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes are Odisha, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Of the eight Small States, seven perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in the cases of Manipur, Tripura and Goa. Sikkim is the only Small State that performs better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.
  • All seven UTshave shown an improvement in their overall performance scores. Of the seven UTs, four perform better on the Outcomes category, with the most noticeable performance differences observed in Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Delhi, Daman & Diu and Lakshadweep perform better on the Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes category.

Name the tiger range countries which are members of the Global Tiger Forum.

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Answer:

Seven tiger range countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal and Vietnam) are members of the GTF as well as the UK along with some non-governmental organizations, including WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) and TRAFFIC. 

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Tiger Forum (GTF):

  • It is the only inter- governmental international body established with members from willing countries to embark on a global campaign to protect the Tiger.
  • The GTF is focused on saving the remaining 5 sub-species of Tigers distributed over 13 Tiger Range countries of the world.
  • There are currently 13 tiger range countries; Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Viet Nam.
  • The GTF was formed in 1993 on recommendations from an international symposium on Tiger Conservation at New Delhi, India.
  • A Chairperson, usually a Minister from one of the Tiger Range countries heads GTF for a fixed tenure of 3 Years.

INS Khanderi belongs to which class of diesel-electric attack Submarine? a) Arihant class OR b) Kalvari class

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Answer: Kalvari class

Enrich Your Learning:

INS Khanderi:

  • It is designed by Frenchcompany Naval Group (earlier known as DCNS).
  • It will become 17thsubmarine of the Indian Navy after it is commissioned. It can stay out in the sea for 50 days.
  • The submarine ‘KHANDERI’ is named after the wide snouted Saw fish, a deadly sea predator of the great Indian Ocean.
  • The first Submarine Khanderi was commissioned into the Indian Navy in 1968 and decommissioned in 1989.

Significance:

  • It is capable of targeting surface ships as well as hunt enemy submarineswith its torpedoes.
  • It can also carry 30 anti-ship minesin place of torpedoes and missiles.
  • It can also undertake intelligence gathering, mine laying and area surveillance

What are the objectives of the Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029) of India?

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Answer:

The Government of India has launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy, its objectives are:

  • Sustaining the sanitation behaviour change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) and ensuring sustained access to safely managed sanitation for all rural Indians
  • Achieve a clean-living environment through solid and liquid waste management.

Enrich Your Learning:

Rural Sanitation Strategy:

  • Ministry: Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Since the launch of the SBM-G in 2014, over 10 crore toilets have been built in rural areas; over 5.9 lakh villages, 699 districts, and 35 States/UTs have declared themselves Open Defecation Free (ODF)

Focus Areas:

The strategy aims to achieve ODF Plus status across the country. It would take measures like:

  • Framework to guide local governments, policy makers, implementers and other relevant stakeholders in their planning for ODF Plus, where everyone uses a toilet, and every village has access to solid and liquid waste management.
  • Proper implementation of solid and liquid waste management, plastic waste, organic waste, grey water and faecal sludgein rural areas.
  • Highlight steps to be taken by the government like retrofitting of single pit toilets to twin pitsor making provisions to empty pits every five years, repair of defunct ones, and construction of soak pits for septic tanks wherever not already present.
  • A district-level training management unit(TMU) will be set up to provide oversight and support to gram panchayats (GPs) so that they ensure the operation and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure. The GPs are also supposed to conduct rapid assessment of water and sanitation gaps.
  • Alternative self-financingby gradual leveraging of community resources in the form of tariffs for ODF plus activities. It also highlights innovative models for sanitation financing.
  • State-specific strategies on menstrual hygiene management, including menstrual waste.
  • Potential collaborationswith development partners, civil society and inter-government partnerships.

Ashtamudi Lake is located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

Ashtamudi Lake is located in the Kollam District of Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ashtamudi Lake:

  • It possesses a unique wetland ecosystem and a large palm-shaped water body, second only in size to the Vembanad estuary ecosystem of the state.
  • It is also called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala.
  • It was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.

Kallada river:

  • Kallada River is a major river discharging into the Ashtamudi Lake.
  • It originates near Ponmudi from the Kulathupuzha hills Western Ghats is formed by the confluence of three rivers, viz., Kulathupuzha, Chenthurnipuzha, and Kalthuruthipuzha.

Ashtamudi Lake is located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

Ashtamudi Lake is located in the Kollam District of Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ashtamudi Lake:

  • It possesses a unique wetland ecosystem and a large palm-shaped water body, second only in size to the Vembanad estuary ecosystem of the state.
  • It is also called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala.
  • It was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.

Kallada river:

  • Kallada River is a major river discharging into the Ashtamudi Lake.
  • It originates near Ponmudi from the Kulathupuzha hills Western Ghats is formed by the confluence of three rivers, viz., Kulathupuzha, Chenthurnipuzha, and Kalthuruthipuzha.

Which Indian State have the highest patients who tested positive for Tuberculosis and were also infected with HIV?

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Answer: Nagaland.

The highest percentage of patients who tested positive for TB and were also infected with HIV came from Nagaland (15.6 per cent), followed by Karnataka (10 per cent), Chandigarh (9.1 per cent) and Manipur (8.9 per cent).

Enrich Your Learning:

Key highlights of India TB Report 2019:

  • It was released by the government. The number of HIV-infected people who go on to develop Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in India.
  • TB is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). This group is 21 times more likely to develop TB than persons without the virus.
  • TB-HIV co-infection results in higher mortality rates. Nearly 25 per cent of all deaths among PLHIV are estimated to be due to TB.
  • India is the third-highest HIV burden country in the world, with an adult prevalence of 0.22 per cent.
  • India ranks second in the world as far as TB-related mortality is concerned. About nine per cent of the global burden of HIV-associated TB is borne by India.
  • The co-morbities of TB don’t come in form of HIV only. Diabetes and tobacco-related ailments too play a role.
  • The TB burden in India is highest in Uttar Pradesh. India’s largest state, accounting for 17 per cent the country’s population, contributed 20 per cent of total TB notified patients.
  • Uttar Pradesh is followed by Maharashtra (10 per cent) and Rajasthan (7 per cent).
  • The 2019 report also points out that the reporting from private sector had improved as compared to the previous year.
  • The percentage of pediatric tuberculosis (TB among the population aged less than 15 years) cases have also slightly gone up.
  • According to the India TB Report 2019, the success rate of treatment of drug resistant TB patients has remained stagnant at 47 per cent.

What is the objective behind the establishment of Amazon Fund of REDD+?

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Answer:

The Amazon Fund is a REDD+ mechanism created to raise donations for non-reimbursable investments in efforts to prevent, monitor and combat deforestation, as well as to promote the preservation and sustainable use in the Brazilian Amazon.

Enrich Your Learning:

Amazon Fund:

  • The Amazon Fund is managed by BNDES, the Brazilian Development Bank, which is responsible for raising and investing funds, monitoring the projects supported, rendering accounts and communicating results obtained.
  • The Amazon Fund has a Guidance Committee (COFA), responsible for establishing guidelines and monitoring the results obtained; and a Technical Committee (CTFA), that is in charge of certifying the calculations made by the Ministry of Environment concerning the effective reductions of carbon emissions from deforestation.
  • The Amazon Fund supports projects related to:
  • Management of public forests and protected areas;
  • Environmental control, monitoring and inspection;
  • Sustainable forest management;
  • Economic activities created with sustainable use of the vegetation;
  • Ecological and economic zoning, territorial arrangement and agricultural regulation;
  • Preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and
  • Recovery of deforested areas.

REDD+:

  • It is a climate change mitigation solution being developed by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), that incentivizes developing countries to keep their forests standing.

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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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